conveyor, occupational health

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

Conveyor — 1) the conveyor in the form of a moving tape or a chain by means of which loads move; 2) the transport device for assembly of a product which is carrying out movement of semi-finished products on continuously moving (or pulsing) a tape to jobs for follow-up of all operations which are coming to the end with production of a product (motors, tractors, cars, hours, garments, etc.).

Characteristic for To. the set speed and a rhythm is (time for operation + time for movement of a semi-finished product from one workplace to the following). Working rhythm — natural alternation in time of separate elements of operation and micropauses between them. Working speed — number of the repeating finished cycles of labor movements (operations) in unit of time. The conveyor mode of work differs in monotony as it consists in division of labor process into separate operations, each of which is repeatedly carried out by the worker. Degree of monotony is caused lasting performance of operation and complexity, i.e. quantity of the elements making it. In the organization of the conveyor mode of work dialectic contradictions are put: on the one hand, crushing of labor process accelerates development of each operation and facilitates assimilation of a rhythm of work, and with another — monotony of operation reduces working capacity. Negative influence of monotony is eliminated with implementation of a number of actions: development of adjacent operations and systematic alternation of days of performance by their each collector, enlargement of operations, introduction of micropauses — the short regulated breaks for rest, production gymnastics (see. Gymnastics ), functional music (see. Music ), small-scale mechanization in separate workplaces (see. Mechanization of production ), etc. Rational conditions of conveyor work include also physiologically reasonable mode of speeds of the movement of the conveyor taking into account patterns of change of efficiency of the person throughout the working day (the period of entry into work, the steady level of working capacity and decrease it as a result of exhaustion).

To. happen different types: horizontal, vertical, ring, suspended, lyulechny, telezhny, lamellar, conveyors with stores, etc. Advantage of everyone depends on a goal and a design of a product. To. at assembly of small and exact products allows to work with the store during the working day periodically at free speed and a rhythm and to change the speed of work depending on a stock of semi-finished products in the store. Work on it To. promotes weakening of negative influence of monotony on efficiency of the collector.

Classification of conveyor types of work is for the first time created in the Soviet Union in 1965. 5 main categories of works on degree of monotony, physical are marked out. weight and nervous tension depending on the following indicators: duration of performance of operations; quantity of the elements making operation; weight of details of a product; working zone; labor movements; rate of strain fiziol, functions. Each of categories of works shall be provided with certain conditions of the organization of work — a duty and rest (quantity and duration of short breaks), the choice of type K., the rational organization of jobs, a design of working furniture taking into account the ergonomic requirements providing physiologically reasonable, rational working pose and labor movements, regulation of speed and a rhythm of the movement K.

The conveyor way of production exempts the person from a hard work at assembly of large details of products (cars, tractors, airplanes, etc.), promotes a ritmization of work. With introduction To. as transmission media of semi-finished products of the produced product from one worker to another need of excess transitions on the workshop disappears, additional opportunities of the best organization of work, improvement of working conditions are created that promotes growth of labor productivity. The conveyor way of work is widely applied in many types of work.

See also Labor protection , Work .

Bibliography: Aseev B. G. Overcoming monotony of work in the industry, M., 1974, bibliogr.; Zolina 3. M. Physiological bases of the rational organization of work on the conveyor, M., 1967, bibliogr.

3. M. Zolina.