CONDUCTION PATHS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

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CONDUCTION PATHS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM [tractus systematis nervosi centralis (PNA)] — groups of the nerve fibrils which are characterized by a community of a structure and function, connecting various departments of a head and spinal cord. All nerve fibrils of one way begin from homogeneous neurocytes and reach a limit on the neurocytes performing identical function.

the Scheme of the main ascending and descending ways of the central nervous system (the ascending ways are designated in blue color, descending — red, shooters specify the direction of carrying out nervous impulses, gigantopiramidalny neurocytes of a cerebral cortex are designated by triangles of red color): 1 — a lateral cortical and spinal (pyramidal) way; 2 — a front cortical and spinal (pyramidal) way; 3 — decussation of pyramids; 4 — a thin kernel; 5 — motive kernels of cranial nerves; 6 — front and lateral korkovo - spinal (pyramidal) ways; 7 — a spinal loop; 8 — not crossed fibers korkovo - a nuclear way; 9 — the internal capsule; 10 and 16 — gigantopiramidalny neurocytes of lower parts of the precentral crinkle; 11 — a lenticular kernel; 12 — talamokorkovy bunches; 13 — gigantopiramidalny neurocytes of upper parts of the precentral crinkle; 14 — a kernel having a tail; 75 — the third ventricle; 17 — ventrolateralny kernels of a thalamus; 18 — the crossed fibers korkovo - a nuclear way; 19 — a medial loop and a loop of a trifacial; 20 — sensitive nodes of cranial nerves; 21 — sensitive fibers as a part of cranial nerves; 22 — sensitive kernels of cranial nerves; 23 — back outside arc-shaped fibers; 24 — a wedge-shaped kernel; 25 — a wedge-shaped bunch; 26 — a spinal node; 27 — sensitive fibers of spinal nerves; 28 — a posterior pyramid; 29 — a lateral spinotalamichesky way; 30 — neurocytes of a back horn of a spinal cord.

In the course of phylogenesis of c. the N of page as a result of development of a brain (see) the simple reflex arc which is the cornerstone of function of a nervous system becomes complicated so that in each its part instead of one neurocyte there are chains of neurocytes which axons form conduction paths. Depending on size, forms and the directions of set of the nerve fibrils creating Pct call ways (tractus), bunches (fasciculi), fibers (fibrae), commissures (commissurae), loops (ansae, lemnisci) or radiances (radiationes),

In a head and spinal cord (see) according to functional features distinguish assotsiatsionny, komissuralny, projective (afferent and efferent) nerve fibrils. Assotsiatsionny (associative, combinative) nerve fibrils (neurofibrae associatio nis) or yarns carry out unilateral bonds between separate parts of a head or spinal cord. In a brain distinguish the intrakortikalny assotsiatsionny nerve fibrils spreading within bark from the fibers connecting various sites of bark of the same cerebral hemisphere and ekstrakortikalny (short and long) the fibers which are a part of white matter of cerebral hemispheres. In a spinal cord the nerve fibrils connecting it separate segments form own bunches which are a part of the segmented device of a spinal cord.

Komissuralny, or commissural, nerve fibrils (neurofibrae commissurales) connect functionally homogeneous opposite sites of various departments of a head or spinal cord.

Projective fibers (neurofibrae projectionis) tie a cerebral cortex with its underlying departments and a spinal cord. These fibers form the main Items which are presented centripetal (ascending, afferent, sensitive) the ways bearing an impulse from the receptors perceiving information from the outside world and internal environment of an organism, to various parts of a brain, and centrifugal (descending, efferent, motive) the ways transferring an impulse from structures of a brain to motive kernels craniocereberal (cranial, T.) nerves p to cells of front horns of a spinal cord, i.e. carrying out responses to various external and internal irritations. Afferent Pct depending on a type of sensitivity, to-ruyu they carry out, divide into ways ekstero-, proprio-and interoceptive sensitivity. Pct of exteroceptive sensitivity transfer the impulses arising in the receptors perceiving irritation from the environment (painful, temperature, tactile sensitivity). Carry to the same group also Pct of an organ of sight, hearing, sense of smell and taste (see. Flavoring analyzer; Visual centers, ways; Olfactory analyzer: Acoustical centers, ways). Pct of proprioceptive sensitivity carry out impulses from bodies of the movement (deep sensitivity), Pct of interoceptive sensitivity bear impulses from internals and vessels. Efferent pathways (see. Motoriums , ways) log in pyramidal and Extrapyramidal (see. Pyramidal system , Extrapyramidal system ). Their education is connected with formation of purposeful motive acts and combined automated and autokinesias. Scheme of the main conduction paths of c. to N of page it is presented on tsvetn. silt.

Methods of a research of conduction paths were widely adopted in the second half of 19 century. Trying to define an arrangement in white matter of a head and spinal cord of functionally homogeneous bunches of nerve fibrils, various researchers differently approached the solution of this question. The greatest distribution was gained by the following methods.

1. A method of macromicroscopic studying of cuts of a head and spinal cord with their preliminary coloring (see. Macromicroscopy ), the c allowing to reveal localization of bunches of nerve fibrils at the certain level. N

of page 2. The Sravnitelnoanatomichesky method giving the chance to study phylogenesis of Pct and to establish connection between various parts of c. N

of page 3. The embryological method offered P. Fleksig in 1883. To studying of Pct this method was applied for the first time in 1895 by M. Bekhterev. The method consists in gistol. a research of nerve fibrils of Pct at corpses of fruits and newborns. At the same time reveal myelinized (phylogenetic older) and not myelinized

by Pct 4. A pathoanatomical research, at Krom the secondary degenerative changes happening in shoots of neurons at their damage study.

5. The experimental method giving the chance to observe change of functions at destruction of certain departments of a head and spinal cord at animals and to reveal bonds between kernels of gray matter of a brain and peripheral bodies. 6. The method offered in 1870 to Guddenom (V. of A. Gudden), is based that the animal right after the birth is placed in the conditions in whole or in part excluding function of any body. As a result the part of a nervous system connected with this function develops or atrophies insufficiently. 7. A method of anatomic preparation of a brain after its preliminary special processing allowing to allocate bunches of nerve fibrils in white matter.

In 19 century applied alcohol, solutions of corrosive sublimate (dichloride of mercury) to consolidation of tissue of brain, sodium chloride, formalin (formaldehyde) and various fixing mixes.

N. I. Pirogov studied the frozen brain, making diversely cuts of its fabric (see Pirogov methods). In 1913 A. A. Deshin and O. V. Yakhontova suggested to rovat a fix a brain in solution of formalin of the increasing concentration (5 — 20%), then for 1,5 — 2 months to place it in 80% alcohol and on 1 — 2 week in Vikkersgeymer's liquid (see Vikkersgeymer liquid) then to preparovat bunches of nerve fibrils. The method of pretreatment of a brain developed in 1939 by S. B. Dzugayeva to the subsequent thin anatomic preparation is applied for the purpose of studying filo-and ontogenesis of Pct; this method allows to allocate layer-by-layer on the same drug groups of nerve fibrils, to investigate their features and the topografoanatomichesky relations. At the same time the brain taken at necropsy of the adult is subjected to consolidation in solution of formalin of the increasing concentration (3 — 15%) within 38 days, then remove a meninx, washed out water and immersed for 3 — 7 days in the liquid prepared by way of addition to 1 l of 60% of alcohol of 20 ml smoking salt to - you, 20 g of sodium chloride and 1 g of pepsin. After such processing the brain gains elasticity and is easily prepared.

For studying of Pct use several methods more often, combining them in the necessary sequence. So, still V. M. Bekhterev, combining experimental and embryological methods, received valuable data on Pct. At modern researches of Pct apply generally experimental and morphological methods with use of various experimental approaches, neurohistologic, histochemical and other techniques.

Clinical symptoms, the Pct arising at defeat — see. Autonomic nervous system , Brain , Cerebellum , Pyramidal system , Sensitivity , Extrapyramidal system .

The list of conduction paths of the central nervous system

Names of conduction paths, including bunches, fibers, commissures, loops and radiances, are provided in alphabetical order on PNA, JNA, BNA; also some terms entering the PNA lists which are periodically revised on the international congresses of anatomists and some outdated names which are found in literature are included. The words concluded in square brackets are synonyms.

