From Big Medical Encyclopedia

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY — the section of anatomy studying patterns of a structure and development of animal organisms and their bodies in the course of evolution from the lowest forms to the highest by comparison of animal various systematic groups. Page and. helps to understand history of development of a human body.

Proofs of historical succession of living beings, their evolutionary development are based on existence of the general plan of a structure of bodies and existence of bodies related by origin (see. Homologous bodies ). Modern interpretation of a homology in fauna is guided by laws of heredity. Thus, comparative and anatomic proofs of evolution connected with genetic that promoted deeper justification of theory of evolution (see. Theory of evolution ).

Thanks to the facts which are saved up by S. and., the statement about eternity once of the created nature was disproved, the reasons and ways of transformation of bodies and organisms of animals are opened, existence is explained rudimental organs (see) and anomalies of development of bodies.

S.'s origin and. as sciences connect with a name of the Ancient Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle who offered the first scientific systematics of animals. More perfect classification was created in Renaissance. The experimental direction in anatomy, A. Vezaly was a founder to-rogo, promoted accumulation of extensive actual material, its streamlining and systematization. Such work was undertaken by K. Linney, merits to-rogo are highly estimated by F. Engels. Big contribution to S.'s development and. Zh. Kyuvye, Geoffroi St E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Ge. Lamarck, Owen (V. brought Owen), etc. S.'s achievements and. in many respects predetermined creation of theory of evolution, the major provisions a cut are formulated by Ch. Darwin (1859). The Russian scientists A. O. Kowalewski, I. I. Mechnikov, and then A. N. Severtsov, I. I. Shmalgauzen and others used the latest opening in the field of historical interrelations in the nature for knowledge morfol. patterns of evolution of animals. On the other hand, theory of evolution helped S.'s transition and. from idealistic positions on a position of dialectic materialism.

Main argument of S. and. in protection of theory of evolution — existence of homologous bodies — is guided by the law of causality, on a dialectic community of structure and function. The method of comparison standard in S. and., gives the chance to allocate similar and homologous bodies. The bodies similar for function, but not having genetic relationship are called similar (e.g., a wing of a bird and a wing of a butterfly). Subject of studying of S. and. homologous bodies, externally various, but having related origin as on their example it is easy to track historical (iredkovy) links are. Anatomic distinctions of such bodies (e.g., flippers of a whale and a hand of the person) are prichinno caused by ecological conditions. Time of emergence of these distinctions can be determined, and the circumstances which caused the corresponding deviations can be precisely defined. Comparing a structure of an upper extremity (hand) of the person and a front extremity of a monkey, researchers establish existence of the same bones in a skeleton, an identical arrangement of muscles, vessels and nerves. In spite of the fact that the hand of the person and a front extremity of land animals perform various functions, their homology is obvious. It is more than that, the main anatomic parts of a skeleton of an extremity find also in a wing of birds, and in fins of fishes.

In S. and. it is possible to select 3 main sections: organology, very tectonics and the doctrine about morfol. patterns of evolution. If organology focuses the attention on comparison of the organization of bodies in anatomo-physiological systems (digestive, respiratory, nervous, etc.) at animals at all steps of an evolutionary ladder, a very techtonic dance it is connected with studying of the plan of a structure of animals, formation of the principles of a structure of a body (axial structure, symmetry, segmentation, cavitation, the sewerage) that allows to make idea of ways of evolution of fauna, to understand an origin of various types of animals, to find out material basis of adaptability of animals to conditions of their life.

Comparative and anatomic data help with the solution of a question of the direction of development of live organisms, revealing progress of one types and regress of others. On examples of change of a structure of homologous bodies trace stages of division of functions in evolutions of living beings, the sequence of differentiation of anatomic educations, complications of a structure of anatomo-physiological systems.

Page and. combines with comparative (evolutionary) histology (see) also uses data of comparative embryology (see), producing the important evidence of similarity of the developing human organs to bodies of his closest ancestors.

The village and as the science aims at integration of data of zoology, anatomy, embryology, paleontology, attracts functional and ecological criteria to an explanation of historical transformations of a form of body that has essential value for forecasting of structural changes.

In the middle of 19 century in the St. Petersburg medicochirurgical academy the department C. was founded and., to-ruyu K. M. Ber headed. Further existence of special department C. and. in the highest medical educational institutions it was recognized as inexpedient. In a crust, time of the data but S. and. are included in programs of departments of the general biology, anthropotomy, histology. Thus, the historical method integrally enters all-biological training of future doctors. Special course C. and. there pass students biol. faculties of high fur boots. Scientific research according to S. and. in-that Academy of Sciences of the USSR, in zoological in-ta, in Ying-those biology of the sea of the Far East scientific center of Academy of Sciences of the USSR and in other institutions of the country is conducted in Ying-those evolutionary morphology and zooecology of A. N. Severtsov, in Paleontologic.

The researchers dealing with issues C. and., are members Moscow and Leningrad about-in testers of the nature, All-Union scientific about-va anatomists, histologists and embryologists. Materials according to S. and. are published in monographs and in periodicals («The zoological magazine», «Archive of anatomy, histology and embryology», «Achievements of modern biology» and dr).

See also Morphology .

Bibliography: Beklemishev V. N. Bases of a comparative anatomy of invertebrates, t. 1 — 2, M., 1964; Ivanov A. V. Origin of metazoans, M., 1968; With е^в e r-c about in A. N. Collected works, t. 1 — 5, M. — L., 1945 — 1950; Sh both m to e-in and the p B. M. Course of a comparative anatomy of vertebrate animals, Pg., 1922; The III m and l and at z e I. I N. Bases of a comparative anatomy of vertebrate animals, M., 194 7; Atwood W. N of Comparative anatomy, St Louis, 1955; Cole F. J. A history of comparative anatomy, L., 1944; Romer A. S. u. Frick H. Vergleichende Anatomie der Wirbeltiere, Hamburg, 1959; S t a r with k D. Anatomie der Wirbeltiere auf evolutionsbiologischer Grundlage, Bd 1—2, B., 1978 — 1979. See also bibliogr. to St. Anatomy .

V. V. Kupriyanov.