CONGRESSES MEDICAL, the congresses — one of forms of collective communication of representatives of medical science and practice of health care used for exchange of experience and scientific information and also for discussion of urgent scientific and practical problems. On S. m sum up the results and plan perspectives of development of various fields of medical science and practice. Participation in work of congresses of scientists from the different countries promotes expansion and deepening of the international cooperation.
History C. of m reflects the general patterns of development of medicine. In the beginning organized joint congresses, in to-rykh scientists and doctors, then all-medical participated and, at last, congresses began to be differentiated on the separate industries and disciplines.
S. organizers of m were scientific about-va scientists and doctors (see. Societies medical ). In 1816 in Bern 66 members Ob-va of scientists, to ~ were among ry also doctors, at a joint meeting made the decision on regular convocation of congresses. In 1822 in Leipzig on an initiative of the famous scientist and naturalistic philosophy representative L. Oken the first congress of scientists and doctors of Germany was convened. Since 1822 such congresses were convened nearly an every year.
In Russia the first joint congress of scientists and doctors, on to-ry there arrived 600 delegates, the f-volume St. Petersburg un-that was called on May 12, 1867 in St. Petersburg physical and mathematical. Though the medical section was not provided, the doctors participating in a congress in essence formed such section, edges combined with section of anatomy and physiology. On this section 35 reports, including professors E. V. Pelikan, A. Ya. Danilevsky, N. F. Zdekauer, I. V. Bertenson, etc., and also the students who afterwards became the famous scientists were submitted — And. R. Tarkhanov, M. D. Lavdovsky, etc. In the published works of a congress with a total amount of 135 printed pages 23 printed pages fell to the share of this section.
Since the II congress of scientists and doctors which took place in Moscow in August, 1869 and brought together 427 delegates from 40 cities of the country during the congresses began to organize special sections on at chny medicine.
The congresses of the Russian scientists and doctors which are regularly convened till 1913 brought together a large number of participants. So, the VI congress in St. Petersburg (1879) — 1409 delegates; VIII in St. Petersburg (1890) — 2224; The XIII congress in Tiflis (1913) — 3500; among delegates of congresses was many doctors and large scientists-physicians. Messages of participants of these congresses quite often contained outstanding discoveries and observations. So, at the VII congress in Odessa in 1883. I. I. Swordsmen gave the report «On curative forces of an organism», laid the foundation for the doctrine about immunity; at the X congress P. F's report was heard. Bohr, reported about opening of the activator of a skin leushmaniosis by it. In work of medical sections of congresses of scientists and doctors bright reflection got a public referral of medicine (see. Public medicine ). Questions dignity. statistics, the organizations of territorial medicine, hygiene and sanitation, fight against epidemics, against social diseases occupied one of the leading places in work of sections. The IV congress convened in Kazan in August, 1873 is in this respect especially characteristic. Its program included discussion of questions of medical statistics, medical aid to poor urban population, a role of territorial medicine in anti-epidemic actions, in particular into the organizations of sanitary committees. N. O. Kowalewski, the chairman of medical section — N. V. Sklifosovsky was the chairman of a congress. At a general meeting of a congress I. P. Skvortsov's report «Hygiene and a civilization» was read. A large role in development of public medicine was played by congresses of Society of the Russian doctors in N. I. Pirogov's memory (see. Pirogovsky congresses ), convoked since 1885.
Is later in connection with specialization in the field of natural sciences and medicine in Russia, just as in Europe and the USA, began to convene congresses on separate medical disciplines. In 1864 the first congress of druggists in St. Petersburg took place. The m on separate specialties in Russia laid the foundation for regular S. the anti-epidemic congress which gathered in 1881. Among the first special S. the congress of domestic psychiatrists was m also, to-ry took place in 1887 in Moscow. Other special congresses devoted to fight against diphtheria (1881), cholera (1892), plague (1910) on fight against alcoholism (1909), venereal diseases (1897), etc. took place.