Ways (tractus) and bunches (fasciculi)

1. Anterior proprius (Flechsig) fasc. (BNA), front own bunch (Fleksiga), see Proprii ventrales [anteriores] fascc.

2. Anterolateral is superficialis (Gowersi) fasc. (BNA), an anterolateral superficial bunch (Govers), see Spinocerebellaris ventralis [anterior] tractus.

3. Arcuatus fasc., the arc-shaped bunch, see Longitudinalis superior fasc.

4. Arcuatus (Foville) fasc., the arc-shaped bunch (Fovill), see Obliquus pontis fasc.

5. Arnoldi fasc., Arnold's bunch, see Temporo-thalamicus fasc., Frontopontinus tractus.

6. Bulbo-cerebellaris tradius, a lukovichnomozzhechkovy way, see Aquatae externae dorsales [posteriores] fibrae.

7. Bulbo-thalamicus tractus, bulbotala-michesky path; synonym of bulbothalamicus tractus (JNA); see Medialis lemniscus.

8. Burdachi fasc., Burdakh's bunch, see Cuneatus fasc.

9. Cerebello-bulbaris fasc., a mozzhechkovobulbarny bunch, see Cerebello-nuclearis tractus.

10. Cerebello-nuclearis tractus, mozshechkovo-core way; synonym: cerebello-bulbaris fasc., cerebellonucleares tractus (JNA), fastigiobulbaris tractus (BNA), fastigiobulbaris tractus (JNA), uncinatus tractus. Efferent way of a cerebellum. Begins from cells of a kernel of a tent and a spherical kernel of a cerebellum. Takes place in the lower cerebellar legs. Comes to an end in a lateral vestibular nucleus of a myelencephalon and partly in motive kernels of cranial nerves.

11. Cerebellorubralis tractus (PNA), cerebellar krasnoyaderny way; synonym: sege-be] lo-tegmentalis tractus, cerebellotegmentalis mesencephali tractus (JNA), dentatorubrales fibrae (PNA). Efferent way of a cerebellum. Begins from cells of a gear kernel and a kernel of a tent of a cerebellum. Takes place in structure of upper cerebellar legs. Comes to an end in a red kernel of a mesencephalon.

12. Cerebellospinalis fasc. (BNA), cerebellar and spinal bunch. Efferent bunch of a cerebellum. Begins in a cerebellum. Takes place in side cords of a spinal cord as a part of tractus spinocerebellaris dorsalis [posterior]. Comes to an end on cells of front horns of a spinal cord.

13. Cerebello-tegmentalis tractus, cerebellar pokryshechny a way, see Cerebellorub-ralis tractus.

14. Cerebellotegmentalis mesencephali tractus (JNA), cerebellar pokryshechny a way of a mesencephalon, see Cerebellorubralis tractus.

15. Cerebel 1 about-1halamicus tractus, a cerebellar and thalamic way; synonym of cerebellotha-lamicus tractus (JNA); cm. Dentatothala-micus tractus.

16. Cerebrospinalis anterior (pyramidalis anterior) fasc. (BNA), front cerebrospinal (front pyramidal) a bunch, see Corticospinalis (pyramidalis) ventralis [anterior] tractus.

17. Cerebrospinalis lateralis (pyramidalis lateralis) fasc. (BNA), lateral cerebrospinal (lateral pyramidal) a bunch, see Corticospinalis (pyramidalis) lateralis tractus.

18. Cortico-bulbaris tractus, cortical and bulbar way; synonym of Corticobulbaris tractus (JNA); cm. Corticonuclearis tractus.

19. Cortico-cerebellaris tractus, korkovomozzhechkovy way; synonym: corticocerebella-ris tractus (JNA), cortico-ponto-cerebellaris tractus. Develops of tractus corticopontini and fibrae pontocerebellares.

20. Corti-habenu from laris tractus, cortical povodkovy a way; synonym of corticohabenularis tractus (JNA). Short projective fibers of an end brain. Begins from pyramidal cells of a hippocampus and from cells of a gear crinkle. Takes place in structure of the arch, and then brain strip of a thalamus. Comes to an end in kernels of a lead of an epithalamus.

21. Corticohypoth ai amici tractus (PNA), cortical and hypothalamic ways. Short projective fibers of a brain. Begin in bark of a frontal lobe, zone and a parahippocampus lny crinkles of hemispheres of a head vyuzg. Come to an end on cells of kernels of a hypothalamus.

22. Coifiico-mamillaris tractus, cortical and mastoidal way; synonym of corticomamillaris tractus (JNA). Projective assotsiatsionny fibers of olfactory conduction paths. Begins from pyramidal cells of a hippocampus and from cells of a gear crinkle. Takes place in structure of the arch. Comes to an end: the most part of fibers — in kernels of mastoidal bodies of the party, a smaller part — in the same kernels of the opposite side.

23. Corticonuclearis tractus (PNA), cortical and nuclear way; synonym: cortico-bulbaris tractus, corticobulbaris tractus (JNA), geniculatus fasc. The projective way transferring a motive impulse from bark on kernels of cranial nerves. Treats pyramidal ways. Begins from gigantopiramidalny neurocytes (Bets's cells) of bark of the lower third of the precentral crinkle. Passes through a bend of the internal capsule. Comes to an end on cells of motive kernels of cranial nerves in a brainstem.

24. Corticopontini tractus (PNA, JNA), cortical and bridge ways. There are of tractus frontopontinus, tractus occipitopon-tinus, tractus temporopontinus and tractus pa-rietopontinus. The projective fibers transferring impulses from bark of cerebral hemispheres on a cerebellum through kernels of the bridge. Begin a frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe from cells of bark. Pass through the internal capsule, a leg of a brain (where borrow internal and outside speak rapidly). Come to an end in kernels of the bridge.

25. Cortieo-ponto-eerebellaris tractus, cortical mosto - a cerebellar way, see Corticocerebellaris tractus.

26. Corticospinal is (pyramidalis) of lateralis tractus (PNA), lateral cortical and spinal (pyramidal) way; synonym: cerebrospinalis lateralis (pyramidalis lateralis) fasc. (BNA), cortico-spinalis lateralis tractus (JNA), pyramidalis lateralis fasc., pyramidalis lateralis tractus. The projective way transferring an impulse of autokinesias from a cerebral cortex on cells of front horns of a spinal cord. Begins from gigantopiramidalny neurocytes of bark of the precentral crinkle. Passes through a back leg of the internal capsule, a brainstem and after decussation (decussatio pyramidum) in a side cord of a spinal cord. Comes to an end on cells of front horns of a spinal cord

27. Cortico-spinalis ventralis tractus (JNA), a ventral cortical and spinal way, see Corticospinalis (pyramidalis) ventralis [anterior] tractus.

28. Corticospinalis (pyramidalis) ventralis [anterior] tractus (PNA), front cortical and spinal (pyramidal) way; synonym: cerebrospinalis anterior (pyramidalis anterior) fasc. (BNA), cortico-spinalis ventralis tractus (JNA), pyramidalis anterior fasc., pyramidalis anterior tractus. The projective way transferring impulses of autokinesias from a cerebral cortex on cells of front horns of a spinal cord. Begins from gigantopiramidalny neurocytes of bark of the precentral crinkle. Passes through a back leg of the internal capsule, a brainstem, a front cord of a spinal cord. Comes to an end on cells of front horns of a spinal cord.

29. Cortico-tectalis tractus, cortical pokryshechny way; synonym of corticotectalis tractus; see Corticotectales fibrae.

30. Cortico-tegmentalis tractus, korkovopokryshechny way; synonym of corticotegmentalis tractus; see Corticorubrales fibrae.

31. Corticothaiamici fascc. (PNA), korkovotalamichesky bunches; synonym: corticothalamicae fibrae (PNA), cortico-thalamicitractus, corticothalamici tractus (JNA). The projective fibers transferring influence of bark on a thalamus. Begin from cells of bark of various shares of cerebral hemispheres. Take place in structure of front, central and back thalamic radiances. Come to an end on cells of kernels of a thalamus.

32. Cortico-thalamici tractus, corticothalamic ways; synonym of Corticothalamici tractus (JNA); see Corticothalamici fascc.

