CONCENTRATES FOOD — the mixes of preferential dry, crushed products prepared for instant food. For receiving To. items exempt products from inedible parts, crush, subject to culinary and thermal treatment and dry up. During the cooking To. items boil with water within 10 — 20 min. To. items differ in the high content of feedstuffs in small volume, storage stability (can be stored without signs of damage within a year and more). These properties K. items formed the basis for their wide use in field conditions and when delivery and storage of fresh food stuffs are complicated. As products of mass consumption To. items were widely adopted also in house conditions, and also in public catering at preparation of dietary dishes.
The predecessor modern To. the item is meat powder — pemikan which began to be applied for the first time in 18 century. Further expansion of the range To. the item went through production of various food powders — fish meal, powders from dry vegetables and mushrooms. Broad development production To. received the item in Germany and Austria. In the 90th 19 century in Germany several enterprises for production worked To. item. In World War I To. items were widely used in armies of the Austro-German
block and in the French army. Upon termination of World War I intensive increase in production begins To. the item in Europe, Japan and especially in the USA. In the USSR production To. began the item in 1932 and for short term gained considerable development. So, in 1936 the range To. the item contained more than 20 names. By 1970. To. the item only of lunch dishes made more than 300 names.
The main dignity. - a gigabyte. requirements imposed to packaging To. items, provide absence as a part of film and other packing materials of the toxic and harmful substances passing into food or foodstuff, an exception of adverse influence of packing material on organoleptic properties of foodstuff. Permission to use of materials for packaging of foodstuff, including. To. the item, gives M3 of the USSR. Further responsibility for quality and compliance of GOST or TU of the released packing materials bears manufacturer, and control is exercised by bodies of a sanepidsluzhba.
By production of packaging means for To. items use various film materials from group of polyolefins, polyethylene of various density, polypropylene and other modified brands of these polymers, from group of polyvinylchloride — viniplast, plastic compounds, etc., from group of polystyrenes — usual polystyrenes, copolymers, etc.
By drawing up compoundings To. the item is paid special attention to balance of the feedstuffs which are their part providing food and biol, value.
Depending on appointment, a compounding and other properties numerous types To. the items issued by the food industry it is possible to divide into the following basic groups: 1) lunch dishes; 2) dry breakfasts; 3) baby and dietary food; 4) milk To. item and 5) food dressers.
Concentrates of lunch dishes represent the mixes of products made with the maximum approach on all indicators to the dishes prepared from fresh foodstuff according to the standard compoundings of modern cookery. Such dishes of a vysokopitatelna, caloric content them are averaged by 350 kcal in 100 g of a product, protein content of 10 — 15%, fat — 10 — 12%; humidity To. the item vegetable shall not exceed 12%, groat — 10%. By production To. items of lunch dishes are widely used dry products, dry meat and meat powder, dry cepes and mushroom powder, dry onions and onions powder, etc. For ensuring high flavoring properties of lunch dishes protein hydrolyzates and other flavoring substances are entered into their structure glyutamat sodium. For the best keeping To. the item of lunch dishes and protection of the fat which is their part from oxidation, rancidification and damage is used the special fatty complex consisting of melted beef fat of the superior quality, cooking fat with t°pl 34 — 36,5 °, confectionery fat with t°pl 32 — 36,5 °, etc. To. items of the third dishes include fruktovoyagodny kissels, mousses and jelly; milk To. the item — kissel, creams, jelly, etc.; candy stores — custards, puddings dessert, cakes, cakes, etc. Chemical structure and caloric value of some lunch dishes are given in tab. 1. Dry breakfasts include big group of a peculiar highly nourishing, digestible foodstuff (tab. 2).
Oat products — oat flour and flakes Hercules the most known types To. item. They treat products raised biol, values. Protein content in them makes 13 — 14%. Proteins of oats include all vital, irreplaceable amino acids (some deficit is noted only concerning a lysine). Oat products are sharply allocated according to contents and quality of the fat. The amount of fat in oat products makes 6% that is 3 — 4 times more, than in wheaten and other grain crops.
