CORRELATION OF FUNCTIONS OF THE ORGANISM (late lat. correlatio a ratio, interaction) — interdependence of functions of separate parts of a live organism. In the course of correlation of functions in a complete organism there are new qualities which its separate parts do not have. According to G. A. Yugayu (1964), the nature of integrity of an organism is defined by types of bonds and interactions of parts among themselves. And essential of them bonds of parts on types of correlation, or coordination, and integration, or subordination are the most general. Correlation communication is a two-way communication, manifestation of interdependence and interconditionality of functions of separate parts. The effect of action of any part on the others depends not only by nature operating part, but also on the nature of response of other parts on which there is an influence.
To. t. the lake can be found by means of methods of mathematical statistics, in particular a method of correlation analysis of quantitative characteristics of various functions. The theory and mathematical apparatus of this analysis are well developed (see. Correlation analysis ).
Most often direct (positive) correlation meets, is more rare — the return (negative) and curvilinear. Inverse relation is characterized by the fact that strengthening of one function is followed by natural easing another. Curvilinear To. t. the lake differs in the fact that linear change of one function only to the known limit is followed by linear shift of other function, and further change of the first function is accompanied by shift of the second opposite orientation.
Comparison of several functions in population (from an object to an object) reveals the most constant component K. t. lake. Direct dependence between the level of sensitivity of kinaesthetic, visual and acoustical analyzers of the healthy person can be an example. It is expressed that with increase of sensitivity of one analyzer sensitivity and another increases. Correlation analysis of results of repeated measurement funkts, reveals states during a long time slice individual steady To. t. lake. Comparison of fluctuations funkts, conditions of various structures throughout one experiment finds the current relationship of function. They differ in variability that is expressed by fluctuations of correlation coefficients with the broad range. Correlation of biopotentials of a brain is most studied.
During purposeful activity there is a reorganization of correlation relationship of functions, however initial correlation considerably influences the nature of this reorganization, defines an orientation and degree of manifestation of the caused reactions of an organism. Therefore, initial correlation is an active background, on Krom urgent interaction biol, structures is made. To. t. the lake precedes their working cooperation directed to achievement of a certain adaptive effect.
The essential contribution to development of the doctrine about correlations was made by P. K. Anokhin who suggested to consider the bonds mediated through a nervous system and forming in the course of adaptive behavior of live organisms from uniform positions of correlation relationship. Thus, the principle of correlation from the field of evolutionary biology was extended to all areas fiziol, departures, and the nervous system began to be considered as the most important factor of correlation relationship (see. Functional systems ).
Initial correlation is exposed to essential reorganization during the formation of skills. So, at systematically training athlete-shooter correlation between visual sensitivity and electric activity of a sgibatel of an index finger of the right hand amplifies. Shifts in initial correlation accompany exhaustion, patol, to disturbances of cerebral neurodynamics (e.g., at neurosises, posttraumatic states, epilepsy, effects of strokes, etc.), long touch activation or a deprivation. These shifts are shown by easing and a perversion of initial correlation. E.g., against the background of the neurosis caused sshibky feeding and defensive response correlation of alpha-like activity of the brain structures regulating cordial activity is sharply weakened.
To. t. the lake has the difficult nature. Partly it is expression of correlation of development of bodies and structures of an organism in process filo-and ontogenesis. The main patterns of interdependence of change of bodies in the course of evolution and an ontogeny were studied Zh. Kyuvye, Ch. Darwin, A. N. Severtsov and Sh. I. Shmalgauzen.
To. t. lake as obshchebiol. the principle was formulated by Zh. Kyuvye who considered that as all bodies of a live organism form the complete organization, parts a cut depend from each other, any change in one part causes change in all its other parts. Ch. Darwin considered correlation changes of parts of an organism as the law of variability: «I divide under this expression the fact that all organization during growth and development is in a close interconnection that when weak changes are shown in any one part and collect natural selection, other parts also undergo changes».