33. Cuneatus fasc. (PNA), wedge-shaped bunch; synonym: pars lateralis fasciculi dorsalis (JNA), cuneatus fasc. (Burdachi) (BNA), Burdachi fasc. Projective bunch of proprioceptive sensitivity (muscular and joint feeling). Begins from pseudo-unipolar neurocytes of spinal nodes. Takes place in back cords of a spinal cord. Comes to an end in a wedge-shaped kernel of a myelencephalon.

34. Cuneatus (Burdachi) fasc. (BNA), a wedge-shaped bunch (Burdakh), see Cuneatus fasc.

35. Dent at ool i varis tractus (JNA), a gear and olive way, see Olivocerebellaris tractus.

36. Dentatothalamicus tractus (PNA), gear and thalamic way; synonym: cerebello-thalamicus tractus, cerebellothalamicus tractus (JNA). The projective way transferring impulses from a cerebellum to a thalamus. Begins in cells of a gear kernel of a cerebellum. Passes through upper cerebellar legs. Comes to an end in ventral kernels of a thalamus.

37. Dorsalis fasc. (JNA), dorsal bunch, or back cord of white matter of a spinal cord; synonym: dorsalis [posterior] funiculus (PNA), posterior funiculus (BNA).

38. Dorsolateralis tractus (PNA), dorsolateral way. Afferent way. H and-chinayetsya from pseudo-unipolar neurocytes of spinal nodes. Takes place in a spinal cord between a top of a back horn and the surface of a spinal cord. Comes to an end partially on cells of a back horn, and also joins a way lateral back thalamically.

39. Fastigio-bulbaris tractus (BNA), tent and bulbar way; synonym of fastigiobulba-ris tractus (JNA); see Cerebello-nuclearis tractus.

40. Flechsigi fasc., a bunch of Fleksiga, see Spinocerebellaris dorsalis [posterior] tractus.

41. Foreli fasc., Forel's bunch, see Thala-micus fasc.

42. (Foville) of fasc., Fovill's bunch, see Obliquus pontis fasc.

43. Frontooccipitalis fasc. (JNA), a frontooccipital bunch, see Lomatudinalis superior fasc.

44. Frontopontinus tractus (PNA), lobnomostovy way; synonym of Arnoldi fasc.; see Corticopontini tractus.

45. Geniculatus fasc., a cranked bunch, see Corticonuclearis tractus.

46. Geniculocorticalis tractus (JNA), a cranked and cortical way, see Optica radiatio.

47. Geniculocorticalis (cochlearis) tractus (JNA), a cranked and cortical (cochlear) way, see the Expert, ustica radiatio.

48. Golli fasc., Gaulle's bunch, see Gracilis fasc.

49. Gowersi fasc., Govers's bunch, see Spi-nocerebellaris ventralis [anterior] tractus.

50. Gracilis (Golli) fasc. (BNA), a posterior pyramid (Gaulle), see Gracilis fasc.

51. Gracilis fasc. (PNA), posterior pyramid; synonym: pars medialis fasciculi dorsalis (JNA), gracilis (Golli) fasc. (BNA), Golli fasc. Projective bunch of proprioceptive sensitivity (muscular and joint feeling). Begins from pseudo-unipolar neurocytes of spinal nodes of 19 lower segments of a spinal cord. Takes place in a medial part of a back cord. Comes to an end in a thin kernel of a myelencephalon.

52. Guddeni fasc., Gudden's bunch, see Ma-millotegmentalis fasc.

53. Hj fasc., Hi a bunch, see Thalamicus fasc.

54. H2 fasc., H2 a bunch, see Lenticularis fasc.

55. Habenulointercruralis tractus (JNA), a povodkovo-intercrural way, see Retroflexus fasc.

56. Habenulo-peduncularis tractus, a povodkovo-nozhkovy way, see Retroflexus fasc.

57. Habenulointerpeduncularis tractus, (PNA), a povodkovo-intercrural way, see Retroflexus fasc.

58. Helwegi fasc., a bunch of Gelvega, see Olivospinalis tractus.

59. (Hoclie) of fasc., Gokhe's bunch, see Septo-marginalis fasc.

60. Hypothalamohypophysialis tractus (PNA), gypotalamo-pituitary way. Treats gipotalamo-pituitary system, provides transport of neurohormones from kernels of a hypothalamus in a hypophysis. N and-chinayetsya from cells paraventriku-lyarny and a supraoptic hypothalamus of kernels. Takes place in a hypothalamus. 3 and-kanchivayetsya in a back share of a hypophysis.

61. lnterfascicularis [semilunaris] fasc. (PNA), interfascicular [semi-lunar] bunch; synonym: (Schultze) of fasc., semilunaris (interfas-cicularis) fasc. The Assotsiatsionny descending bunch. Begins from cells of back horns of a spinal cord. Takes place in a back cord of cervical and partially chest departments of a spinal cord, has an appearance of a comma.

62. Intersegmentales fascc., mezheegmentar-ny bunches, see Proprii ventrales [anteriores] fascc., proprii laterales fascc., proprii dorsales [posteriores] fascc.

63. Lateralis fasc. (JNA), side bunch, or side cord of white matter of a spinal cord, synonym of lateralis funiculus (PNA, BNA).

64. Lateralis proprius (Flechsig) fasc. (BNA), own lateral bunch (Fleksiga), see Proprii laterales fascc.

65. Lemnisci lateralis (acustici) tractus (JNA), a way of a lateral (acoustical) loop, see Lateralis lemniscus.

66. Lemnisci medialis tractus (JNA), a way of a medial loop, see Medialis lemniscus.

67. Lenticularis fasc. (PNA), lenticular bunch; synonym of H2 of fasc. Projective bunch of extrapyramidal system. Begins from cells of a pale sphere. Takes place in a diencephalon, comes over to the opposite side. Comes to an end in a red kernel, a subthalamic kernel, an uncertain zone of a front thalamus and periventriku-lyarny kernels of the and opposite side.

68. Löwenthali fasc., Levental's bunch, see Vestibulospinalis tractus.

69. Longitudinalis dorsalis fasc. (PNA, JNA), back longitudinal bunch, synonym: posterior (Schütz) fasc., Schütz fasc. The projective bunch which is carrying out bonds between various systems of a brain trunk and a spinal cord. Begins from cells of kernels of a hypothalamus. Takes place in the central gray matter of a mesencephalon near a silviyev of a water supply system (a water supply system of a brain, T.), where repeatedly switches. Comes to an end in gray matter of a spinal cord.

70. Longitudinalis inferior fasc. (PNA, BNA), lower longitudinal bunch; synonym of temporooccipitalis fasc. (JNA). The Assotsiatsionny bunch which is carrying out communication between bark a temporal and occipital share of a cerebral hemisphere. Begins in bark of a temporal share. Passes along an outside wall of ndzhny and back horns of a side ventricle. Comes to an end in bark of an occipital share.

71 Longitudinalis medialis fasc. (PNA, BNA), medial longitudinal bunch; synonym of longitudinalis medialis tractus (JNA). Projective efferent way of labyrinth reflexes and other reflexes of a pose. Begins from various cellular groups of a brain trunk. Takes place in a brain trunk on a bottom of the fourth ventricle and in front cords of a spinal cord. Comes to an end on cells of front horns of a spinal cord.

72. Longitudinalis medialis tractus (JNA), a medial longitudinal way, see Loneri-tudinalis medialis fasc.

73. Longitudinalis praedorsaiis fasc., a longitudinal predorzalny bunch, see Tecto-spinalis tractus.

74 Longitudinalis superior fasc. (PNA, BNA), upper longitudinal bunch; synonym: frontooccipitalis fasc. (JNA), arcuatus fasc. The Assotsiatsionny bunch which is carrying out bonds between various sites of bark a frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobe. Begins in cells of bark of a frontal lobe. Passes parallel to the upper edge of an island. Comes to an end in bark with a parietal, temporal and occipital lobe.

75. Mamillaris princeps fasc., the main mastoidal bunch, see Mamillotegmentalis fasc.

76. Mamillotegmentalis fasc. (PNA), mastoidal pokryshechny bunch; synonym: mamillotegmentalis tractus (JNA), pedunculomamillares fascc. (BNA), mamillaris princeps fasc., tegmenti (Guddeni) fasc., Guddeni fasc. The projective fibers relating to olfactory ways. Begins from cells of kernels of a mastoidal body. Passes through a tire of a mesencephalon. Comes to an end in back and front kernels of a trapezoid body.