In the years of World War I apprx. 90 medical congresses and meetings it was devoted to the most various questions of the organization of the help to sick and wounded soldiers, refugees, etc.
S. usually did not enjoy m support of official circles in imperial Russia and, moreover, quite often encountered counteraction from the government up to prohibition of holding congresses. From the first days of the Soviet power the CPSU and the Soviet government give efficient help in the organization and S.'s work as m that follows from essentially new policy in the field of health protection of workers (see Health care, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union). Pages of m become the most important form of discussion of topical issues, including plans, programs and perspectives of development of domestic medical science and practice of health care.
Requirements of socialist health care put forward new forms of convocation and S.'s work as m. Such new form were the All-Russian congresses of medical and sanitary departments (see. All-Russian congress of medical and sanitary departments), on to-rykh all main issues of a condition of health care in our country and perspectives of its further development were discussed. So, at the first congress (Moscow, June, 1918) N. A. Semashko's reports, 3 were heard. P. Solovyova, E. P. Pervukhina is also recognized need of creation of the central body — Narkomzdrava, and also the main objectives of the Soviet health care are defined.
Fight against epidemics caused by war, hunger, ruin demanded regular and frequent convocations of congresses of bacteriologists, epidemiologists and a dignity. doctors (from 1918 to 1922 6 congresses were organized). In March, 1919 in Moscow the I All-Russian congress of doctors on school sanitation was convened. In August, 1920 the I All-Russian congress on medical education took place, on Krom important decisions on its reorganization were made (see. Medical education ). Since 1919 the All-Russian congresses of the professional organizations of medical workers are convened.
Carrying out decisions XII of the All-Russian congress of Councils on development of rural health care, the People's commissar-is sensible of RSFSR organized the first in the history of the country All-Union congress of district doctors (see), taken place in Moscow on December 8 — 15, 1925.
At once after the end of Civil war S. the m discussing questions of fight against social and infectious diseases and also development of medical science were convoked. Congresses of surgeons, therapists, obstetricians-gynecologists, neuropathologists and psychiatrists were devoted to problems of prevention, the prof. of pathology and social diseases. So, the reports devoted to problems of the prof. of pathology, labor examination, medical examination were discussed at congresses of the therapists who took place in 1922 — 1931. The VII congress of obstetricians and gynecologists (1926) heard 10 reports on occupational diseases and measures of fight against them on sewing, rubber, sawing and other productions.
Tense world situation, activation of imperialistic forces, arrival of fascism to the power in Germany raised a question of inevitability of war, and in premilitary years on S. m began to discuss questions of military medicine, including field surgery more and more widely. In days of the Great Patriotic War (1941 — 1945) medical congresses were not held.
During the post-war period at congresses much attention was paid to questions of mitigation of consequences of the Great Patriotic War, synthesis of experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War, problems of treatment and rehabilitation of wounded and disabled people. Besides, the scope of congresses reflected the continuing process of differentiation and integration of medical knowledge. Congresses on cardiology, gastroenterology, hematology and transfusiology, neurosurgery, nephrology were for the first time held.
Further in connection with a scientific and technological revolution at congresses uses in medicine of achievements of physics, chemistry, biology began to pay the increasing attention to questions of protection of external environment from pollution, fight against traumatism (in particular, development of medical problems at the molecular and genetic level).
Thus, the scope of congresses reflected, on the one hand, the main stages of development of our state, with another — features of development of medical science and practice.
Every year all-Union S.' number of m increases and their value grows. Only since 1957 in the different cities of our country five all-Union congresses of obstetricians-gynecologists, four congresses of hygienists, epidemiologists, microbiologists and infectiologists, five congresses of hygienists and a dignity are held. doctors, four congresses of children's doctors, four congresses of neuropathologists and psychiatrists, four congresses of radiologists and radiologists, five congresses of physiologists, four congresses of surgeons, four congresses of tera-nevt. All-Union congresses of odontolog, otorhinolaryngologists, oncologists, physiotherapists and balneologists and representatives of other specialties are regularly held.
