From Big Medical Encyclopedia

COSMETICS (grech, kosmetikos the giving beautiful look) — the means intended for personal hygiene, prevention of diseases of skin and cosmetics bags of sky defects (acne rash, seborrhea, a hair loss, aging of skin), prevention of a frostbite and sunblisters and also for decoration of appearance of the person (hair, the person, nails, etc.).

The perfumery industry releases the various range of cosmetic products. For preparation To. villages use HIGHLY" qualitative raw materials: fats and products of their processing, zhiropodobny substances, beeswax, spermaceti, lanolin, paraffin, ceresin, a perfume and liquid paraffin, vaseline, various alcohols, weak to - you and alkalis, pitches, balms, resorcin, sulfur, camphor, menthol, various plant substances, their extracts, vitamins, amino acids, enzymes, hormones, etc. Production of any To. the page is regulated by the Soviet legislation. Are allowed to release To. page only after careful check of their harmlessness and with the permission of M3 of the USSR. However in Dermatolum, and kosmetol. practice needs to consider a possibility of individual hypersensitivity of some persons to the substances which are contained in To. page. In this regard sometimes it is necessary to meet such complications of the allergic nature as bronchial asthma (from fragrant substances), a cheilitis from lipstick, etc.

In group K. the pages intended for personal hygiene (a gigabyte. cosmetics), belong: toilet soaps, shampoos, toothpastes and elixirs, the refreshing lotions and floral water, shaving creams, deodorants, etc.

Creams — the most common form To. page. They represent fragrant mixes of various fats and zhiropodobny substances with water. Depending on amount of the water which is contained in them creams are subdivided into liquid and dense emulsion. Creams for the purpose of clarification, mitigation and food of skin are applied, and also to lay down. influences at dryness or fat content of face skin and pilar head skin, a hyperkeratosis, acne rash, aging of skin. For more effective effect of creams add various biologically active agents to their structure: A, F, E vitamins, extracts and tinctures of medicinal plants (an aloe, a yarrow, a St. John's Wort, hop, a nettle, a camomile, a burdock, a calendula, coltsfoot, bark of an oak, etc.), the medical apilak, hydrolyzates, ATP, enzymes and other substances influencing positively exchange processes in skin. Creams-oil-in-water emulsions — so-called cold creams are applied long since and recommended for fat skin: they absorb and evaporate water from the surface of skin and work okhlazhdayushche.

Produce also creams of a special purpose: protective — for protection against sunshine and adverse atmospheric actions; the creams bleaching face skin, and also recommended for prevention of eels, strengthening of hair, destruction of dandruff, protective creams for skin of hands, etc.

Toilet [[ | washed SOAPS ]] (see) for 80% consist from fat to - t; besides, enter fatty additives into them — lanolin, spermaceti, glycerin, etc. These soaps carry the name of superfatted and bodies are used generally for washing of dry face skin, hands.

Shampoos as detergent for hair have considerable advantage over toilet soaps since do not leave a sediment with salts of calcium and magnesium of water; they can be applied at hard water.

Also bodies, its clarifications and refreshing recommend to apply lotions and floral water to care of face skin. Existence in lotions and floral water to - t (lemon, milk, acetic, boric) promotes recovery of normal acid reaction skin (see).

Produce the special lotions deodorants applied to reduction of sweating and irritant action of sweat, and also to masking of a smell of sweat (different for skin of a body and legs).

Various hair-dyes, nail varnishes and a hair, pencils for eyebrows, ink and paste for eyelashes, a century, blush, briolina, etc. belong to means of decorative cosmetics. Means of decorative cosmetics release various color scale — from light to shadow tones of every color.

To. pages, as a rule, release under branded names, their structure, a technique of use are stated in the summary to each drug.

Bibliography: See bibliogr, to St. Cosmetology .

A. F. Akhabadze.