77. Mamillotegmentalis tractus (JNA), mastoidal pokryshechny a way, see Mamillotegmentalis fasc.

78. Mamillothalamicus fasc. (PNA, JNA), mastoidal and thalamic bunch; synonym: tha-lamomamillaris (Vicq d’Azyri) fasc. (BNA), Yicq d’Azyri fasc. The projective bunch relating to olfactory ways. Begins from cells of kernels of a mastoidal body. Takes place in a hypothalamus. Comes to an end in front kernels of a thalamus.

79. Medius pontis fasc., a median bunch of the bridge, see Obliquus pontis fasc.

80. Mesencephalicus nervi trigemini tractus (PNA), srednemozgovy way of a trifacial (srednemozgovy trigeminal way); synonym of radix descendens nervi trigemini (BNA). It is formed by fibers and cells of a kernel of a trifacial. It is located in srednI eat a brain lateralny a silviyev of a water supply system.

81. Meynerti fasc., Meynert's bunch, see Retroflexus fasc.

82. Monakowi fasc., Monakov's bunch, see Rubrospinalis tractus.

83. Munzeri fasc., Myuntser's bunch, see Tectobulbaris tractus.

84. Nucleo-cerebellaris tractus, nuclear and cerebellar way; synonym of nucleocerebellares tractus (JNA). Afferent fibers of a cerebellum. Begins from cells of kernels of nerves of visceral arches (At, VII, VIII, IX and X cranial nerves), it is preferential from a kernel of a trifacial. Passes through the lower cerebellar legs. Comes to an end in bark of a vermis.

85. Nucleocerebellares tractus (JNA), nuclear and cerebellar ways, see Nucleo-cerebellaris tractus.

86. Obliquus pontis fasc. (BNA, JNA), slanting bunch of the bridge; synonym: arcuatus (Foville) fasc., (Foville) of fasc., medius pontis fasc. Afferent fibers of a cerebellum. Begins from cells of kernels of the bridge. Takes place in average cerebellar legs. Comes to an end in bark of hemispheres of a cerebellum.

87. Occipitopontinus tractus (PNA), an occipital and bridge way, see Corticopontini tractus.

88. Olfacto-ammonicus (Zuckerkandli) tractus, an olfactory and hippocampal way (Tsukkerkandl), see Olfactohippocampicus tractus.

89. Olfacto-habenularis tractus, olfactory povodkovy way; synonym of olfactohabenularis tractus (JNA). Projective assotsiatsionny the way relating to a rhinencephalon. Begins from cells of an olfactory bulb. Takes place in structure of an olfactory path (see Olfactorius tractus), then in a brain strip of a thalamus. Comes to an end in medial and lateral kernels of a lead.

90. Olfactohippocampicus tractus (JNA), olfactory and hippocampal way; synonym of olfacto-ammonicus (Zuckerkandli) tractus. Projective assotsiatsionny the way relating to a rhinencephalon. Begins from cells of the front made a hole substance. Takes place in structure of the arch, partially crosses. Comes to an end in bark of a hippocampus.

91. Olfacto-mesencephalicus tractus, olfactory srednemozgovoy way; synonym: olfactomesencephalicus tractus (JNA), Wallenbergi fasc. Projective basal bunch of a rhinencephalon. Begins from cells of an olfactory bulb and an olfactory path Forms the olfactory radiance directed to promezhutoch a noma and to a mesencephalon. Comes to an end in serobugorny kernels, medial and lateral kernels of mamillary bodies of a hypothalamus, in an intercrural kernel and a reticular formation of a mesencephalon.

92. Olfactomesencephalicus tractus (JNA), olfactory srednemozgovoy a way, see Olfacto-mesencephalicus tractus.

93. Olfactorius tractus (PNA, BNA, JNA), olfactory way. The projective way representing a part of Pct of a rhinencephalon. Begins from mitral neurocytes of an olfactory bulb. Passes on an olfactory furrow of a frontal lobe of cerebral hemispheres and passes into an olfactory triangle.

94. Olivocerebellaris tractus (PNA), olivocerebellar way; synonym of cerebelloolivares fibrae (BNA), dentatoolivaris tractus (JNA). The projective way relating to afferent system of a cerebellum. Begins from cells of the lower olive kernel of a myelencephalon. Takes place in a myelencephalon, partially crossing, and enters the lower cerebellar legs of the and opposite side. Comes to an end on cells of bark of a worm of a cerebellum.

95. Olivospinalis tractus (PNA), olivispinal way; synonym of Helwegi fasc. The projective way relating to efferent pathways of the lower olivarny kernel. Begins from cells of the lower olive kernel. Passes on border of front and side cords of a spinal cord. Comes to an end on cells of front horns of a spinal cord.

96. Opticus tractus (PNA, JNA, BNA), visual tract. Represents continuation of an optic nerve of a kzada after visual decussation.

97. Parieto-occipitopontinus fasc. (PNA), parietal and occipital and bridge bunch. Is a part of the cortical and bridge ways going from bark a parietal and occipital lobe. It is located in a back leg of the internal capsule.

98. Parietopontinus tractus (PNA), a parietal and bridge way, see Corticopontini tractus.

99. Pars lateralis fasciculi dorsalis (JNA), a lateral part of a dorsal bunch, see Cuneatus fasc.

100. Pars medialis fasciculi dorsalis (JNA), a medial part of a dorsal bunch, see Gracilis fasc.

101. Pedunculomamiliares fascc. (BNA), nozhkovo-mastoidal bunches, see Mamillotegmentalis fasc.

102. Ponto-cerebellares tractus, mostomozzhechkovy ways; synonym of pontocerebellares tractus (JNA); see Pontocerebellares fibrae.

103. Posterior (Schütz) fasc., a back (Schutz) bunch, see Longitudinalis dorsalis fasc.

104. Praepyramidalis (Thomas) fasc., prepyramidal bunch (Toma); synonym of Thomas fasc. The Assotsiatsionny bunch which is carrying out communication between respiratory centers of an oblong and spinal cord. Begins from cells of a reticular formation of a myelencephalon. Takes place in a side cord of a spinal cord, a kpereda from a pyramidal way. Comes to an end on cells of front horns of cervical segments of a spinal cord.

105. Proprii dorsales (posteriores) fascc. (PNA), back own bunches. The Assotsiatsionny bunches which are carrying out intersegmental bonds. Begin in cells of back horns of a spinal cord. Take place in front departments of a back cord. Come to an end on cells of back horns of a spinal cord.

106. Proprii laterales fascc. (PNA), lateral own bunches; synonym of lateralis proprius (Flechsigi) of fasc. The Assotsiatsionny bunches which are carrying out intersegmental bonds. Begin from cells of back, side and front horns of a spinal cord. Take place in internal departments of a side cord of a spinal cord. Come to an end on cells of back, side and front horns of the next segments of a spinal cord.

107. Proprii ventrales [anteriores] fascc. (PNA), front own bunches; synonym of anterior proprius (Flechsig) of fasc. (BNA). The Assotsiatsionny bunches which are carrying out intersegmental bonds. Begin from cells of front horns of a spinal cord. Take place in front cords about front horns. Come to an end on cells of front horns of the next segments.

108. Pulvinocorticalis (radiationis opticae) tractus (JNA), a podushechno-cortical way of visual radiance, see Optica radiatio.

109. Pyramidalis anterior fasc., a front pyramidal bunch, see Corticospinalis (pyramidalis) ventralis Eanterior] tractus.

110. Pyramidalis anterior tractus, a front pyramidal way, see Corticospinalis (pyramidalis) ventralis [anterior] tractus.

111. Pyramidalis fasc. (PNA), pyramidal bunch; synonym of pyramidales fibrae. Is a part of cortical and spinal ways. It is located in pyramids of a myelencephalon.

112. Pyramidalis lateralis fasc., a lateral pyramidal bunch, see Corticospinalis (pyramidalis) lateralis tractus.

113. Pyramidalis lateralis tractus, a lateral pyramidal way, see Corticospinalis (pyramidalis) lateralis tractus.

114. Reticulospi lales tractus (PNA), reticular and spinal ways; synonym: reticu-lospinalis lateralis tractus, reticulospinalis ventralis [anterior] tractus. Projective efferent pathways of extrapyramidal system. Begin from cells of a reticular formation of a brain trunk. Take place scattered fibers in side and front cords of a spinal cord of the opposite side. Come to an end on cells of front horns of a spinal cord.

