Communist Partyof the Soviet Union, policy in the field of health protection of the people

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

During the reading the present article it is necessary to consider that also articles are devoted to problems of health protection of the Soviet people Legislation on health care , Health care , Lenin and health care , Labor protection , Social security , Social insurance , Union of Soviet Socialist Republics etc.

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) is founded by V. I. Lenin as revolutionary Marxist party of the Russian proletariat; remaining party of working class, the CPSU as a result of a victory of socialism to the USSR and strengthenings of social and ideological and political unity of the Soviet society became party of all Soviet people. «The Communist Party of the Soviet Union is the fighting tested vanguard of the Soviet people combining on a voluntary basis the advanced, most conscious part of working class, collective-farm peasantry and intellectuals of the USSR... It is the highest form of the social and political organization. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union — integral, a component of the international communistic and labor movement» (The charter of the CPSU, 1976, page 3, 4, 6).

the House in Minsk where in 1898 the I congress of RSDRP took place.

The constitution of the USSR (1977) legislatively fixed the leading role of the CPSU in Sovetsk the state. Article 6 of the Constitution states: «The leading and directing force of the Soviet society, a kernel of its political system, the state and public organizations is the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The CPSU exists for the people and serves the people». Since 1898 (the I congress) was called the Russian social democratic Labour Party — RSDRP, since 1917 — the Russian social democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks) — RSDRP(b). In March, 1918 at the VII congress it is renamed into the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) — RCP(b). The XIV congress (1925) renamed RCP(b) into the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) — the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks).

The XIX congress (1952) renamed the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) into the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU).

The CPSU — party of scientific communism. A theoretical basis of the CPSU is the Marxism-Leninism — the scientific base of revolutionary change of society. The creator and the organizer of the CPSU — V. I. Lenin. He developed the main directions of political, ideological and organizational activity of the party, its strategy and tactics at various stages of class fight and revolutionary fights. In party V. I. Lenin saw a decisive condition of destruction of an exploiter system, a gain of the political power working class, constructions of socialism and communism.

In the activity the CPSU is guided by two fundamental documents — the Program and the Party charter. At each historical stage of the CPSU in the programs defined the immediate and subsequent tasks, but constant and invariable was an ultimate goal of party: creation of communism. The first Party program — the program of a gain working class of the political power and establishment of dictatorship of the proletariat — was accepted in 1903 at the II congress of RSDRP which created Bolshevik Party. This program was executed with a victory of Great October socialist revolution and creation of the Republic of Councils. The VIII congress of RCP(b) in 1919 adopted the second Party program — the program of creation of socialism. Its implementation crowned a celebration of creation of socialist society in the USSR. The XXII congress of the CPSU in 1961 adopted the third Program — the program of creation of communistic society in the USSR.

Organizational bases of party are realized in its Charter. According to the Charter, the guideline of organizational creation of party is the democratic centralism meaning: selectivity of all governing bodies of party from top to bottom; the periodic reporting of party bodies before the party organizations and before higher bodies; strict party discipline and subordination of minority to the majority; unconditional obligation of decisions of the supreme bodies for the lowest.

The highest. governing body of the CPSU is the congress. The congress elects the Central Committee and the Central audit commission. The regular congresses are convened by the Central Committee at least once in 5 years. In intervals between congresses the Central Committee of the CPSU directs all activity of the party. The Central Committee of the CPSU chooses for management of party between plenums of the Central Committee — the Politburo; for the leadership in the current work, hl. obr. on selection of shots and the organization of check of execution — the Secretariat. The central committee elects the Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Since October, 1964 the Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU is the outstanding figure of party companion L. I. Brezhnev.

VLADIMIR ILYICH LENIN

The CPSU passed a nice way of fight and victories. Under its management workers and peasants made the Great October socialist revolution which opened a new era in the history of mankind. In the years of civil war and foreign military intervention the party lifted the people on liberating war, on protection of gains of Great October socialist revolution. After victorious completion of civil war the party bent all efforts of workers to creation of the base of socialist society. Being guided by the Lenin plan of creation of socialism, the party mobilized forces of the people for socialist industrialization of the country, collectivization of agriculture, carrying out the cultural revolution. Under the direction of party exploiter classes were liquidated, the moral and political unity of the Soviet people developed and got stronger, the USSR turned into the powerful socialist power. During the Great Patriotic War the party organized, inspired, conceptually armed the Soviet people on fight against fascism. After victorious end of the Great Patriotic War of the CPSU put forward the program of recovery and further development of socialist economy.

The Soviet people headed by the CPSU ensured a clear and final victory of socialism, constructed the developed socialist society. In economic, socio-political and spiritual life of the Soviet society there were profound qualitative changes. The Lenin policy provided monolithic unity of the Soviet people around party. In the USSR there was a new historical community of people — the Soviet people, strong unity of the purposes and unity of actions in fight for a celebration of communism.

The Communist Party defines general perspective of development of society, the line of domestic and foreign policy of the USSR, directs great creative activity of the Soviet people, gives systematic, evidence-based character to its fight for a victory of communism. «Any important political or organizational issue — Lenin specified — does not decide any public institution in our republic without guidelines of Tsek of party» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 41, page 30 — 31).

The CPSU defines a course of social and economic development of the country, the direction of the current and long-term plans approved by the Supreme Council of the USSR. The party provides the solution of the main task of the domestic policy — increase in the standard of living of the people, raising of material well-being of workers.

The party consistently pursues a policy of ensuring considerable rise in the cultural standard of living of the people, development of science and education.

The CPSU was created as uniform party of the proletariat of all multinational Russia. The party combines representatives of all nations and nationalities of the USSR in the ranks. Internationalism makes a basis of the Lenin national policy of the party which received the implementation in rough economic recovery and blossoming of culture of all Soviet republics, in creation and growth of the uniform multinational socialist state — the USSR which became a stronghold of friendship and a brotherhood of the Soviet people.

