From Big Medical Encyclopedia

COOKERY — a set of methods, used for preparation of tasty food from crude products of plant and animal origin.

In the course of culinary processing tastes of foodstuff improve, conditions for their best digestion and assimilation are created, removal of pollution, microorganisms, eggs of helminths is provided. Various ways of culinary processing of foodstuff allow to change directionally funkts, a condition of the alimentary system. Therefore methods K. and observance dignity. - a gigabyte. rules of cooking play an essential role in preservation and promotion of health, and also in prevention and treatment of many diseases, especially diseases went. - kish. path.

Development To. it is connected with geographical conditions, features of natural resources, state of the economy, national tenor of life of the country. Various methods of culinary processing of food are known from an extreme antiquity.

Until recently almost in all countries developed so-called restaurant To., not meeting the requirements of a balanced diet in sense of satisfaction of requirements of an organism depending on the spent energy, the nature of work and other factors. Pursuing hl. obr. commercial purposes, restaurant To. by the corresponding processing of products, additions of various seasonings and spices were quite often masked by a poor quality of dishes.

In our country before To. the task of preparation of the tasty and healthy food promoting strengthening of an organism and increase in working ability of the population is set. Recipes such To. are formed taking into account achievements of science about food, physiology and biochemistry of digestion and are based on knowledge physical. - the chemical processes happening in foodstuff under the influence of factors of culinary processing. Special attention is paid on the fullest preservation of nutrition value of the products subjected to processing, and also on ensuring the best digestion of the main ingredients of food — proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, microelements.

Process of cooking develops of two stages — primary, or cold, and thermal treatment of foodstuff.

Roughing-out — sorting, washing, cleaning, cutting and other operations — is carried out for the purpose of the maximum removal of inedible parts of a product and different pollution which can lead to emergence of digestive disturbances, food poisonings, infections and invasions, and also is directed to preparation of a product for the most effective impact of thermal treatment. Violation of the rules of roughing-out reduces nutrition value of products and can serve as the reason of food poisonings, toxicoinfections and t. II.

In order to avoid pollution and bacterial contamination of food it is necessary to observe a dignity strictly. and technological rules of culinary processing. Roughing-out, preparation of semi-finished products and finished culinary products shall be carried out in the special rooms equipped with washing bathtubs, finishing tables and boards. Crude vegetables on large enterprises of public catering shall be processed separately from meat and fish, in isolated from meat - the fish workshop the vegetable workshop. At the small enterprises joint roughing-out of meat, fish and vegetables, but on condition of use for each of the called products of separate chopping boards and tables is allowed. Besides, special requirements are imposed to roughing-out of various foodstuff. So, e.g., for the maximum preservation of nutrition value of meat it is recommended to defreeze half carcasses or quarter timbers in the suspended look at gradual temperature increase from 0 to 6 °. At such mode meat gets warm evenly and the intercellular liquid containing valuable feedstuffs is gradually absorbed in fabric. Defrosting at more high temperature leads to the fact that intercellular liquid does not manage to be absorbed and a significant amount of biologically valuable substances is lost. Besides, such way of defrosting can lead to infection of meat from a surface what availability of good nutrient medium (the intercellular juice which is emitted for a surface) and optimum temperature will favor to. Considerably defrosting it in water reduces nutrition value of meat. Before cutting of meat it is necessary to remove the contaminated sites, places of a branding, bruises, clots. Washing should be carried out in washing bathtubs or a special brush shower. The last way in a gigabyte. the relation it is most effective since allows to remove up to 95 — 97% of microorganisms from the surface of ink. The dignity shall be especially careful. the mode of roughing-out of an offal which is usually most contaminated by microorganisms and are less steady in storage, than meat. Preparation of dishes from an offal is allowed only at the catering establishments provided with refrigerators, on condition of receipt them in the processed look (stomachs and guts are exempted from contents and are washed out, the heads, legs, ears are scorched and scalded, etc.). Heat treatment of an offal shall be carried out immediately after preparation of semi-finished products.

Fish of chastikovy breeds is defrozen in a cold water during 4 — 6 hours (water for reduction of loss of mineral salts add some salt), sturgeon — on tables or in hover. At a soaking of salty fish it is required to change 4 — 6 times water in order to avoid bacterial contamination. The cut fish is not subject to storage and shall be exposed to heat treatment immediately. At roughing-out of fish jobs, hands, stock become soiled scales and are most planted by microorganisms. Therefore cutting of fish on those tables where its processing was made is forbidden.