115. Reticulospinalis lateralis tractus, a lateral reticular and spinal way, see Reticulospinales tractus.

116. Reticulospinalis ventralis [anterior] tractus (PNA), a front (ventral) reticular and spinal way, see Reticulospinales tractus.

117. Retroflexus fasc. (PNA, JNA), unbent (back bent) a bunch; synonym: habenulo-peduncularis tractus, habenuloin-tercruralis tractus (JNA), habenulointerpeduncularis tractus (PNA), Meynerti fasc., retroflexus (Meynerti) fasc. (BNA). Efferent bunch of the olfactory analyzer. Begins from cells of kernels of a lead. Takes place in a leg, a brain along an inner edge of a red kernel, and then deviates kzad and crosses. Comes to an end on cells of an intercrural kernel and the back made a hole substance.

118. Retroflexus (Meynerti) fasc. (BNA), the bunch (Meynert) bent back, cm of Retroflexus fasc.

119. Rubroreticulares fascc. (PNA), krasnoyaderno-reticular bunches; synonym: rubro-reticularis tractus (JNA), rubro-reticularis tractus. Projective bunches of extrapyramidal system. Begin in a small-celled part of a red kernel. Take place in a tire of a mesencephalon and the bridge. Come to an end on cells of a reticular formation of the bridge, partially proceed in reticular and spinal ways (Reticulospinales tractus).

120. Rubro-reticularis tractus, a krasnoyaderno-reticular way, a synonym of Rubroreticularis tractus (JNA), see Rubroreticulares fascc.

121. Rubrospinalis tractus (PNA, JNA), krasnoyaderno-spinal way; synonym: rubro-spinalis tractus, Monakowi fasc. Projective efferent way of extrapyramidal system. Begins from large cells of a red kernel, forms decussation in a tire of a mesencephalon. Takes place in a brain trunk, side cords of a spinal cord. Comes to an end on cells of front horns of a spinal cord.

122. Rubrothalamicus tractus (JNA), krasnoyaderno-thalamic way. The projective bunch which is carrying out communication of a red kernel with a thalamus. Begins from cells of a red kernel. Takes place in a tire of a mesencephalon.

123. (Schultze) of fase., a bunch to Shulttsa, see Interfaseicularis [semilunaris] fase.


124. Schütz fase., Schutz's bunch; synonym of posterior (Schütz) fase., see Longitudinalis dorsalis fase.

125. Semilunaris (interfaseicularis) fase., a semi-lunar (interfascicular) bunch, see Interfaseicularis [semilunaris] fase.

126. Septomarginalis fase. (PNA), septomarginalny bunch; synonym (Hoche) of fase. Assotsiatsionny bunch of a spinal cord. Begins from cells of back horns of a spinal cord. Takes place in cervical and chest segments of back cords of a spinal cord. Comes to an end in back horns of a spinal cord.

127. Solitarius fase. (JNA), a single bunch, see Solitarius tractus.

128. Solitarius tractus (PNA, JNA), single way; synonym of solitarius fase. (JNA). The projective way relating to the flavoring analyzer. Begins from cells of sensitive nodes front (a node of kolenets of an intermediate nerve), the glossopalatine and wandering nerves. Comes to an end in a kernel of a single way.

129. Spinalis nervi trigemini tractus (PNA, BNA), spinal way of a trifacial. Projective way of sensitive fibers of a trifacial. Begins from cells of a trigeminal node. Takes place in a side cord of cervical department of a spinal cord and a brain trunk. Comes to an end on cells of jellylike substance and the lower kernel of a spinal way of a trifacial.

130. Spino-cerebellaris dorsalis tractus (JNA), a dorsal back and cerebellar way, see Spinocerebellaris dorsalis [posterior] tractus.

131. Spinocerebellaris dorsalis [posterior] tractus (PNA), back back mozzhechko-vy way; synonym: Flechsigi fase, spino-cerebellaris dorsalis tractus (JNA). Projective bunch of proprioceptive sensitivity. Begins from psev to unipolar neurocytes of spinal nodes. Takes place in back departments of a side cord back and a myelencephalon, in the lower cerebellar legs. Comes to an end in bark of a worm of a cerebellum on the same party.

132. Spino-cerebellaris ventralis tractus (JNA), a ventral back and cerebellar way, see Spinocerebellaris ventralis [anterior] tractus.

133. Spinocerebellaris ventralis [anterior]

tractus (PNA), front back and cerebellar way; synonym: anterolateralis superficialis (Gowersi) fase. (BNA), Gowersi fase., spino-cerebellaris ventralis tractus (JNA). Projective way of proprioceptive sensitivity. Begins from pseudo-unipolar neurocytes of spinal nodes. Takes place in front department of a side cord, and then in a brain trunk of the opposite side. Comes to an end in bark of a worm of a cerebellum.

134. Spino-olivaris fase., back olivar-ny a bunch, see Spinoolivaris tractus.

135. Spinoolivaris tractus (PNA, JNA), back and olive way; synonym: spino-olivaris tractus, spino-olivaris fasc. The projective bunch relating to afferent ways of an olive. Begins from cells of gray matter of a spinal cord. Passes on border of front and side cords of a spinal cord. Comes to an end in the lower olive kernel.

136. Spinoreticularis tractus (PNA), back and reticular way. Projective afferent way. Begins from cells of spinal nodes. Takes place in a front cord of a spinal cord. 3 and-kanchtsvayetsya on cells of gray matter of a spinal cord (at the different levels) and in a reticular formation oblong and a mesencephalon.

137. Spinotectalis tractus (PNA, JNA), back pokryshechny way; synonym of spino-tec-talis tractus. Projective afferent way. Begins from pseudo-unipolar neurocytes of spinal nodes. Takes place after decussation in front cords of a spinal cord. 3 and to and N-chivayetsya on cells of the lower and partially upper hillocks of a plate of a roof.

138. Spino-thalamicus tractus, back that - lamichesky a way; synonym: spinothalamicus tractus, see Spinothalamicus ventralis [anterior] et lateralis tractus.

139. Spinothalamicus lateralis tractus (PNA), lateral back and thalamic way; synonym: spinothalamicus tractus (JNA), spino-thalamicus tractus. Projective way painful and thermoesthesia. Begins from pseudo-unipolar neurocytes of spinal nodes. Takes place in side cords of a spinal cord, forms a spinal loop. Comes to an end on cells of ventrolateralny kernels of a thalamus.

140. Spinothalamicus ventralis [anterior] tractus (PNA), front back and thalamic way; synonym: spinothalamicus tractus (JNA), spino-thalamicus tractus. Projective way of tactile sensitivity. Begins from pseudo-unipolar neurocytes of spinal nodes. Takes place in front cords of a spinal cord, a brain trunk. 3 and-kanchivayetsya on cells of ventrolateralny kernels of a thalamus.

141. Subcallosus fasc. (PNA), subcallosal bunch. Associative bunch. The N and-chinayetsya from cells of bark of the crinkles of a brain lying over a corpus collosum and also is formed by collaterals from a bunch of a kernel having a tail. Passes under a corpus collosum. Comes to an end in bark of the crinkles located below a corpus collosum.

142. Sulcomarginalis fasc. (PNA), bunch of a regional furrow. Projective afferent way of a thalamus. Begins from cells of back horns of a spinal cord. Passes after decussation near a front median crack of a spinal cord across the periphery of a front cord. Comes to an end in a thalamus and partially in a myelencephalon.

143. Tecto-bulbaris (Münzer) tractus (BNA), a pokryshechno-bulbar way (Myuntser), see Tectobulbaris tractus.

144. Tectobulbaris tractus (PNA, JNA), pokryshechno-bulbar way; synonym: Mün-zeri fasc., tecto-bulbaris (Münzer) tractus (BNA). Projective optical akusti-chesky reflex way. Begins from cells of top and bottom hillocks of a plate of a roof. Takes place together with a pokryshechno-spinal way in a brainstem. Comes to an end in kernels of a myelencephalon.

