CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTION — the industry of the national economy occupied with construction and reconstruction of manufacturing enterprises, residential and public buildings and other objects of different function.
The technology C. of the item can be divided into three consecutive stages: zero cycle, construction of the building or construction and finishing (final) cycle.
The zero (underground) cycle includes the construction works connected with preparation of the site, a construction of underground communications, laying of the base (excavation). Work of the most numerous group of builders of a zero cycle — drivers (drivers) — is followed by such adverse production factors as vibration (see) and noise (see), dust content and impurity of air products of fuel combustion (carbon monoxide, nitric oxides, hydrocarbons), the cooling and heating microclimate. Work of drivers, especially on tractors and bulldozers, is sometimes accompanied by a considerable exercise stress.
The cycle on construction of buildings, constructions includes the following main types of construction works: mounting, stone, concrete and steel concrete, and also wooden (carpenter's), roofing, anticorrosive, warm and sound-proof works. As adverse factors on the second cycle are considered: work under the open sky, in not heated rooms and at height; during the stone works — exercise stresses at bricklayers and contact of skin of hands with the solutions containing alkaline and chromic connections; at installation works — the forced inconvenient working pose which is combined hardly moderately severe. Electrowelding works (see. Welding ) are followed by air pollution the welding aerosol and gases containing compounds of manganese, chrome, zinc and other substances in concentration the maximum allowable concentration is higher; installation and dismantle of designs — the increased dust content of air; work with construction guns — generation of noise, and use of vibrohammers — vibration and noise. During the concrete and steel concrete works along with impact of noise and vibration working quite often are affected by dust (see) and products of fuel combustion (exhaust gases of dump trucks).
The finishing cycle consists hl. obr. from plaster, painting, wooden (joiner's), facing and wallpaper works. During the performance of plaster paintings high dust content of air, impurity are quite often noted by its vapors of the solvents and other substances which are contained in paints (a xylol, chlorvinyl, ammonia etc.) and exercise stresses. Work grinding zatirochnykh and parquet and planing cars is followed by intensive noise and impurity of air wood dust. During the heating of buildings and their drying by means of gas-heatgenerators carbon monoxide and nitric oxides in the concentration which are quite often exceeding maximum allowable concentration come to air. Work of builders during the work at height sometimes reaching tens of meters from the earth is accompanied by the increased neuroemotional pressure.
As a rule, adverse influence of harmful production factors in S. the item is aggravated with the fact that builders often work in the conditions of long stay in a separation from the made habitable places, in areas with various climatic, weather and medico-geographical conditions (and it is besides frequent out of rooms), and also at insufficiently organized food.
Among builders owing to influence of harmful production factors there can be certain prof. of a disease, napr, a vibration disease (see), a pneumoconiosis (see), dermatitis (see), eczemas (see), electroophthalmia, poisonings with solvents.
Preventive actions assume, first of all, strict observance of the standards regulating working conditions in construction. As the current sanitary inspection (see) the main the attention is required mechanization (see. Mechanization of production ) and automation of work (see. Industrial automation ), a condition of sanitary and household rooms and individual protection equipment (see. Individual means of protection), prevention of adverse influence of noise, vibration, toxic connections and dust.
Prior to the main construction works the household rooms providing wardrobe, washrooms, bathrooms shower, dining rooms, buffets, places for heating of workers in cold and rest in hot season, a first-aid post, rooms for drying, dedusting of overalls and delivery of individual protection equipment shall be equipped. Places on the building site where harmful substances contain and noise above tolerance levels is generated, designate as a dangerous zone.
For the prevention of freezing injuries (see) it is necessary to stop works at limit decrease in temperature and limit increase in speed of the movement of air, and also to observe breaks for heating that is regulated by resolutions of regional, regional councils of deputies of workers. The organization of the special policlinics which are periodically moved in process of the movement of building is of great importance, on base to-rykh primary medical help is given, and also preliminary and periodic medical inspections of the persons working in unfavorable conditions of work including at height are performed.
Bibliography: Fighters A. N., Mironov V. G. and Stepanov I. V. Sanitar-no-bytovoye obsluzhivaniye working at building sites, M., 1981; D r and - h e in and M. I. and Andriyenko V. M. Improvement of working conditions of builders, M., 1976; P e t of N e in V. M. Occupational health in construction production, M., 1977.
V. M. Retnyov.