The international S.' history of m ascends by 1865 when at the third congress of the French doctors the offer on convocation of the international medical congresses was accepted. The first such congress took place in Paris in August, 1867; it brought together St. 1200 participants from many countries and went over with great success. From now on the international congresses of doctors were convoked in 2 — 4 up to the last XVII congress happening in August, 1913 in London. They promoted development of the international cooperation of physicians, were a peculiar review of achievements of medical science, attracted a large number of delegates from the different countries, including from Russia. On the international S. as m outstanding scientists on topical issues of science acted. So, on the VII congress in 1881 in London which brought together 3170 participants, R. Virkhov gave the report «On a role of an experiment in pathological anatomy»; the message concerning sanitation in a debate was made by J. Simon. At the next congress in Copenhagen (1884) which attracted 1350 people L. Pasteur's report on inoculations against rage was central. At the X congress in Berlin (1890) the general attention was drawn by R. Koch's report on tuberculine. On one of the most populous the XI congress in Rome (1894), 7600 doctors participated in work to-rogo (including 3000 from Italy, 900 from Germany, 700 from England and Austria, 600 from France and on 200 from America, Russia, Sweden, and also representatives of other countries), among Honorary Chairmen there was N. V. Sklifosovsky. On the XIII international medical congress in Paris in 1900 I. P. Pavlov's report «Experimental therapy as new and extremely fruitful method of physiological researches» was the focus of attention.
The XII International congress of doctors, to-ry took place in Moscow on August 7 — 14, 1897, played a large role in strengthening of creative bonds between the Russian and foreign physicians, was convincing demonstration of success achieved by the Russian medical science. Opening of a congress was preceded by big preparatory work of organizational and executive committees, N. V. Sklifosovsky, I. F. Klein, V. K. Roth, A. Ya. Kozhevnikov, and organizing committees of 15 sections of a congress were heads to-rykh, directed to-rymi professor medical f-that Moscow un-that. The congress brought together St. 7500 participants from all European countries, and also from SSh A and the southern American states (Chile, El Salvador, etc.), the countries of Asia (Turkey, Japan), etc. From Germany and Austria arrived apprx. 800 Chad., from France — apprx. 400. Among delegates of a congress there were outstanding representatives of domestic science — V. M. Bekhterev, A. A. Bobrov, N. A. Velyaminov, G. N. Gabrichevsky, P. I. Dyakonov, S. S. Korsakov, I. I. Mechnikov, F. V. Ovsyannikov, A. A. Ostroumov, A. I. Pospelov, I. M. Sechenov, V. F. Snegirev, N. F. Filatov, and also foreign scientists — I. Aljbarran, B. Valdeyer, A. van Gehuchten, R. Virkhov, E. Leyden, T. Kokher, A. Lorentz, I. Mikulichg G. Oppengeym, A. Polittser and others.
Physicians of Russia made of the heard more than 1300 reports and messages on various subjects 265. The main problem discussed at meetings of many sections. and plenary sessions, there was a fight against tuberculosis, and the role of social and hygienic conditions in its decision was emphasized. Reports of Lannelonga (O. M. of Lannelongue) «About treatment of tubercular defeats in the surgical way», E. Leyden «About modern treatment of a consumption» were devoted to fight against tuberculosis. Among other reports at plenary sessions R. Virkhov's messages «A continuity of life as a basis of biological views», were heard by Krafft-Ebinga (Pi. Krafft-Ebing) «About an etiology of a general paralysis», I. I. Mechnikova «About bubonic plague», C. M. Lukyanova «About starvation of a cellular kernel», Lombroso (S. Lomb-roso) «About the newest gains of psychiatry». In D. N. Zhbankov's report «Public medicine in Russia» features of territorial medicine in Russia were stated. This subject attracted general interest, and according to the recommendation of executive committee E. A. Osipov, I. V. Popov and P. I. Kurkin published the book «Russian Territorial Medicine» (1899) after the congress. At a congress the offer on assignment of S. S. Korsakov to the syndrome of a mental disorder described by it was accepted that demonstrated recognition of merits of the Russian scientist.
