From Big Medical Encyclopedia

COSMETIC PROCEDURES (grech, kosmetikos the giving beautiful look) — the actions applied for the purpose of personal hygiene, prevention and treatment of the diseases which are followed by cosmetic defects and also to the prevention of aging of face skin, a hair loss.

The water thermotherapy is applied for the purpose of face cleansing from comedones, a rassasyvaniye of infiltrates and hems, stimulation of skin at its withering. The water thermotherapy is most often applied in the form of steam trays, thermal compresses to a face and a neck, irrigation of face skin and the head, paraffin masks, by sprayings by the sprayed steam. These procedures usually accompany face peel, massage and masks.

Face peel — mechanical manual face cleansing from pollution, comedones, acne rash; face peel also before facial massage is applied, at the procedures peeling epidermis. Before mechanical clarification of skin apply a steam tray (for 7 — 10 min.) or a hot compress (3 min.) which soften a plaque of fat and superficial horn scales. Cleaning is run the index fingers wrapped by the sterile gauze napkins and special the sterilized tools (an ugrevydavlivatel, Vidal's needle). To clarification and wiping of skin during the cleaning apply 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide, 3% solution boric to - you. Upon termination of the procedure skin is wiped by 2% with solution of salicyl alcohol, carry out darsonvalization (3 — 5 min.).

The procedures called by masks apply for the purpose of treatment and prevention of withering of face skin, acne rash, a hyperpegmentation, clarification of skin from pollution. Depending on structure the mask renders the softening, resorptional, bleaching, drying action, increases turgor of skin. Fats of an animal and plant origin, gelatin, paraffin, white clay, magnesia usta, talc, flour, starch, oil of a lavender, medicines (hydrogen peroxide, alum, borax, sulfur, boric to - that, glycerin, antibiotics), juice of an aloe, extracts of hop, a camomile, parsley and other plants can be a part of a mask. As a rule, the structure for a mask is prepared just before use; put this structure on the cleaned face (excepting eyes and lips) for 20 — 30 min. then the mask is washed away warm water. Masks, both hygienic, and medical, do in beauty shops and salons; some masks can be imposed in house conditions: napr, masks from fruit (strawberry), vegetables (cucumber), honey and oil, from ovalbumin with lemon juice, etc. The perfumery industry produces special cream mask.

Facial massage, necks, the heads — one of methods of prevention of withering of face skin and neck, treatment of dysfunctions of sebaceous glands (dryness, fat content of skin), pastosity of the person, paresis of a facial nerve, a hair loss; besides, massage improves a type of the person, maintains turgor of skin and its natural color (see. Massage, cosmetic ).

Such procedures as masks, massage, face peel, are contraindicated at pustulous diseases of skin, at eczema, herpes, a rozatse (acne rosacea), bronchial asthma, epilepsy.

In kosmetol. to practice according to the practical standards and the corresponding indications apply various physical. methods of treatment: phototherapy (see), electrotreatment (see), electrophoresis (see), UVCh-therapy (see), etc.

Fig. 1. The woman with a hypertrichosis of the person — at the left; on the right the same woman after treatment by method of an electroepilation.
Fig. 2. The man with the extensive cosmetic defect formed as a result of implementation in skin of particles of black coal — at the left; on the right the same man after treatment by method of dermabrasion.

At a hypertrichosis (fig. 1) apply an electroepilation by means of the special device «Breviflyuks» to depilation (see. Epilation ). Diathermocoagulation (see) use for removal of a nevus, papillomas, keratomas, warts, vascular educations (a hemangioma, a teleangiectasia); operation is carried out by means of devices of a diathermy and «Breviflyuks».

One of surgical methods of treatment is the method dermabrasion — grinding of skin the special rotational device. Most this method was widely used at treatment of postburn hems, impregnation in skin of foreign debris (e.g., black coal, fig. 2), for removal of tattoos, small wrinkles, a senile keratosis, a rhinophyma, hyperpegmentations. The essence of a method consists in elimination of defects by means of layer-by-layer removal of epidermis to a papillary layer (removal of the foreign debris which are more deeply in a derma, is not recommended by this method since it leads to formation of atrophic hems). Operation is performed under local or general anesthesia.

Dermabrasion is contraindicated at ostrovospalitelny and pustulous diseases of skin, epilepsy.

See also Cosmetics , Plastic surgeries .

Bibliography: See bibliogr, to St. Cosmetology

A. F. Akhabadze.