145. Tectospinalis tractus (PNA), pokryshechno-spinal way; synonym: longitudinalis praedorsalis fasc., tecto-spinalis tractus, tectospinales medialis et lateralis tractus (JNA). The projective bunch which is carrying out motor reaction on visual and acoustical feelings. N and-chinayetsya from cells of kernels of hillocks of a plate of a roof of a mesencephalon. Takes place in a tire where forms dorsal decussation, a brain trunk, front cords of a spinal cord. Comes to an end on cells of front horns of a spinal cord.

146. Tectospinales medialis et lateralis tractus (JNA), pokryshechno-spinal medial and lateral ways, see Tectospinalis tractus.

147. Tegmentalis centralis tractus (PNA), central pokryshechny route; synonym of tha-lamoolivaris tractus (JNA). The projective bunch relating to efferent extrapyramidal pathways. Begins from medial kernels of a thalamus. Takes place in a tire of a mesencephalon. Comes to an end on cells of the lower olivar-ny kernel.

148. Tegmenti (Guddeni) fasc., a bunch of a tire (Gudden), see Mamillotegmen-talis fasc.

149. Telencephalicus medialis fasc. (PNA), medialnyy.puchok of an end brain. Main projective bunch of a hypothalamus. Begins from cells of bark of a false share. Takes place back in a lateral gipotalamichsky field. Zakanchiva etsyatsya in medial kernels of a thalamus and kernels of a hypothalamus.

150. Temporooccipitalis fasc. (JNA), a temporal and occipital bunch, see Longitudinalis inferior fasc.

151. Temporopontinus tractus (PNA), temporal and bridge way; synonym of Turcki fasc. The projective bunch which is carrying out influence of bark on a cerebellum through kernels of the bridge. Begins from cells of bark of temporal crinkles. Passes through a podcheche-vice-figurative part of the internal capsule and through outside department of the basis of a leg of a brain. Comes to an end on cells of kernels of the bridge.

152. Temporo-thalamicus fasc., visochnotalamichesky bunch; synonym of Arnoldi fasc. The projective bunch transferring the regulating and braking influence of bark of a temporal share on a pillow of a thalamus. N and-chinayetsya from cells of bark of temporal crinkles. Takes place in the lower leg of a thalamus. Comes to an end on cells of a lower part of a pillow of a thalamus.

153. Thalamicus fasc. (PNA), thalamic bunch; synonym: Foreli fasc., Ht fasc. Projective afferent bunch of a thalamus. Begins from cells of a kernel of the field Nkh of an uncertain zone. Passes from below up and from within a knaruzha towards a thalamus. Comes to an end on cells of a peredneventralny kernel of a thalamus.

154. Thalamoeorticales fascc. (PNA), tala-mokorkovye bunches; synonym: thalamocorticales tractus (JNA), thalamo-corticales tractus. The projective bunches transferring to bark of irritation from a thalamus. Begin from cells of various kernels of a thalamus. Take place in structure of legs of a thalamus, forming front, central and back thalamic radiances. Come to an end in bark of various shares of cerebral hemispheres.

155. Thalamo-corticales tractus, talamokor-kovy ways; synonym of thalamocorticales tractus (JNA); see Thalamocorticales fascc.

156. Tbalamo-habenularis tractus, talamopovodkovy way; synonym of thalamohabenularis tractus (JNA). Associative way. Begins from cells of kernels of a thalamus. Takes place in structure of a brain strip of a thalamus. Comes to an end on cells of kernels of a lead.

157. Thalamomamillaris (Vicq d’ Azyri) fasc. (BNA), a talamosostsevidny bunch (Vick-d'azira), see Mamillothalamicus fasc.

158. Thalamoolivaris tractus (JNA), tala-moolivarny a way, see Tegmentalis centralis tractus.

159. Thomas fasc., Thomas's bunch, see Praepy-ramidalis (Thomas) fasc.

160. Triangularis fasc. (PNA), triangular bunch. The associative descending bunch. Begins from cells of a back horn of a spinal cord. Takes place in a back cord of lower parts of a spinal cord.

161. Trigeminothalamicus tractus, a trigeminal and thalamic way, see Trigemina-lis lemniscus.

162. Turcki fasc., Türk's bunch, see Temporopontinus tractus.

163. Uncinatus fasc. (PNA, JNA, BNA), ankyroid bunch. Long assotsiatsionny bunch. Begins in bark of the bottom of a frontal lobe. Passes at the level of a threshold of an island. Comes to an end in bark of a temporal share.

164. Uncinatus tractus, an ankyroid way, see Cerebello-nuclearis tractus.

165. Ventralis fasc. (JNA), ventral bunch or front cord of white matter of a spinal cord; synonym: anterior funiculus (BNA), ventralis [anterior] funiculus (PNA).

166. Vestibulospinalis tractus (PNA, JNA), preddverno-spinal way; synonym: Lo-wenthali fasc., vestibulo-spinalis tractus. Projective efferent way of extrapyramidal system. Begins from an upper vestibular nucleus. Takes place in a myelencephalon, then on the periphery of a front cord of a spinal cord. Comes to an end on cells of front horns of a spinal cord.

167. Vicq d’ Azyri fasc., a bunch Vick-d'azira, see Mamillothalamicus fasc.

168. Wallenbergi fasc., Wallenberg's bunch, see Olfacto-mesencephalicus tractus.

Fibers (fibrae)

1. Arcuatae Arnoldi fibrae, the arc-shaped fibers of Arnold, see Arcuatae cerebri fibrae.

2. Arcuatae cerebri fibrae (PNA, JNA, BNA), the arc-shaped fibers of a brain; synonym: arcuatae Arnoldi fibrae, propriae gyrorum (Meynerti) fibrae. Aseotsia-tsionny fibers. Begin from cells of bark of crinkles of cerebral hemispheres. Pass at the bottom of the furrows dividing crinkles. Come to an end in bark of the next crinkle.

3. Arcuatae externae anteriores fibrae, front outside arc-shaped fibers, see Arcuatae externae ventrales [anteriores] fibrae.

4. Arcuatae externae dorsales fibrae (JNA), back outside arc-shaped fibers, see Arcuatae externae dorsales [posteriores] fibrae.

5. Arcuatae externae dorsales [posterioresl fibrae (PNA, JNA), back outside arc-shaped fibers; synonym: arcuatae externae fibrae (PNA, JNA, BNA), arcuatae externae dorsales fibrae (JNA), bulbo-cere-bellaris tractus. Projective afferent fibers of a cerebellum. Nach inatsya from cells of thin and wedge-shaped kernels. Take place on a back surface of a myelencephalon, in the lower cerebellar legs. Come to an end in bark of a worm of a cerebellum.

6. ^rcuatae externae fibrae (PNA, JNA, BNA), outside arc-shaped fibers, see Arcuatae externae ventrales [anteriores] of et dorsales [posteriores] fibrae.

7. Arcuatae externae ventrales fibrae (JNA), ventral outside arc-shaped fibers, see Arcuatae externae ventrales [anteriores] fibrae.

8. Arcuatae externae ventrales [anteriores] fibrae (PNA), front outside arc-shaped fibers; synonym: arcuatae externae fibrae (PNA, JNA, BNA), arcuatae externae ventrales fibrae (JNA), arcuatae externae anteriores fibrae. Projective afferent fibers of a cerebellum. Begin from cells of the arc-shaped kernels of a myelencephalon. Take place on a front and side surface of a myelencephalon, in the lower cerebellar legs. Come to an end on cells of bark of a worm of a cerebellum.

9. Arcuatae internae fibrae (PNA, JNA, BNA), internal arc-shaped fibers. Projective fibers of the second neuron of a way of proprioceptive sensitivity. Begin from cells of thin and wedge-shaped kernels. Come over in a myelencephalon to the opposite side and after decussation proceed in a medial loop.

10. Cerebelloolivares fibrae (BNA), mozzhech-kovo-olive fibers, see Olivocerebella-ris tractus.

11. Cerebello-vestibulares fibrae, cerebellar and vestibular fibers. Projective efferent fibers of a cerebellum. N and - inatsya from cells of a tent of a cerebellum h. Pass through the interior of the lower cerebellar leg. Come to an end on cells of vestibular nuclei.

12. Corticonucleares fibrae, cortical and nuclear fibers. Are a part of a korkovoyaderny way. Are located in the basis of legs of a brain, the forefront of the bridge and in pyramids of a myelencephalon.