Fat of oat products differs high biol, value. It contains a significant amount of lecithin and polyunsaturated fat to - t. Oat flakes Oat-flakes prepare from grits of the premium by steaming, a flattening on valtsevy machines and the subsequent drying. They quickly boil soft, get a soft gentle consistence. Oat flour prepares from the peeled oats subjected to heat and enzymatic treatment, drying and crushing. As a result of such processing a part of starch passes into a dextrin and a maltose, a part of proteins — in a soluble state.
Corn flakes represent corn grits, uvarenny with sugar and salt, processed in special cars and fried in gas furnaces. Humidity of flakes shall not exceed 6%.
Corn sticks the ready for application product prepared by special cars from the small corn grits enriched with flavoring substances — sugar, cinnamon, vanillin, etc. Humidity of sticks shall not exceed 5 — 6%.
To. items air (the blown-up grains) prepare from corn or wheat groats, and also from rice in the special device, in Krom of a croup is exposed to heat treatment under big pressure. When pressure reaches necessary level, open a lock of the device and steam in grain, instantly extending, blows up grain, several times increasing its volume (approximately by 10 times). Humidity of the blown-up grains shall not exceed 8%.
Milk To. items combine big group of dry dairy products (tab. 3) which differ in high nutrition value, stability in storage, and also good restorability at addition of water. So, e.g., the milk which is dried up on the spray drier keeps the chemical structure without essential change, and solubility makes it 98%.
Milk To. items are replenished with new types of products, such as dry serum, dry buttermilk, various yogurts, etc. K K. items belong the milk protein concentrates intended for their addition in others To. the item for the purpose of correction of chemical structure, increase food and biol, the value (tab. 2). These are caseinates, kazetsita, soy food protein, etc. Proteinaceous To. items are intended for enrichment by protein, and also for correction of amino-acid structure. Other dressers are intended for high-quality improvement of a fatty component. Treat fatty dressers a concentrate fosfatidny sunflower and a concentrate fosfatidny food soy (tab. 2). Addition of fatty dressers considerably raises biol, the value of a fatty part and product in general. At introduction of fatty dressers in To. the item increases the content of phosphatides and polyunsaturated fat to - t.
Food concentrates for children are issued in the form of powder blends of previously prepared products with addition or without addition of sugar and vitamins and intend first of all for children of chest age. Raw materials for production of dry nutritious blends is whole milk, high-quality grain, sugar, creamy and vegetable oils, eggs and other foodstuff.
Food concentrates for baby food can be divided into 2 groups.
Dairy products for feeding of babies enter into the first group (main): the adapted milk mixes Baby and Kid; mixes milk with buckwheat, rice, oat broths — the Robust fellow; mixes milk with buckwheat, rice, oat and wheat flour — Health. Milk whole milk, condensed milk without sugar can be used in food of children years in the absence of genuine milk are more senior.
The products from flour and grain intended for a feeding up of babies and food of children of more advanced age concern to the second group: dry broths from grain (rice, oat, buckwheat); the flour vitaminized buckwheat and rice for baby food; porridges milk (semolina, buckwheat, rice); milk kissel; the dry enriched porridges from semolina or flour of other grain. For preparation of the enriched porridges the basis of the mix Kid is used.
The mixes Baby and Kid prepare from the same milk basis, but differ on composition of carbohydrates and salts. The mix Baby is intended for feeding newborn, premature and children of the first two months of life. The mix Kid is intended for food of children from 2 months to 1 year (see. Milk mixes ). The recovered mixes Robust fellow and Health can be used for the mixed and artificial feeding of children of the first 3 months of life.
Dry blends are prepared according to special recipes with strict observance tekhnol. and dignity. the mode also package according to appointment. For child care facilities in large packaging: broths weighing 1 — 3 kg in two-layer paper packages of an internal paper package from parchment; milk mixes, semolina porridges, milk kissels, flour mixes weighing from 1 to 3 kg — in a rigid container. For individual consumption of mix are released in small packaging: in two-layer paper packages, in cardboard boxes, in boxes with a metal bottom and a cover and in cans with an internal paper package weighing 150, 250, 300, 500 g.
The packaged products are made out by colourful labels on which the name, a compounding, date of development, data on nutrition value and chemical structure of products with the indication of use, a way of preparation, and also the term and rules of storage is specified.