In addition to the general international S. of m, the international S. of m on separate specialties were important. Antialcoholic congresses (since 1878), congresses on an otiatria (since 1876), psychiatry (since 1878), on the organization of emergency medical service (since 1878), a hydrology and climatology (since 1886), on tuberculosis (since 1888), stomatology (since 1889), to child care (since 1883), physiology (since 1889), dermatology (since 1889), therapies were held (since 1889) etc. So far S. are carried out by m almost on all medical specialties.
Representatives of Russia took active part both in special international S. of m, and in the general international congresses of doctors. So, e.g., the Russian doctors E. V. Pelikan, E. Lenz and A. M. Bykov participated in work of the International sanitary conference on fight against the cholera which took place in Constantinople in 1866; on the International hygienic congress in Paris in 1878 K. A. Raukhfus and I. W. Baire-tenson made reports. Physicians of Russia took active part in the organization IV of the International pharmaceutical congress in 1874 in St. Petersburg and the V International congress of obstetricians-gynecologists in St. Petersburg in 1910.
Active part in the international S. of m is taken by the Soviet physicians. Systematic trips of representatives of medicine of the USSR on the international congresses began approximately since 1925. The USSR went over with great success the IV International antirheumatic congress (Moscow, May, 1934) and the XV International congress of physiologists (Moscow — Leningrad, July — August, 1935). On the antirheumatic congress the Soviet scientists led by M. P. Konchalovsky — one of the main speakers, made harmonious, experimentally reasonable theoretical concept about the etiology and a pathogeny of rheumatism which won recognition of foreign participants of the congress. Delegates of the congress of physiologists highly appreciated achievements of physiologists of the USSR and especially I. P. Pavlov's school, to-ry was awarded ranks of «the elder of physiologists of the world». Also the problems developing school H underwent comprehensive discussion. E. Vvedensky — A. A. Ukhtomsky, and the messages on chemical transfer of nervous vozbuzhdeniye (mediators) submitted by pupils and followers of views of A. F. Samoylov.
During World War II (1939 — 1945) the international and national S. m were not convoked.
During the post-war period the tendency to expansion and deepening of medical international cooperation was outlined, an important component to-rogo are the international S. of m. In their work active part is taken by scientists of the USSR. So, in 1956 on such congresses the St. 50 delegations, in 1958 — more than 60 left. Representatives of the USSR actively speak at the sessions of World Health Organization (see) and at general meetings of other international medical organizations.
Of m the most urgent problems medico-biol are exposed to active discussion on S. researches and implementation of their results in to the practician of health care. Increase of activity of the international and national congresses is noted, programs to-rykh reflect interest as to the traditional developed problems and the directions of medical science, and to the latest questions which are given rise by the tasks which rose before medicine in the period of a scientific and technological revolution (see Medicine). At congresses the increasing attention is drawn by problems of use in diagnosis and treatment of the latest equipment, problem of immunology, medical genetics, organ and tissue transplantation, a research at molecular level, problems of biochemistry and biophysics, cybernetics, modeling of live systems, and also questions of the organization of medical aid, social aspects of medicine, a problem of medical ethics and a medical deontology. In process of dominance in structure of pathology hron. noninfectious diseases the last attract the growing interest among various S.' participants of m, defining in many respects their programs and discussions. Programs C. of m reflect distinctions in the nature of pathology, the organization of medical aid in the countries with different social and economic conditions. At congresses in economically developed countries the main attention is paid to basic medicobiological researches, problems hron. noninfectious diseases, to improvement of the environment, use of the latest equipment, organization of highly skilled specialized medical aid. At congresses in developing countries still paramount value has discussion of problems of infectious epidemic diseases, creations of so-called infrastructures of health care, preparation of medical shots, and also problems of regional pathology. This tendency is most brightly expressed on the World assemblies of health care, annual WHO sessions — the largest international medical organization. In the general long-term program of this organization for 1978 — 1983 also the main questions of its authorized sessions, including assemblies of health care are defined; development of health services, prevention of diseases and fight against them, improvement of the environment, development of national shots of health care, stimulation and development of medicobiological researches and researches in the field of health care are called the major directions.