13. Corticopontinae fibrae (PNA), korkovomostovy fibers. Are a part of cortical and bridge ways. Are located in the basis of legs of a brain.

14. Corticoreticulares fibrae (PNA), cortical and reticular fibers. The projective fibers which are carrying out bonds between a cerebral cortex and a reticular formation. Begin from cells of bark of cerebral hemispheres. Pass through the internal capsule. Come to an end on cells of a reticular formation of a brainstem.

15. Corticorubrales fibrae (PNA), korkovokrasnoyaderny fibers, synonym: cortico-teg-mentalis tractus, corticotegmentalis tractus (JNA). The projective fibers which are carrying out communication between bark of cerebral hemispheres and a mesencephalon. N and-chinayutsya from cells of bark a frontal, temporal and occipital lobe of cerebral hemispheres. Pass through the internal capsule. Come to an end on kernels of a tire of a mesencephalon (a red kernel).

16. Corticospinales fibrae (PNA), korkovospinnomozgovy fibers. Are a part of cortical and spinal ways. Are located in the basis of legs of a brain, the forefront of the bridge and pyramids of a myelencephalon.

17. Corticotectales fibrae (PNA), korkovopokryshechny fibers; synonym: cortico-tecta-lis tractus, corticotectalis tractus (JNA). The projective bunch transferring an impulse from bark to cells of top and bottom hillocks. Begin an occipital and temporal share of cerebral hemispheres from cells of bark. Pass through a sublenticular part of the internal capsule. Come to an end on cells of top and bottom hillocks of a roof of a mesencephalon.

18. Corticothalamicae fibrae (PNA), kortiko-thalamic fibers, see Cortico-thalamici fascc.

19. Dentatorubrales fibrae (PNA), zubchatokrasnoyaderny fibers, see Cerebellorub-ralis tractus.

20. Frontopontinae fibrae, frontal and bridge fibers. Are a part of cortical and bridge ways. Are located in the basis of legs of a brain.

21. Interpedunculares fibrae (PNA), intercrural fibers. Connect the right and left intercrural kernels, are a part of epitalamichesky (back) commissure.

22. Interpulvinares fibrae, mezhpodushkovy (interpulvinarny) fibers. Connect kernels of pillows of a thalamus, are a part of epitalamichesky (back) commissure.

23. Intrathalamicae fibrae (PNA), intra-thalamic fibers. Carry out communication between kernels of a thalamus. Take place in limits of a thalamus.

24. Nuclei caudati fibrae, fibers of a kernel having a tail. Projective fibers of extrapyramidal system. Begin from cells of a kernel having a tail. Pass through the internal capsule. Come to an end on cells of a lenticular kernel, kernels of a thalamus and a hypothalamus.

25. Parietotemporopontinae fibrae (PNA), parietal and temporal and bridge fibers. Are a part of cortical and bridge ways. Are located in the basis of legs of a brain.

26. Periventriculares fibrae (PNA), perch-ventrikulyarny fibers. Carry out bonds between a striate body, medial kernels of a thalamus and kernels of a hypothalamus; their participation in integration of vegetative and somatic functions is supposed. Pass on a lateral wall of the third ventricle between an ependyma and kernels of a hypothalamus.

27. Pontis longitudinal is fibrae (PNA), longitudinal fibers of the bridge. Are a part cortical stsinnomozgovykh and cortical and nuclear ways. Are located in a front (basilar) part of the bridge.

28. Pontis profundae fibrae (JNA, BNA), deep fibers of the bridge, see Pontis trans-versae fibrae.

29. Pontis superficiales fibrae (JNA, BNA), surface fibers of the bridge, see Pontis transversae fibrae.

30. Pontis transversae fibrae (PNA), cross fibers of the bridge, synonym of pontis profundae et superficiales fibrae (BNA, JNA). The projective fibers transferring an impulse from a cerebral cortex on a cerebellum through kernels of the bridge. Begin from cells of kernels of the bridge. Take place cross in a front (basilar) part of the bridge, and then pass into average cerebellar legs. Come to an end on cells of bark of a cerebellum.

31. Pontocerebellares fibrae (PNA); mostomozzhechkovy fibers; synonym: ponto-cerebel-laris tractus, pontocerebel laris tractus (JNA). Projective afferent fibers of a cerebellum. Begin in kernels of the bridge. Pass, crossing, in average cerebellar legs. Come to an end in bark of hemispheres of a cerebellum.

32. Proprii gyrorum (Meynerti) fibrae, own fibers of crinkles (Meynert), see Arcuatae cerebri fibrae.

33. Pyramidales fibrae (PNA), pyramidal fibers; synonym of pyramidalis fasc. Are a part of tractus corticospinalis (pyramidalis) of lateralis' and tractus corticospinalis (pyramidalis) ventralis [anterior] at the level of a brain trunk.

34. Striae terminalis fibrae (PNA), fibers of a terminal strip. Projective efferent fibers of an amygdaloid nucleus. Begin from cells of a basal and lateral part of an amygdaloid nucleus and the front amygdaloid field. Pass between a kernel having a tail and a thalamus. Come to an end on cells of a precommissural partition, the predzri-telny field, kernels of front hypothalamic area and a lead *

35. Striarum medullarium fibrae (JNA), fibers of brain strips of the third and fourth ventricles.

36. Strio-hypothalamicae fibrae, striogi-potalamichesky fibers. Projective efferent fibers of a striate body. Begin in cells of a pale sphere. Pass through the internal capsule. Come to an end on cells of kernels of a hypothalamus.

37. Strio-nigrae fibrae, strionigralny fibers. Projective efferent fibers of a striate body. Begin from cells of a pale sphere. Pass through the internal capsule. Come to an end in black substance of a mesencephalon.

38. Strio-rubrae fibrae, striokrasnoyader-ny fibers. Projective efferent fibers of a striate body. N and h and on-yu t with I from cells of a pale sphere. Take place in the internal capsule. Come to an end on cells of a red kernel.

39. Strio-tbalamicae fibrae, striotalami-chesky fibers. The projective fibers connecting a striate body with a thalamus. Begin from cells of a pale sphere. Pass through the internal capsule. Come to an end in ventro-lateral kernels of a thalamus.

40. Temporopontinae fibrae (PNA), temporal and bridge fibers. Are a part of a temporal and bridge way. Are located in a back leg of the internal capsule.

41. Thalamoparietales fibrae (PNA), tala-motemennye of fiber. Sensitive projective fibers. Begin from cells of lateral kernels of a thalamus. Take place in a back leg of the internal capsule. Come to an end on cells of bark of a postcentral crinkle in a parietal lobe.

42. Vestibulo-cerebellares fibrae, preddver-but-cerebellar fibers. Projective afferent fibers of a cerebellum. Begin from cells of a lateral vestibular nucleus Take place in the lower vgoz-zhechkovy leg. Come to an end in bark of a worm of a cerebellum.

43. Vestibulo-oculomotoriae fibrae, before - door and oculomotor fibers. The projective fibers which are carrying out bonds between kernels of a brain trunk. N and - inatsya from cells of vestibular nuclei h. Take place in structure of a back longitudinal bunch. Come to an end on cells of kernels of oculomotor and block nerves on average a brain and the taking-away nerve in the bridge.

Commissures (commissurae)

1. Alba anterior commissura (BNA), front white commissure, see Alba commissura.

2. Alba commissura (PNA), white commissure of a spinal cord; synonym: alba anterior commissura (BNA), ventralis alba commissura (JNA). It is formed by the crossing fibers going from one half of a spinal cord to another.

3. Anterior commissura (PNA), front commissure, see Rostralis [anterior] commissura.

4. Basi alis commissura (JNA), basal commissure, see Supraoptica ventralis commissura.

5. Caudalis commissura (JNA), tail commissure, see Epithalamica [posterior] commissura.

6. Cerebri magna commissura, the biggest commissure of a brain, see Corpus callosum.

7. Colliculorum caudalium [inferiorum] commissura (PNA), commissure of the lower hillocks. Connects kernels of the lower hillocks of the right and left parties It is located in a plate of a roof of a mesencephalon.

8. Colliculorum cranialium [superiorum] commissura (PNA), commissure of upper hillocks. Connects gray layers of upper hillocks of the right and left parties. It is located in a plate of a roof of a mesencephalon.

