From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CORTICOVISCERAL PATHOLOGY (Latin cortex bark + viscera of an interior; pathology) — one of the theoretical directions of a common problem of the corticovisceral relations in an organism and interoception. To. - accusative postulates a possibility of reproduction in the uslovnoreflektorny way patol, visceral reactions. At the same time K. M. Bykov (1947), I. T. Kurtsin (1956), V. N. Chernigovsky (1960) consider that the role of a signal or a reinforcement in funkts, structure of conditioned reflexes can carry out the irritants addressed to interoceptors. So, e.g., the distantny irritant after a combination to visceral effect of cholagogue drug can cause bile secretion. In other case any internal — a vistserokhimichesky or vistseromekhanichesky irritant, being combined with a peripheral painful incentive, property of a signal of conditioned defensive reflex gets.

Formulation of a concept K. - by accusative it is historically connected with that stage of ideas of the structurally functional organization of conditioned reflexes when the entrance and output link of their arch could be localized within a cerebral cortex. In a crust, time processes of century of N of are considered as the complex multi-level multichannel afferent and efferent organization. Besides experiences with reversible switching off cerebral cortex (see) show that conditioned visceral reflexes in the manifestations are considerably less connected with functions of a cerebral cortex, than skeletal and motive. Impulses from internals in normal conditions the most part remain out of consciousness. It gave the grounds to V. N. Chernigovsky in 1967 to state a hypothesis that the interoceptive afferentation is blocked at some dokortikalny levels, thanks to what the highest departments of c. N of page are exempted from management of visceral systems. Nevertheless by method of evoked potentials (see. caused ) it is possible to investigate in details the organization of afferent cortical projections of the nerves going from various internals. Evoked potentials in these cortical zones are registered as well at the corresponding irritations of internals. But especially widely afferent projections of internals are presented at the subcrustal level where excitement, going from these bodies, widely interact with somatic vozbuzhdeniye in structures of a reticular formation, limbic system, a hypothalamus. On the basis of integration of the ascending and descending influences efferent parcels to various internals forms here. From these subcrustal centers on cortical level information arrives only at strong irritation of interoceptors. Under natural conditions it is observed during the formation various biol, requirements or at patol, disturbances of internals. Especially clearly the alarm system from internals reaches a cerebral cortex at contagious excitations (see. Emotions ), which initially form at the subcrustal, in particular limbic, level. These influences pass in patol, a form at so-called congestive contagious excitations that is observed, e.g., at long emotional stress (see). In these conditions can develop neurosises (see) and other forms of disturbance of century of N of, and also disturbance of internals.

Theories To. - accusative use systems approach to studying of visceral functions and are based on the hierarchical principle of management. According to V. N. Chernigovsky's (1975) concept, adaptation of any visceral system to continuous external influences is the instrument of avoiding «its afferentation which is not satisfying». E.g., subjecting some interoceptive reflexogenic zone to long irritation, it is possible to observe at first reflex increase in the ABP and lung ventilation, and then level reaches them initial, despite the proceeding irritation. The visceral system adapts to continuous action of an irritant, thereby adapting to changes of internal environment of a complete organism.

Is especially promoted development of visceral shifts in the person and animals by the depressions which are shown in the form of apathy. They arise against the background of strong motivation, but at incompleteness of the purpose. Bystry development of stomach ulcer in the monkeys receiving blows of electric current without an opportunity them actively to avoid is revealed, e.g. At the animals who had an opportunity to avoid blows, though the current rushes receiving equal quantity stomach ulcer pe developed [Jonas, Jonas (A. Jonas, D. Jonas, 1975)]. It is essential that in the conditions of bondage increase in the ABP occurs at monkeys as a spontaneous disease.

The term «corticovisceral pathology» lost the initial value. It became clear that any forms of pathology of internals are initially mediated through excitement of the relevant subcrustal structures of a brain and due to activation of contagious excitations extend already then to bark of big hemispheres.

See also Brain, physiology , Interoception .

Bibliography: K. M bulls. Chosen works, t. 2, M., 1954; K. M. Bulls and To at r c and I. T N. Corticovisceral pathology, L., 1960, bibliogr.; Kurtsin I. T. Theoretical fundamentals of psychosomatic medicine, L., 1973; Chernihiv V. N. Interoceptors, M., 1960; it, Activity of visceral systems as a special form of behavior, in book: Nervn. control - visceral functions, under the editorship of A. M. Hugo-leva, page 5, L., 1975; Jonas A. D. and. Jonas D. F. The influence of early training on the varieties of stress responses» an ethological approach, J. psychosom. Res., v. 19, p. 325, 1975.

H. Yu. Belenkov, E. I. Popova.