COMPLETE MILITARY-MEDICAL EQUIPMENT — the most representative group of field medical equipment consisting of the first-aid kits, bags, sets and sets intended for problem solving of medical support of troops and operational supply of divisions, parts and institutions medical property (see).
Set it is accepted to call the range of medical property which is picked up for rendering a certain volume of medical aid by the wounded and patient or for equipment funkts, divisions of first-aid posts of military units, the ships, and also field medical institutions and laid in a laying container.
Experience of last wars showed advantage of supply with sets of medical property in comparison with supply with piece objects. Thanks to sets formation and expansion of first-aid posts and funkts is facilitated, divisions of various military-medical institutions, convenience of reclamation, transportation and storage of medical property in field conditions is created. Only by means of sets efficiency in delivery of medical property in the centers mass a dignity can be reached. losses.
Formation of sets is made according to the inventory and the established requirements. Pharmaceuticals and other property which is subject to an investment in sets shall be checked and have long terms of storage. Medicines with limited periods of validity in peace time in sets are not put or stored in sets in limited quantity. Surgical instruments for protection from corrosion before an investment in sets are exposed to preservation. The property which is in sets in process of the expiration of shelf-lifes is replaced with new. Depending on purpose of sets their contents are located in a container of repeated use — laying boxes, bags which were called medical laying earlier, or in a container disposable — plywood boxes, cardboard boxes, etc. The laying container shall protect property from dust, moisture, bruises and losses, and their design to provide bystry finding of a necessary subject that is reached by use in a container of nests, drawers with cells, removable lattices, trays, etc. The majority of sets is placed in laying boxes of three types: No. 1 (big), No. 2 (small) and No. 3 (laboratory).
The laboratory box is used not only as a laying container, but also as a table for expansion of a workplace during the performance of medical researches to lay down. procedures, pharmaceutical works. Laying boxes are produced from a tree, have a metal fringing, are painted in khaki. Some types of a laying container make of metal or fabric. On walls of a laying container the sign — a red cross is put the established size.
The sets of medical property intended to hl. obr. for expansion and work of divisions of first-aid posts and field medical institutions (the operating room, a dressing room, laboratory, a drugstore, etc.), are called functional. They contain both account, and inventory objects. Sets of a special purpose (fighting providing) contain hl. obr. the account objects which are required in large numbers during the rendering medical aid and treatment of wounded and patients during fighting.
Distinguish functional sets for rendering pre-medical, the first the medical, qualified and specialized medical aid. By the form the works performed with their help sets subdivide on surgical, therapeutic, laboratory, pharmaceutical, etc.
Sets of medical property are available in armies of many countries of the world. In the Russian army they are known from the middle of 17 century when in campaigns the imperial drugstore in four laying, and since the end of 17 century undertook. pharmaceutical order (see) practiced mailing on regiments of laying with medicines and other medical property. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1768 — 1774 for supply of troops with medicines each army had a field drugstore from where the medicines completed and packed into laying on the system installed in army went in divisional, and then in regimental drugstores, thus portable stocks of medical property for drugstores were formed. On supply of Red Army the first sets of medical property were accepted in 1922.
In process of improvement of medical providing troops, creation of new models of equipping, development of new pharmaceuticals changes in 1929, 1934, 1936, 1939, 1940, and also in the period of the Great Patriotic War and in post-war years were made to sets. A big contribution to system development To. century - the m of the lake were brought by scientists of Army medical college and organizers of military-medical supply P. M. Zhuravlev, K. D. Timankov, And. P. Hrenov, S. P. Shavtsov, V. A. Kuryerov, etc.
The sets of medical property consisting on equipment of the Soviet Army and Navy correspond to tasks of military-medical service, the level of development of medical science, the equipment and the industry of the country. About complete military-medical equipment it is possible to make representation on the example of the following sets.