9. Corpus callosum (PNA, JNA, BNA), corpus collosum; synonym of cerebri magna commi-sura. Is the komissuralny fibers connecting parts of new bark of the right and left cerebral hemispheres.

10. Dorsalis commissura (JNA), dorsal commissure, see Supraoptica dorsalis commissura.

11. Epithalamica [posterior] commissura (PNA), epitalamichesky (back) commissure; synonym: caudalis commissura (JNA), posterior (cerebri) commissura (BNA). Is the komissuralny fibers connecting kernels of a mesencephalon, and also a kernel of the right and left pillows of a thalamus. It is located in the field of an epithalamus, participates in formation of a back wall of the third ventricle.

12. Fornicis commissura (PNA), commissure of the fornix; synonym of hippocampi commissura (BNA). Is the komissuralny fibers beginning from bark of medial surfaces of cerebral hemispheres and a hippocampus and which are coming over to other side.

13. Habenularum commissura (PNA, BNA), commissure of leads; synonym of pinealis commissura (JNA). Is the komissuralny fibers connecting kernels of leads of the right and left parties. It is located in an epithalamus.

14. Hippocampi commissura (BNA), commissure of a hippocampus, see Fornicis commissura. 15/Inferior (Guddeni) commissura (BNA), the lower commissure (Guddena), see Supraoptica ventralis commissura.

16. Pinealis commissura (JNA), strobiloid commissure, see Habenularum commissura.

17. Posterior (cerebri) commissura (BNA), back commissure, see Epithalamica [posterior] commissura.

18. Rostralis fanterior] commissura (PNA), front commissure; synonym: anterior commissura (PNA), rostralis commissura (JNA). Connects parts of bark of the right and left side of a rhinencephalon; forms a front wall of the third ventricle.

19. Rostralis commissura (JNA), rostral commissure, see Rostralis Lanterior] commissura.

20. Superior (Meynerti) commissura (BNA), upper commissure (Meynerta), see Supraoptica dorsalis commissura.

21. Supraoptica dorsalis commissura (PNA), dorsal supraoptic commissure; synonym: dorsalis commissura (JNA), superior (Meynerti) commissura (BNA). Begins from kernels of a lateral loop, goes forward and dorsalny visual decussation comes over to other side. 3 and-kanchivayetsya on cells of kernels of a medial cranked body and partially on upper hillocks of a plate of a roof.

22. Supraoptica ventralis commissura (PNA), ventral supraoptic commissure; synonym: basialis commissura (JNA), inferior (Guddeni) commissura (BNA). The yarn lying ventralny visual decussation and connecting among themselves medial cranked bodies and the lower hillocks of a plate of a roof of the right and left parties.

23. Ventralis alba commissura, ventral white commissure, see Alba commissura.

Loops (ansae, lemnisci)

1. Cruralis ansa (PNA, JNA), a nozhkovy loop, see Peduncularis ansa.

2. Lenticularis ansa (PNA, JNA, BNA), lenticular loop. Treats conduction paths of extrapyramidal system. It is formed by the fibers beginning from cells of a lenticular kernel, going to a thalamus, a hypothalamus, a red kernel and a reticular formation of a mesencephalon and also the fibers going from these kernels to a lenticular kernel. It is located at a ventral surface of a pale sphere.

3. Peduncularis ansa (PNA, BNA), nozhkovy loop; synonym of cruralis ansa (JNA). System of fibers of a hypothalamus. Images of An and the fibers covering a leg of a brain in front at the place where it is hidden in substance of a brain. Takes place in a podche-chevitseobrazny part of the internal capsule»

4. Acusticus lemniscus (BNA), an acoustical loop, see' Lateralis lemniscus.

5. Lateralis lemniscus (PNA, JNA), lateral (acoustical) loop; synonym: lemnisci lateralis (acustici) tractus (JNA), acusticus lemniscus (BNA). System of fibers of an acoustical way. Begins from cells of front and back cochlear kernels. Takes place in a lateral part of a tire of a brainstem. Comes to an end on cells of the lower hillocks of a plate of a roof and cells of a medial cranked body.

6. Medialis lemniscus (PNA, JNA), medial loop (sensitive); synonym: bulbo-thalamicus tractus, bulbothalamicus tractus (JNA), lemnisci medialis tractus (JNA), medialis (sensitivus) lemniscus (BNA). Projective fibers of proprioceptive sensitivity. Begins from cells of thin and wedge-shaped kernels of a myelencephalon. Takes place in a tire of the bridge and a mesencephalon. 3 and-kanchivayetsya in lateral kernels of a thalamus.

7. Medialis (sensitivus) lemniscus (BNA), a medial (sensitive) loop, see Medialis lemniscus.

8. Spinalis lemniscus (PNA), spinal loop. Projective fibers painful and thermoesthesia. N and-chinayetsya from cells of back horns of a spinal cord. Takes place in a tire of the bridge and a mesencephalon near a medial loop. Comes to an end in lateral kernels of a thalamus.

9. Trigeminalis lemniscus (PNA), trigeminal loop; synonym of trigeminothalamicus tractus. Projective fibers of a sensitive way of a trifacial. Begins from cells of sensitive kernels of a trifacial. Takes place in a tire of the bridge and a mesencephalon near a medial loop. Comes to an end in lateral kernels of a thalamus.

Radiances (radiationes)

1. Acustica radiatio (PNA), acoustical radiance; synonym of geniculocorticalis (cochlearis) tractus (JNA). Begins in a medial cranked body. Comes to an end in cells of bark of an upper temporal crinkle. System of fibers of an acoustical way.

2. Corona radiata (PNA, JNA, BNA), radiate crown. The projective fibers dispersing from the internal capsule towards a cerebral cortex.

3. Corporis callosi radiatio (PNA, JNA, BNA), radiance of a corpus collosum. It is formed by the fibers of a corpus collosum dispersing to all departments of new bark.

4. Corporis striati radiatio (JNA, BNA), radiance of a striate body. It is formed by the fibers of cells of bark of extrapyramidal areas going to N to letka of kernels of a striate body.

5. Occipitothalamica (Gratioleti) radiatio (BNA), occipital and thalamic (Grasio-le) radiance, see Optica radiatio.

6. Optica radiatio (PNA, JNA), visual radiance; synonym: geniculocorticalis tractus occipitothalamica (Gratioleti) radiatio (BNA), pulvinocorticalis (radiationis opticae) of tractus (Jl^A). System of fibers of a visual way. Begin from cells of a lateral cranked body and a pillow of a thalamus. Come to an end on cells of bark of a shporny furrow.

7. Thalamicae anteriores radiationes (PNA), front thalamic radiances. Are formed by the fibers going from a front thalamus through a front leg of the internal capsule to bark of a frontal lobe and the fibers going from bark of a frontal lobe to a thalamus.

8. Thalamicae centrales radiationes (PNA), central thalamic radiances. Are formed by the fibers going from medial and lateral kernels of a thalamus to bark before - and postcentral crinkles and from bark of these crinkles to kernels of a thalamus. Take place in a back leg of the internal capsule.

9. Thalamicae posteriores radiationes (PNA), back thalamic radiances. Are formed by the fibers going from cells of bark a temporal and occipital share to ventral and medial kernels of a thalamus, the fibers of cells of bark of back department a parietal and occipital lobe which are going to a pillow of a thalamus, passing in a zachechevitseobrazny part of the internal capsule.

10. Tractus optici radiationes (JNA), radiances of a visual tract, medial and lateral roots, on which raskho '-ditsya a visual tract.

Bibliography: Bekhterev V. M. Conduction paths back and a brain, p.1 — 2, SPb., 1896 — 1898; Green matte A. M. Ways and centers of a nervous system, M., 1946; Dzugayeva S. B, Conduction paths of a brain of the person, M., 1975; The Multivolume guide to neurology, under the editorship of N. I. Grashchenko-va, t. 1, book 2, page 175, M., 1957; Sarkisov S.A. Sketches on structure and function of a brain, M., 1964; Turygin V. V. Conduction paths of a head and spinal cord, Omsk, 1977; Clara M. Das Nervensystem des Menschen, Lpz., 1959.

E. A. Vorobyova, E. P. Kononova.

Яндекс.Метрика