CORVIZAR Jean (Corvisart Jean Nicolas, 1755 — 1821) — the French therapist, one of founders of internal medicine as clinical discipline; member of the Parisian academy of Sciences (1811).
After the termination in 1782 medical f-that Parisian un-that Necker worked in hospital. In 1795 it is elected to department of Medical school, and since 1797 de Frans headed the department of internal diseases founded on its initiative in the College. Since 1799 gave a course of lectures on internal medicine in hospital you Rummage; here within two decades formed its wedge, the school containing apprx. 300 pupils among whom there were Zh. Buyo, G. Dyupyuitrena, R. Laennek. Since 1807 Napoléon I's physician-in-ordinary.
Zh. Korvizar aimed to implement exact knowledge in medicine, applying systematic kliniko-anatomic comparisons to this purpose. A number of its works is devoted to development physical. methods of a research of the patient and semiotics. It translated L. Auenbrugger's work into fr. language, added it with the comments based on 20 years' experience of own verification tests and entered percussion into a wedge, practice that was promoted by the invention of a plessimetr his pupil P. A. Piorry. Zh. Korvizar applied also direct listening of heart that promoted development of a method of auscultation by R. Laennek.
Zh. Korvizar's lectures about heart troubles published in 1806 represent one of the first and the fullest management which reflected views of clinical physicians of the 1st quarter of 19 century in the field of pathology of heart and vessels.
Zh. Korvizar, using data of inquiry, survey, palpation and percussion, described differential symptoms of left ventricular and right-ventricular heart failure (cyanosis, short wind, a phlebectasia, weakness and abnormality of pulse, etc.), specified purpose of presystolic «cat's purring» as sign of a mitral stenosis. It in detail described perikardita, valve heart diseases, the inborn «blue disease» owing to patol, messages between the right and left departments of heart, and also not fusion of a botallov of a channel is mentioned. Imperfect methods of a research allowed to judge only changes of a form and the sizes of body therefore the dominating pathology of heart, according to Zh. Korvizar, is «aneurism» of heart — active (i.e. a hypertrophy of a myocardium) or passive (i.e. expansion of cardial cavities). Zh. Korvizar entered pathogenetic idea of various mechanical obstacles to a blood flow causing a cardiomegaly and of organic lesion of a myocardium. At the same time he emphasized value of a mental factor in a course of a disease and need of the accounting of the environment surrounding the patient during the definition of the forecast of a disease.
Influence a wedge, Zh. Korvizar's schools was not limited only to France, and mattered for development of all European medicine.
Works: Essai sur les maladies et les lesions or-ganiques du coeur et des gros vaisseaux, P., 1806; Nouvelle methode pour reconnaitre les maladies internes de la poitrine par la percussion de cette cavite par Auen-brugger, ouvrage traduite du latin et commente par J. - N. Corvisart, P., 1808.
Bibliography: M e h e L. History of medicine, the lane with fr., page 184, M. — L., 1926; Poten K. Clinical lectures, the lane with fr., page 7, SPb., 1897; H yo with h e-mann L. Corvisart et la percussion, P., 1906; Schprn D. Percussion, von Auen-brugger and Corvisart, S. Afr. med. J., v. 46, p. 1697, 1972.
V. I. Borodulin.