CONFECTIONERY — the group name of foodstuff is preferential with high content of sugar. To. and. are characterized by high energy value, easy comprehensibility, the palatability attractive by outward. In view of the fact that in modern conditions a physical activity and energy expenditure of the population are rather small, the moderate use is recommended To. and., being high-calorific and digestible products. It is especially important to limit the use To. and. to the persons inclined to completeness having excess weight and people of advanced age, as the increased receipt in an organism of the fats and digestible carbohydrates entering in To. and. as the main components, promotes to obesity (see), and also to development of atherosclerotic processes (see. Atherosclerosis ). The range To. and., developed in the USSR (candies, caramel, a dragee, an iris, powder cocoa, chocolate, flour confectionery, halvah, marzipans, fruit jelly, a fruit candy, etc.), more than 1000 names contain. V K. and. it is possible to enter vitamins, hematogen, a laminaria that allows to use them for food of children and patients. For food of patients with a diabetes mellitus sugar in To. and. it is replaced with sorbite or xylitol. From To. and. for children exclude coffee and limit the maintenance of cocoa. Nutrition value To. and. it is caused by contents in them significant amounts of digestible carbohydrates (mono - and disaccharides), and also fats and proteins (To. and. with creams, cocoa, kernels of nuts, etc.). Quality To. and. depends from organoleptic and physical. - chemical properties of the applied main and additional raw materials, from observance of requirements of technology and a compounding.
The candy masses prepared from sugar, treacle, fruit and berry preparations, milk, fats, nuts, cocoa beans, ovalbumins, jellifying substances, flavoring and flavoring additives forms a basis for production of candies. The iris is made of the weight received by a uvarivaniye sugar patochno - milk syrup with addition of fats. A basis for production of caramel is the caramel weight received by a uvarivaniye of syrup from sugar and treacle (sometimes with invert syrup). Fruit and berry or dairy products are a part of a stuffing. Chocolate is made of the confectionery weight received by mixing of the cocoa grated with cocoa oil, sugar and other components. Special techno of l. receptions with use of special types of raw materials a nek-eye to types To. and. the complex structure is given: foamy — to a fruit candy and a zephyr, layered and fibrous — halvah, gelatinous — to fruit jelly and stalemates.
Flour To. and. are characterized by a big variety. They are made of flour, sugar, honey, treacle, fats, eggs, dairy products, flavoring agents. In some types flour To. and. enter nuts, candied fruits, fruit. Flour To. and. from the baked semi-finished products of a different form and the sizes (cakes and cakes) with a cream layer and finishing often call cream To. and. Chemical structure and energy value To. and. considerably vary (tab.). In production To. and. it is allowed to use dyes, flavoring agents, buffer salts and food to - you, but only allowed for use for these purposes M3 of the USSR. From synthetic dyes in production To. and. it is authorized to apply indigo carmine and tartraziya, and from natural — a carmine, a saffron, indigotin, an enokrasitel. Also aromatic essences, vanillin, diacetyl, etc. are applied. Food organic to - you shall not contain salts of heavy metals. Impurity of arsenic in tartaric, lemon and apple acids is allowed no more than 1,4 mg/kg. Nuts, beans of cocoa, oilseeds after sorting also pass magnetic obstacles. Use of kernels of the nuts struck with a mold is not allowed. The sulphited fruits and berries and semi-finished products from them shall undergo cooking or desulphitation in special devices that contents sulphurous to - you in ready To. and. did not exceed 20 mg/kg. Treacle, honey, syrups and other types of liquid raw materials are filtered through special a sieve. In production of halvah as frother the soapwort containing saponin, existence to-rogo in a ready-made product is applied shall not exceed 300 mg/kg. In production To. and. eggs not below the 2nd category are used, Eggs pass an ovoskopirovaniye and sorting. Before use of egg 0,5% solution of chloroamine, or 0,2% solution of an ammargen (ammoniac solution of caustic silver) with the subsequent washing by pure water are exposed to a sink in 0,5% solution of soda ash and disinfection within 5 min. in 2% the clarified solution of lime chloride, either. Egg melange is used for baking of cookies and ship's biscuits, on on condition of good organoleptic properties, at a caption of colibacillus not lower than 0,1 and lack of pathogenic microbes (enterotyphus group). Eggs of waterfowl (duck and goose) can be used only for pastries flour To. and., exposed to high temperature processing (cookies, gingerbreads).
From the huge range To. and. food poisonings of a microbic origin can cause products with creams, hl. obr. with custard. Custard is the good environment for reproduction of microbes, especially stafilokokk. Dairy products can be contaminated by stafilokokka from the cows sick with mastitis. For the prevention food poisonings (see) cream To. and. it is important to maintain concentration of sugar in an aqueous phase of cream not lower than 60% since at 30 — 50% of concentration staphylococcus continues to breed, and microbes of intestinal group gradually die off. In the custard infected with stafilokokka enterotoxin is formed at t ° 30 ° for 12 hours, and at t ° 37 ° in 4 hours. To a dignity. to conditions of production (see. Confectionery production ), and also to storage To. and. with cream, especially scalded, are shown strict a dignity. requirements. The used raw materials shall be fresh, without signs of pollution. Custard gets warm within 5 min. at a temperature not below 95 °.
Ready cream To. and. on production shall be cooled to t ° 8 — 6 ° and be stored no more 12th hour. In retail chain stores of a product with custard products with butter cream — for 36 hours, and without cooling — no more than in the 12th hour shall be realized in the presence of refrigeration units for 6 hours. At absence in retail chain stores of refrigerators K. and. with custard and cream from cream of implementation are not subject. To. and. with cream, the specified terms which are not realized in, are subject to return and can be used in production To. and., baked at high temperatures. At storage To. and. can spoil due to rancidification of the fats which are oxidized oxygen of air. To. and. can also absorb from the environment moisture (moistening To. and.), to form crystals of sugar on a surface and inside (a zasakharivaniye To. and.), and crystals of sugar or fat in the form of a gray plaque («canities of chocolate») can be allocated for surfaces of chocolate. During the moistening To. and., rich with starch (to 17 — 18% and more), can become covered by a mold.
In preservation To. and. packaging, temperature and air humidity of warehouse have special value. For the majority To. and. air temperature can be 18 — 20 ° at air humidity no more than 75%, and for products, fat-rich, 10 — 12 ° at humidity to 65%.
At production flour To. and. to a loosening of the test a chemical baking powder (baking soda, ammonium carbonate) in the number from 0,5 to 0,8% are applied to the weight of flour; at their surplus products gain soap, alkaline smack. For production of some To. and. use sweet apricot kernels and almonds. The maintenance of bitter kernels of almonds in order to avoid food poisonings shall not exceed 4%. Bitter kernels of drupaceous fruits contain glucoside dl-mandelonitrile gentiobioside, at hydrolysis to-rogo is allocated cyanhydric acid (see).
The majority To. and. thanks to the high content of sugar (88 — 98%) and low humidity (0,6 — 24%) differs sanitary bakteriol. storage stability, good transportability.
Table. Chemical composition and energy value of confectionery in terms of 100 g of an edible part of a product
Bibliography: Hygiene of food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 2, page 248, M., 1971; Technology of confectionery production, under the editorship of A. L. Sokolovsky, M., 1959; Merchandizing of foodstuff, under the editorship of F. V. Tserevitinov, t. 2, page 389, M., 1949.
F. E. Budagyan.