CORPSE in the medicolegal relation. The body of the died person is an object of a medicolegal, and also patologoaiatomichesky research (see Opening). T - subject court. - medical examination in case of violent death (see), irrespective of its sort and a look, and at suspicion on it (sudden, sudden death), in case of death in to lay down. establishment at the unspecified diagnosis or in the presence of the complaints to the wrong or illegal treatment accepted by investigation authorities, at detection of T. the person, the personality to-rogo is not identified, and also parts of the dismembered T. K to survey of T. on site its detection the doctor of any specialty can be involved. Its actions at the same time are regulated «By rules of work of the doctor of the specialist of forensic medicine at external examination of a corpse on site of its detection (incident)».
Survey is begun with establishment of the fact of approach of death of the victim (see Death in the medicolegal relation). If during the ascertaining of death the doctor has a suspicion that death came from especially dangerous infection, he is obliged to take measures for protection of people around from possible infection and not to allow distribution of a contagium, in particular, during the transportation of a corpse. In the course of survey of T. fix its pose and situation in relation to the next not moving objects, describe the objects which are on it near it or under it, character and a surface condition, on a cut is T., note existence of material evidences, establish whether there came death where it is found by T., or in other place. The solution of this question is promoted by identification of traces of dragging (drawing) of T., the pollution of clothes and footwear not inherent to the place of its detection, discrepancy of a situation to the nature of the available damages, napr, lack of blood on surrounding objects and surfaces at multiple open damages on a corpse, etc. Examining clothes of T., consistently describe all its parts and their state, in the presence of gaps and pollution specify their location, properties and features (see Clothes, in the medicolegal relation). Establish age, sex, a constitution of the victim, an arrangement, character, a stage and features of livors mortis, degree of a cadaveric spasm, take temperature in a rectum and axillary hollows, estimate reaction of skeletal muscles to mechanical and electric irritation, pupils — on introduction to an anterior chamber of an eye of solutions of Pilocarpinum and atropine (see Age, in the medicolegal relation, Postmortem changes, Thanatology). Special attention is paid to identification of damages, at the description to-rykh specify pkh exact localization, the sizes and a form (see Damages to the medicolegal relation; Wounds, wounds, in the medicolegal relation). At detection of material evidences biol. origins the doctor shall give help to the investigator in their withdrawal and the direction on corresponding a lab. a research (see. Material evidences).
At the injury which was caused road incident, survey is begun with exact fixing of situation T. in relation to the vehicle. At survey of clothes define existence on it of gaps, traces of drawing, prints of protectors, headlights, facings of a radiator, lubricating oils, splinters of glass, paint particles, and on soles of footwear — traces of sliding. Together with the representative of the state traffic police the doctor shall examine the vehicle for the purpose of identification of elements of clothes on it, a hair, spots and splashes of blood, particles of soft tissues and internals of T.
At a railway injury specify situation T. and its parts in relation to rails and an embankment, note existence on clothes of characteristic strips from a prelum wheels of rail transport and heads a rail, pollution by lubrication substances. For detection of parts of clothes, blood, traces of drawing of T. make inspection of the scene and the vehicle.
Inspection of the scene at plane crashes is always performed with participation of aviaspecialists. It is begun with studying of the area that allows to make general idea about conditions and circumstances of the final stage of an emergency, rates of decay of the objects which are subject to a research. Then establish character of remains, their sex and special signs, note a form and the nature of the available damages.
In cases of death as a result of falling from height the doctor shall examine the place from where there was a falling, and the place of detection of T. (at the same time surely measure distance from a wall of the building, a balcony, a roof to T. for the subsequent calculation of a trajectory of falling of a body).
At detection on T. fire damages pay attention to existence or lack on site of incident of weapon (on it blood, particles of fabrics and bodies can be found), ammunition, shot sleeves, bullets, pellets, pyzhy, potek of blood on clothes and a body of T. (their direction helps to establish position of a body at the time of wound), and also on feature of inlet and outlet openings of a bullet wound (see Firearms, judicial ballistics).
At strangulation by a loop carefully investigate and fix material, character, an arrangement, the direction, isolation of a loop, a way of knot tying, and during the hanging — as well a way of fixing of a loop, a possibility of blows of a body about the located objects nearby — their character, availability on them of blood, particles of clothes, etc. (see Hanging, Strangulation).
At suspicion of poisoning on site detection of T. and on his clothes existence of the remains of poison, packagings or means of its introduction, recipes, descriptions of use and effect of toxic and high toxic substances and pharmaceuticals, suicide notes is possible. In such cases it is necessary to specify a profession of the victim, a possibility of his contact with toxic and high toxic substances, the state of health before death, the use of pharmaceuticals by it, a wedge, a picture of poisoning, methods and means of rendering medical aid (see Poisonings).
At survey of T. on site its detection it is strictly forbidden to make the actions changing an original form and the nature of damage. In particular, it is forbidden to wash water or to delete in other ways the dried blood from damages and the skin surrounding them, to take the tools and objects fixed in damages (it is necessary to leave them in initial situation and to ensure safety during the transportation of T. in a morgue). The foreign bodys which are freely lying in the field of damages are transferred to the investigator for the direction to a lab. research.
Results of survey of T. enter in the protocol of survey (a corpse or the scene), to-ry all participants of survey sign. After that T. with the enclosed copy of the protocol of survey on site incidents (detection) direct it to court. - a medical research.
See also Opening; Exhumation; Examination, medicolegal. Bibliogravdeev M. I. Forensic medical examination of a corpse, M., 1976; Shalamov M. P. Inspection of the scene, M., 1966. G. A. Pashinyan.