Attraction of a large number (hundreds and even thousands) of delegates and guests, a mnogoaspektnost of the considered problems is characteristic of the international congresses and many national S. of m. The organization and holding congresses are widely lit in the press, on radio, television that indicates increase of the social and scientific importance of health care and medical science, emphasizes S.'s role of m as one of the most important and operational sources of scientific medical information, a development tool of contacts of physicians in the countries and the international cooperation, expansion to-rogo became one of conditions of achievements of medical science and health care.
In the USSR various international medical symposiums, conferences, seminars of WHO, UNICEF, the non-governmental medical organizations will regularly be organized (see. International medical organizations). In 1958 in Moscow the XII International congress on sports medicine, in 1961 — the International congress on biochemistry took place. In 1962 in Moscow the VIII International anticarcinogenic congress was carried out; in 1966 — the IX International congress of microbiologists; in 1969 — the XII International congress on hemotransfusion; in 1970 in Leningrad — the IX International congress of anatomists; in 1971 in Moscow — the XXI International conference on tuberculosis, the XXIV Congress of the International society of surgeons and the X International congress on cardiovascular diseases. In 1972 in Kiev there passed the IX International congress of gerontologists; in 1973 in Moscow — the VII International congress of obstetricians - gineko - logs. In 1974 in Moscow the conference of WHO on studying of «New tendencies in the field of protection of motherhood and the childhood» is held; in 1978 in Novosibirsk — the IV International symposium on subpolar medicine; in Odessa — the International conference on a keratoplasty and a kera-toprotezirovaniye.
An important event in the international life was carried out in Alma-Ata in September, 1978. The international conference of WHO/UNICEF on primary health care with participation of representatives of 134 member states of WHO. Moscow took place in 1980 the X congress of the International society on studying of heart and in 1981 the VII International congress on hyperbaric medicine. The IX World congress of cardiologists went over with great success in Moscow in 1982, to-rogo took part in work apprx. 5000 people from 78 countries of the world. On the congress practically all main questions of modern cardiology — experimental, clinical and preventive were considered. Various national and international preventive programs were discussed. In days of work of the congress in the pavilion of exhibition complex there took place the international Cardiology-82 exhibition. More than 200 firms from many countries of the world participated in it. The diagnostic and laboratory equipment, medicines and medical literature were widely presented at an exhibition. Value of this congress left far beyond medicine and promoted strengthening of friendship and mutual understanding between the people of the different countries of the world.
One of the main idiosyncrasies of the international medical congresses of the last time is the escalating attention of their participants to such global problems as prevention, living conditions and health, a problem of environment protection og radioactive and other types of pollution. Fight for peace and disarmament became especially urgent.
In the conditions of the impetuous race of nuclear weapons started by the USA, the big group of scientists and doctors of the USA carried out at the end of 1979 in Cambridge (Massachusetts) a symposium, on Krom possible medical effects of nuclear war were discussed. The scientific data submitted on this symposium turned out so frightening that participants of a symposium suggested to found the new international movement «Doctors of the World for Prevention of Nuclear War». This movement combines scientists and doctors of different nationalities, political views and religious beliefs.