At roughing-out of vegetables at first delete the decayed and spoiled fruits, then a peel, eyes, etc.; wash out in pure water. For preservation in vegetables of vitamins their roughing-out should be carried out shortly before cooking since the peeled and cut vegetables at storage on air lose a significant amount of vitamins (e.g., potatoes within half an hour can lose 40 — 50% of redoxon); it is necessary to store the peeled potatoes in a cold water integral tubers no more than 2 — 3 hour. The peeled carrots are recommended to be stored in the cool and dark place since on light carotene collapses.

Thermal treatment — cooking, frying, suppression, roasting, etc. — improves tastes of food, increases comprehensibility of feedstuffs, destroys microorganisms and eggs of helminths. Under the influence of thermal treatment in foodstuff there are essential changes: cellular covers collapse, proteins are partially denatured, starch bulks up and kleysterizutsya, carbohydrates therefore the product becomes more gentle and soft, and feedstuffs digestive enzymes, more available to splitting, karamelizirutsya. So, e.g., hardly assimilable proteins of connecting fabric pass collagen and elastin at heat treatment into the glutin which is easily split by digestive enzymes. The hemicellulose and protopectin making a cellular cover of products of plant origin not only are not acquired by an organism, but also interfere with digestion of other nutrients which are in plant cells. During the heating hemicellulose is partially split, and protopectin passes into pectin which is well acquired by an organism.

Tastes and nutritional value of food in many respects depend on a way of heat treatment. During the cooking water-soluble proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, vitamins, nitrogenous substances are removed from a product and pass into water. Losses of feedstuffs depend on conditions of cooking: at immersion of meat in a cold water (especially if the product is small cut) there is the maximum transition of nutrients to broth. As a result of such cooking receive the concentrated broths of great nutritional value and high tastes but possessing exciting action on secretory function of digestive glands. Such broths are recommended to be excluded from a food allowance of patients with a peptic ulcer, diseases of a liver and kidneys, a hypertension, atherosclerosis. The boiled-down meat containing enough proteins, but free from extractive nitrogenous substances, on the contrary, is shown at the listed diseases. During the cooking of a product a lump in hot water nutritive loss minimum.

During the frying nutrients as much as possible remain in a product. Besides, as a result of disintegration of components of fat and substances of a surface layer of the product adjoining to fat and the heated surface of ware the crust is formed, also extractives are a part a cut aromatic. High content in fried products of the substances exciting secretory activity of digestive glands causes need of their exception of a food allowance at the majority of diseases went. - kish. path. Considerable contents in fried products of nitrogenous substances, polysaturated fat to - t and mineral salts, and also high water consumption, the Crimea usually is followed reception of fried dishes, it is contraindicated at diseases of kidneys, atherosclerosis and an idiopathic hypertensia. At the same time high nutritional value of fried dishes and property inherent in them to stimulate appetite are used during the development of diets by the patient needing suralimentation. Fried dishes are especially recommended to the healthy people occupied in productions with high energy expenditure and not recommended to elderly people and inclined to completeness.

Heat treatment is followed by decrease in content of vitamins. An important role for preservation of vitamin value of foodstuff is played by technically equipped product lines allowing to prepare quickly a product for thermal treatment. Pulp digesters, zharochny electric equipment, cases of microwave heating, etc. allow to make thermal treatment of products with the smallest access of oxygen and to the minimum terms that causes the maximum preservation of nutrients, especially vitamins.

Thermal treatment of foodstuff has big epidemiol, value. At observance a dignity. the mode of heat treatment all vegetative microflora, including causative agents of intestinal infections, eggs, larvae and cysts of helminths perishes. The disinfecting effect of heat treatment significantly decreases at considerable pollution of a product and reduction of time of thermal treatment. Reliable ways of disinfecting of products are pasteurization (see), boiling, cooking. During the frying, especially short-term, it is not always possible to provide rather high temperature necessary for dying off of microorganisms in culinary products since the crust which is formed on a surface of the fried products and consisting of the turned proteins and cleavage products of fat — the bad conductor of heat. The pieces of the fried product are thinner, the disinfecting effect during the frying is more reliable. In the same purposes of a product from mincemeat (cutlets, meatballs) it is recommended to maintain after frying in an oven.