Nutritious mixes for children are stored in the pure, dry and well ventilated room at relative humidity of air no more than 70% and temperature not higher than 20 °. A warranty period of storage from the moment of release of 6 months.
Food concentrates in food of astronauts are used as a part of onboard diets along with other products (canned food, bakery and confectionery) or applied to completing of all diet completely. To. items at preservation of high nutritiousness of products allow to lose significantly the starting weight and volume of the caches placed in spaceships. In the flights made in the USSR and the USA were applied To. item of two types: ready for application directly from packaging and demanding preliminary recovery by cold or hot water (regidratation). To. the item of modern diets of astronauts — dry blends of natural foodstuff and flavoring additives. Products crush and dehydrate up to 4 — 8% of humidity. For enrichment of a compounding it is possible to use synthetic drugs of vitamins, amino acids and glucose. For the purpose of prevention of rancidification of fats add antioxidants (see. Antioxidants ). To. items, ready for application, consist usually of mix of the products dehydrated by method of thermal drying is more rare by sublimation, crushed and then pressed under pressure of 20 — 40 kg/cm2 in the form of small briquettes.
For prevention of formation of crumbs which in zero gravity can float on a cabin briquettes are given the corresponding form and they become covered by a protective edible film. The film is produced from soluble in saliva and easily digested substances (gelatin, starch, etc.) which are a component To. item. Briquettes pack into such film or apply it on a surface of a briquette. Briquettes To. items on 8 — 10 pieces pack into packages from a polymer film and vacuumize for an exception of contact with oxygen of the environment. Vacuumization of packages protects them from destruction at change of pressure of a gaseous fluid in the ship and even its depressurizations. In diets of the Soviet astronauts during the flights of the ships «Union» and «Salute» were applied To. the item from cottage cheese and biscuits with fillers, cakes, creamy concentrates, chocolate refractory with sugar. Caloric content of 100 g of a product from 396 to 520 kcal, moisture content of 4 — 8%, safety of 9 — 12 months. In the USA during the flights of the Mercury ships were used To. the item in the form of cubes and tablets to dia. 2,5 cm: the tablets of milk processed by malt; mixes of breadstuff.
To. items of the second look before the use recover water. They are issued in the form of the powdery or bricketed mixes which are dried up by method of sublimation and are packed under vacuum into film packages of a special design of the valve for administration of water and the device for meal (directly from a package or by means of a spoon). Cold or hot water depending on a type of a product is entered by means of portioning devices. After contact with water and hashing To. items turn out ready for application first and second courses, drinks, desserts, snack.
At the Soviet Salute space stations were successfully used regidratiruyemy To. item of sublimation drying: the rassolnik with meat, beef for roasting with mashed potatoes, pork with sweet pepper, juice blackcurrant with myakotyo, drink from ice cream, coffee with sugar, etc. E.g., with sweet pepper weighing 40 g contains in pork 14,8 g of protein, 8,4 g of fat, 10,9 g of carbohydrates and 1,4 g of water.
Table 1 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CALORIC CONTENT of SOME FOOD CONCENTRATES of LUNCH DISHES
Table 2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CALORIC CONTENT of FOOD CONCENTRATES of DRY BREAKFASTS AND MILK PROTEIN CONCENTRATES
Table 3. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CALORIC CONTENT of MILK FOOD CONCENTRATES
Bibliography: Boxes on G. S. Products of baby food, M., 1970; Philosophy of food of children and teenagers, under the editorship of E. M. Fateeva and T. S. Nevska, M., 1974, bibliogr.; Fundamentals of bioastronautics and medicine, under the editorship of O. G. Gazenko and M. Calvin, t. 3, page 35, M., 1975, bibliogr.; Pet r about a century and y K. S. Gigiyena of food, page 203, M., 1975; P about to r about in with to and y A. A. Fiziologo-bio-himicheskiye bases of development of products of baby food, M., 1972, bibliogr.; The reference book on a children's dietetics, under the editorship of I. M. Vorontsov and And. 13. Mazurina, L., 1977; Chemical composition of foodstuff, under the editorship of. A. A, Pokrovsky, M., 1976.
K. S. Petrovsky; E. M. Fateeva (pediat.), I. G. Ponov (tousle.).