The big contribution to development of the theory of correlations was made by A. N. Severtsov. He highlights value of a ratio of external and internal factors in organic evolution. Qualifying changes which are observed in bodies and fabrics of organisms in the course of their adaptation to conditions of the environment, he draws a conclusion that all these changes can be subdivided into two basic groups, namely on the changes appearing in a direct connection with environmental changes to a cut the animal adapts (primary changes, or protolaksisa), and on changes secondary, caused in an organism by emergence of primary devices. These changes A. N. Severtsov designated as correlative, or correlative, changes.
Qualitative changes of functions outside, or ektosomatichesky, bodies cause changes of function in internal, entosomatichesky bodies, coordinate with them. This principle is the cornerstone of correlation pathology. So, at impact of harmful environmental factors on an organism often primary patol, changes happen only in point of the appendix of the damaging agent. Then as a result of these changes korrelyatsionno patol, changes arise in other internals tied with primary changed. The research of the reasons and mechanisms of correlative changes of bodies in the conditions of pathology is one of the most important problems of the general pathology and a pathophysiology.
The big contribution to development of theoretical problems of the nature and mechanisms of correlation communication in biol, objects was brought by I. I. Shmalgauzen. In ontogenetic development of an organism it allocates three types of correlations: genomic, morphogenetic and ergontichesky.
Genetically determined coordinated morphogenesis of parts of an organism is the base, on Krom under the influence of living conditions the complex system funkts, correlations forms. Based on P. K. Anokhin's concept about to a sistemogeneza (see), it is possible to assume that the most constant components of these correlations are inborn.
As the organism represents hierarchy funkts, systems (see. Hierarchical system ), working by the homeostatic principle, To. t. the lake should be considered as a result of the subordinating influences from c. N of page to various structures. Tell numerous experiments on animals about it. E.g., in 1975 to A. A. Savchenko it is shown that electrostimulation of a mezentsefalichesky kernel of a reticular formation causes noticeable easing, and irritation of lateral area of a hypothalamus — the expressed strengthening of initial correlation of alpha-like activity of touch zones of bark. Direct correlation can be only a consequence functionally unidirectional (facilitating or brake) and the influences interfaced on degree of manifestation from one source to various structures, and invert correlation — result of the multidirectional interfaced influences, the facilitating parcels to one structure and brake — to another.
The steadiest component K. t. the island, apparently, is caused by turning on of neuroendocrinal mechanisms of regulation (see. Neurohumoral regulation ). It is indirectly confirmed by numerous data on emergence of the expressed shifts in work of a brain and hemadens at pathology, stimulation or destruction of structures of a hypothalamus and limbic system. However a question of value of humoral factors in formation To. t. the lake remains insufficiently studied.
Further studying of patterns, nature and specific fiziol. mechanisms K. t. the lake has great theoretical and applied value: on the nature of correlative «coupling» (approval) of touch, motor and vegetative functions it is possible to judge a condition of the homeostatic system organization simple and difficult biol, structures of a live organism it is normal also of their «disharmony» at pathology.
Bibliography: Kyuvye Zh. Reasonings on revolutions on the surface of the globe, lane with fr., M. — L., 1937; About to at N I. Factor analysis, the lane with polsk., M., 1974; Plokhinsky I. A. Biometrics, page 40, M., 1970; Severtsov A. N. Modern problems of theory of evolution, M., 1914; The Central regulation of function of closed glands, under the editorship of S. Katsuki, the lane with yapon., M., 1977; Chu about in A. A. Main problems of the theory of correlation, M., 1960; Shmalgauzen I. I. Value of correlation in evolution of animals, in book: Memories of the academician A. N. Severtsov, under the editorship of I. I. Shmalgauzen, t. 1, page 175, M. — L., 1939; it, the Organism as whole in individual and historical development, M. — L., 1942; Yu and y G. A. Problema of a tselostnosti'organizm, M., 1962.
A. V. Zavyalov, V. A. Polyantsev.