Additional opportunities for ensuring the maximum disinfecting effect are created by use of modern technical means of heat treatment of foodstuff. So, the most uniform progrevayemost of a product is reached in spherical cases (gas, electric, etc.)> where the product is exposed to heating due to the radiant heat proceeding from heated walls of a case and a surface on to-ruyu it is placed, and also due to heat arriving with convection currents of air that creates more favorable conditions for uniform heating of all mass of a product. Big distribution in the modern thermal equipment of the food enterprises is gained by microwave heating. Use of the thermal equipment on the basis of microwave heating allows to reach quickly warming up of foodstuff in all its points. Advantage of this method is also what foodstuff least loses food and biol, properties.

The medical cookery

Medical cookery studies questions of preparation of dietary dishes taking into account modern achievements of science about to lay down. food (see. clinical nutrition ).

To lay down. To. began to develop along with use of food as therapeutic means and is under construction on the principles rational To. Tasks to lay down. To. consist not only in a shchazheniya and a training of separate bodies and systems and the account their insufficient funkts, abilities, but also are defined by a condition of a sick organism in general, influence of a food allowance on all organism.

Lech. To. imposes additional requirements to quality of products and rational use of various spices and seasonings, assumes reasonable observance of a mechanical and chemical shchazheniye with the most favorable to this condition of an organism by a combination of products and ways of their preparation.

Before to lay down. To. the task to change mechanical characteristics and chemical players of products is set, applying various means of their technological processing. So, for the maximum mechanical shchazheniye of digestive organs products crush: boiled meat is small cut or passed via the meat grinder; at preparation of cutlet weight initial products pass 2 times through a small lattice of the meat grinder, and add water or milk to ready weight; vegetables prepare in the form of puree, porridge — in the form of «gruel»; the mucous wiped soups at which preparation grain are cooked to a full razvarivaniye are recommended, then wipe through a sieve and again boil.

For providing a chemical shchazheniye (reduction in a product of protein content, extractives, mineral salts) the soaking or boiling down of products practices. At the same time the greatest effect is reached during the cooking when small cut product is immersed in a cold water. Steam boiling leads to much smaller losses of extractives. For preservation of proteins and extractives in meat it is immersed in a boiling water, add onions, roots and cooked to readiness at t ° 85 — 90 °. The broth received as a result of such way of cooking can be used for patients, the Crimea on the nature of a disease needs to be provided a chemical shchazheniye of digestive organs. For increase in protein content ready dishes enrich with hematogen, cook pyureobrazny meat soups.

If restriction of liquid is shown to the patient, then along with reduction of the entered liquid it is purely necessary to consider contents it in products of a diet, and also to exclude from a compounding of the prepared dishes of substance, increasing water consumption (to reduce amount of salt, onions, to exclude spices). Also the use of fried dishes is not recommended.

For restriction of carbohydrates, except an exception of a diet of the corresponding products, the soaking and boiling down of starch-containing products, preparation of fruit and berry broths, bread from bran or cottage cheese bread is recommended. For reduction of introduction to an organism of salts of calcium exclude milk and dairy products, deciduous greens, some grades of apples, etc.

If for health reasons the patient needs suralimentation, the ways of culinary processing which are most keeping nutrition value of an initial product and exciting secretory activity of digestive glands (meat and fish in a fried look, vegetables and fruit preferential in the raw), broad introduction to a compounding of the dishes of the spices, roots and other products increasing tastes and possessing sokogonny action are recommended. It is also recommended to enter into a diet digestible carbohydrates (honey, etc.) and confectionery.

See also Dietary products , clinical nutrition , Foodstuff .

Bibliography: Clinical nutrition, under the editorship of I. S. Savoshchenko, M., 1971; D. I. Tekhnologiya's Mullets of cooking, M., 1951; Menshikov F. K. Dietotherapy, M., 1972; P e in z N of e r L. M. Bases of technology of cooking for the patient, M. — L., 1946; about N e, Bases of clinical nutrition, M., 1958; Petrovsky K. S. Gigiyena of food, M., 1975; Smolyansky B. L. The guide to clinical nutrition for a diyetsester, L., 1977; Merchandizing of foodstuff, under the editorship of F. V. Tserevitinov, t. 1 — 4, M., 1949.