CONGLUTINATION (Latin. conglutinatio pasting) — immunological reaction of pasting of erythrocytes or bacteria under the influence of the corresponding antibodies, a complement and conglutinin — the substance of the proteinaceous nature which is contained in blood serum of horses and cattle.
For the first time the phenomenon To. P. Ehrlich and G. observed Legislative Assembly (1902) which noted pasting of erythrocytes of a Guinea pig in the presence of normal fresh serum of a horse and heated-up serum of cattle, but did not offer an appropriate explanation for this phenomenon.
The detailed analysis of the phenomenon To. presented in 1906 to Zh. Borda and F. P. Gay which showed that, in addition to antibodies and a complement, additional substance participates in pasting of erythrocytes in this system. The terms «conglutinin» and «conglutination» were entered in 1909 by Zh. Borde and Shtreng (O. Streng).
Unlike agglutinations (see), edges occurs under the influence of only the corresponding antibodies in the presence of electrolytes, in reaction To. four components participate: antigen (see. Antigens ), an antibody (see. Antibodies ), complement (see) and conglutinin, and in the absence of any of them reaction To. does not proceed.
The principle of reaction To. consists that conglutinin reacts with the complement fixed on a specific complex antigen — an antibody, causing pasting of corpuscular antigens (see. Antigen — an antibody reaction ).
Three main modifications of statement of reaction are known To.: forward reaction To., the test of adsorption of a konglyutiniruyushchy complement and the test of the mixed K. Pervonachalno's reaction forward reaction To. it was in detail studied with mutton erythrocytes. At its statement add the identical volume of the heated-up serum of cattle containing natural (heterophyllous) antibodies to erythrocytes of a ram and conglutinin from fresh serum of a horse to 0,5% of a suspension of the washed erythrocytes — a source of a konglyutiniruyushchy (not hemolitic) complement. The result of reaction is estimated in 30 min. after an incubation in the water bath (t ° 25 °) large agglutinates by training.
Forward reaction To. it is used for definition of specific antibodies at various bacterial infections, and by means of this reaction of an antibody come to light in higher caption, than in a usual agglutination test.
The broadest use in serol, practice, in particular at diagnosis of a sap at animals and the person, received test of adsorption of a konglyutiniruyushchy complement, which was more sensitive reactions of binding complement (see). At statement of the test of adsorption of a konglyutiniruyushchy complement mix a standard dose of antigen with an ispytuyemy antiserum and a working dose of a complement (usually it is serum of a horse) and after an incubation within 1 hour at t ° 25 ° add the konglyutiniruyushchy indicator system consisting of mutton erythrocytes and heated-up serum of cattle. Absence To. erythrocytes points to adsorption of a complement in the first stage of reaction by an educated complex antigen — an antibody.
The test of the mixed reaction To. it is based that conglutinin reacts with a determinant fixed on cells (e.g., on lymphocytes) a complement and with a similar determinant on zymosan. At the same time cells which react with antibodies and a complement in the presence of conglutinin form the specific mixed aggregation with zymosan that is defined microscopically. This test was convenient and sensitive for identification of isoimmune, and in particular limfotsitotoksichesky, antibodies.
An agglutination test in the colloid environment monovalent antibodies of the erythrocytes containing the corresponding antigens (A Rhesus factor, Kell, Duffy, etc.), A. Winer (1945) also called reaction To.
Bibliography Kolyakov Ya. E. and Katyaeva 3. A. Reaction of conglutination at a peripneumonia of cattle, Owls. veterinary science, No. 4, page 4, 1933; Bordet J. et Gay F. P. Sur les relations des sensibilisatrices avec l’alexine, Ann. Inst. Pasteur, t. 20, p. 467, 1906; Bordet J. et Streng O. Les of ph6nom£nes d’adsorption et la conglutinine du s^rum de boeuf, Zbl. Bakt., I. Abt. Orig., Bd 49, S. 260, 1909; E h r 1 i with h P. u. S and with h s H. Uber die Vielheit der Complemente des Serums, Berl. klin. Wschr., S. 297, 1902; Lachmann P. J., Sell K. W. a. Spooner R. L. The mixed conglutination reaction, Immunology, v. 8, p. 345, 1965.
M. M. Nalichnikov.