Set «medical assistant's» (fig. 1). It is intended for rendering the pre-medical help to the wounded burned, struck with ionizing radiation, toxic agents and bacterial means. Contains antidotes, soothing, cardiovascular means, respiratory analeptics, solution of ammonia and iodine in ampoules, radio protective agent, antibiotics, etc., surgical instruments (scissors, tweezers, a styptic clip), a knife garden, syringes in cases sterilizers, styptic plaits, medical thermometers, etc. Laying — a special metal box with a folding little table.
Set «dressing means sterile». It is intended for imposing of bandages by the wounded and burned. Contains sterile bandage, purified cotton, medical bandages and gauze napkins, and also compresseal cotton wool, medical kerchiefs for bandages.
Set of «tire». It is intended for a transport immobilization of changes at wounded. Contains ladder, plywood and other tires for an immobilization of extremities and the tire for an immobilization of a mandible at changes.
Set «dressing means sterile for burned». It is intended for imposing of bandages on the extensive burned body surfaces. Contains a sterile dressing material and the sterile fixing planimetric bandages of various sizes.
Set «out-patient clinic dressing room». It is counted on rendering the first medical assistance. Contains the pharmaceuticals and medical and medical objects necessary for conducting outpatient appointment.
Set «dressing room big». It is intended for expansion of a dressing room. Contains various surgical instruments in the form of big and small dressing sets, pharmaceuticals and medical and medical objects.
Set «reception and sorting». It is used for expansion of priyemnosortirovochny department. It is counted on rendering the first medical assistance. Contains small dressing set, medical and medical objects, a suture material and pharmaceuticals.
Set «drugstore out-patient clinic». It is intended for rendering the first medical assistance, conducting outpatient appointment and equipment of a drugstore of a regimental first-aid post. Contains generally pharmaceuticals in the form of ready dosage forms, some inventory and account medical and medical and pharmaceutical objects for preparation of simple dosage forms.
Set «the general medicines». Contains various pharmaceuticals for production from them in drugstores of medical institutions of dosage forms. Laying of a set is used for expansion of an assistant table (fig. 2).
Set «surgical medicines». Contains glucose, sodium chloride, novocaine of which in drugstores of medical institutions solutions for injections, the alcohol, an Aether anaesthesicus and other pharmaceuticals used in surgery are made.
Set «a drugstore - assistant». Contains the pharmaceutical inventory and account objects necessary for preparation of powders, ointments, solutions for internal and external use, napr, scales with the weight, mortars with a pestle, pallets, the tool for removal of caps from penicillinic bottles, kapsulatorka and other objects. Laying of a set is used for expansion of an assistant table.
Set «an injection drugstore». Contains pharmaceutical inventory objects, including the filter pharmaceutical field, the scales, weights, beakers etc. providing in combination with other pharmaceutical sets preparation of injection solutions of novocaine, sodium chloride, glucose, etc.
Set «operating room big». It is intended for rendering the qualified surgical help (see. the Qualified medical care ) wounded and burned in full that is provided with surgical instruments which contain in big and small operational sets, and also the medical and medical objects, devices, syringes and other objects which are available in a set.
Set «antibiotics». Contains the most known modern antibiotics applied to treatment of wounded and patients.
Set «medicines». It is intended for rendering the first medical assistance by the wounded and burned. Contains pharmaceuticals, surgical gloves, silk, a catgut and other objects.
Set «dental surgery». It is intended for rendering the dental help. Contains pharmaceuticals, dental mirrors, tools for sealing and removal of a dental calculus, tips to a drill, tooth nippers and other dental surgery objects and accessories. Together with a set the combined drill and a marching dental surgery chair are given.
There is some other sets which contents (tool kit and devices, pharmaceuticals) provide carrying out difficult surgical interventions, napr, to skull, breast, abdominal organs, bones and joints operation.
Bibliography: Military-medical preparation, under the editorship of D. D. Kuvshinsky, M., 1978; The Grant on medical supply of Red Army, under the editorship of P. M. Zhuravlev and K. D. Timankov, M., 1944; Encyclopaedic dictionary of military medicine, t. 2, Art. 1395, M., 1947.
L. D. Ryabykh.