The first international congress of the movement «Doctors of the World for Prevention of Nuclear War» took place on March 21 — 26, 1981 in the suburb of Washington. The representative Soviet delegation actively participated in work of the congress. On the congress medical effects of possible nuclear war, ability of system zdravookhr were discussedaneniya to provide the help injured with nuclear explosion, a way, on the Crimea the movement shall develop. The congress unanimously recognized that doctors, being the most informed on tragic effects of nuclear war and by the nature of the professional activity designed to fight for life and health of inhabitants of the planet, can make the contribution to business of the prevention of thermonuclear accident.
The second congress took place at the beginning of April, 1982 in Cambridge (England), the third — on June 17 — 21, 1983 in Amsterdam (Netherlands). Participants of all three congresses — delegates from 43 countries accepted the addresses to heads of the USA and the USSR urging them to take away threat of nuclear war from mankind and to take immediate measures for restriction, reduction and, eventually, to elimination of nuclear weapon. On the third congress the offer on addition to the oath of the following item which is usually taken by the doctor was accepted: «As the doctor of the 20th century understanding that nuclear weapon represents an unprecedented call of my profession that nuclear war will be the last epidemic for mankind, I will make everything that in my forces, for prevention of nuclear war» (see. Oath of the doctor of the Soviet Union ).
Dates and the venue of domestic and international S. of m are presented in the list (the heading «All-Russian Congresses» included also Russian congresses held till 1918).
(figures correspond to number of a congress)
MEDICAL CONGRESSES IN RUSSIA And the USSR
the MAJOR INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL CONGRESSES
Bibliography: Bartoshevich S. T. Results of the 12th International congress of doctors in Moscow, Saratov, 1897; All-Union congresses of doctors 1925, 1926, 1927, under the editorship of P. V. Skvirsky, L., 1925 — 1927; r e e N e in A. L. other. All-Union scientific congresses and conferences — their value for further development of medical science and applied medicine, Klin, medical, t. 61, No. 2, page 4, 1983; Of p e y-denberg B. S. S of the 12th International congress of doctors in Moscow, the Doctor, t. 18, No. 39, 1129, To 40, page 1159, No. 41, with, 1189, No. 42, page 1221, No. 44, page 1279, No. 45, page 1312, No. 46, page 1340, 1897; Gribanov E. D. The All-Russian congresses of zdravotdel, in book: Vopr. stories medical, under the editorship of S. M. Bagda-saryan, century 5, page 65, M., 1959; D. N. Zhbank of the 12th Mezhdunarodna y a congress of doctors in Moscow, the Doctor, No. 37, page 1069, 1897; it, the Medical and adjoining with medical and sanitary делом^ congresses in the past (1861 — 1924), the Doctor.' business, No. 18, Art. 1289, No. 9, Art. 1369, 1927; Scientific congresses, conferences, meetings in the USSR, 1946 — 1953, Bibliogr. index, sost. H. M. Zykova and L. V. Morozov, M., 1958; H e y d and N of And. Medical societies in Russia, M., 1897; Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov and his heritage, Pirogovsky congresses, under the editorship of M. M. Gran, etc., SPb., 1911; R. G. Bodies 2nd International congress «Doctors of the world for prevention of nuclear war», Cardiology, t. 22, No. 9, page 121, 1982; Sketches of history of health care of the USSR (1917 — 1956), under the editorship of M. I. Barsukov, M., 1957; Pogozhev A. V. The twenty-fifth anniversary of natural-science congresses in Russia, M., 1887; H and z about in E. I. Doctors — for nuclear disarmament, the International life, No. 6, page 67, 1981; Bibliographical current list of papers, reports and proceedings of international meetings, Bruxelles, 1962 — 1967; Bibliography of international congresses of medical sciences, ed. by W. J. Bishop, Oxford, 1958; Index of conference proceedings received by BLL, Annual cumulation, Boston, 1964 — 1983; S t ti m k e H. Bibliographie der internationalen medi-zinisehen Kongresse und Verbande, Lpz., 1939.
Yu. P. Lisitsyn, Yu. A. Shilinis; author of table Yu. A. Shilinis.