The CPSU — the integral component of the international communistic and labor movement. It firmly costs on the tested Marxist-Leninist principles of proletarian internationalism, actively promotes strengthening of unity of all international communistic and labor movement, brotherly bonds with great army of communists of all countries.

Under the direction of the CPSU the Soviet people in the shortest historical time achieved huge successes in area of social transformations, economy, science and culture. «Never before our country — said to comrade of JI. I. Brezhnev at the joint ceremonial meeting of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Supreme Council of the USSR and the Supreme Council of RSFSR devoted to the 60 anniversary of Great October socialist revolution — had no such huge economic and scientific and technical potential, its defense capability was never so strong, so reliable. Never before we had such favorable opportunities for problem solving for the sake of which eventually and a revolution was made — for rise in welfare of masses, expansion of socialist democracy, all-round development of the personality» (JI.I. Brezhnev, Lenin course, t. 6, page 582).

Nowadays Soviet people under the direction of the Communist Party build communistic society, lay to mankind a way to communism. In new conditions the party enriched Marxism-Leninism with new theoretical conclusions and provisions. History of the CPSU and the greatest social, economic and cultural transformations which are carried out under the direction of party visually testify to the invincible power of the ideas of communism, to creative power of the working class which executed the historical mission of transformation of society capitalist in socialist. The CPSU in the close commonwealth with brotherly parties of other countries acts in vanguard of fight for peace around the world. The CPSU personifies «mind, honor and conscience of our era» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 34, page 93).

Fight of the CPSU for health protection of the people during the pre-revolutionary period

Classics of Marxism-Leninism opened social conditionality of health and diseases and connected questions of health protection of workers with a certain way of production of material benefits, with laws of development of this or that way of production, with an economic and political system of society. In K. Marx, F. Engels, V. I. Lenin's works it is shown that conditions of a capitalist system: a private property on tools and means of production, exploitation of workers generate many diseases, exert destructive influence on a physical and moral condition of society. «Thousands and tens of thousands of people — V. I. Lenin wrote — workers all life over creation of foreign wealth, perish from hunger strikes and from constant malnutrition, die prematurely of the diseases generated by disgusting working conditions, a beggarly situation of dwellings, a lack of rest» (V. I. Laziness and, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 5, page 14). At the same time insuperable contradictions between work and the capital could not be resolved on the basis of reformist activity of the bourgeoisie at preservation of the old public relations. Only the revolutionary reorganization of the world for the benefit of workers could create necessary conditions for ensuring all-round development of each person, a high level of health and active creative longevity of a wide people at large. Therefore party creation, the putting main objective a radical social reorganization of society, destruction of operation, economic, class and national inequality, was the necessary and only condition of permission of cardinal problems of health protection of a wide people at large.

V. I. Lenin's Performance at the II congress of RSDRP (a reproduction from a picture Yu. Vinogradova).

The CPSU was the political organization first in the history considering protection and strengthening of health an integral part of the general program of fight of working class for the political and social rights. In fight against populism, legal Marxism, «economism» in the «Spark» created and directed by V. I. Lenin, «Truth», in his program works questions of health protection of working class were steadily brought up on big political height, put in continuous communication with revolutionary fight for democracy and socialism. Created by V. I. Lenin in 1895. «The union of fight for release of working class» politically brought up and mobilized working class for revolutionary fight for the radical interests, including and on fight for improvement of working conditions and life, for health of workers

the Big place was allocated to questions of health protection of workers in the documents written to V. I. Lenin in connection with development of the party program. At the end of 1899

I. Lenin wrote «The draft of the program of our party» where subjected to critical consideration the draft of the program of the Release of Work group, added it with a number of specific requirements.

The II congress of RSDRP which took place in July, 1903 became an outstanding event in the history of the CPSU and all international labor movement. At a congress process of merging of the revolutionary Marxist organizations came to the end and the party of working class of Russia — Bolshevik party was formed.

The theoretical, political and organizational bases of party developed by V. PI. Lenin, became the base, on Krom the Communist Party of the Soviet Union developed and develops. The congress adopted the Marxist-Leninist Party program — the program of fight for overthrow of autocracy, for establishment of dictatorship of the proletariat. In the Program among the main requirements of the proletariat permission of such cardinal problems of health protection of the people as restriction of the working day with 8 hours, a prohibition to use work of children, a prohibition of female labor in the industries where it is harmful to a female body, the device at the enterprises of a day nursery for children, the state insurance of workers, a dignity was planned. supervision at all enterprises, and also supervision of a condition of premises, free medical aid by the worker at the expense of businessmen with saving the contents during a disease, etc. V. I. Lenin considered that these requirements and fight for their implementation are necessary «for the benefit of protection of working class from physical and moral degeneration, and also for the benefit of development of its ability to liberating fight» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 32, page 156).

In the Program it was highlighted, «... that full, consecutive and strong implementation of the specified political and social transformations is achievable only by overthrow of autocracy...» (The CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 1, page 66).

The Program adopted by the II congress formed the basis of activity of the party of Bolsheviks up to a victory of Great October socialist revolution.

The Bolshevik party led by V. I. Lenin conducted persistent fight for implementation of the program requirements, exposed antinational essence of policy of the Russian tsarism. So, in the resolution «About the relation to tactics of the government on the eve of the revolution», adopted at the III congress (1905), the party urged to be organized the proletariat «... for immediate implementation in the revolutionary way of the 8-hour working day and other requirements of working class standing on turn» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 1, page 115).

The Lenin newspaper «Iskra» subjected to sharp criticism activity of the imperial government in the field of health protection of workers. In the first number «Sparks» a note about service conditions at one of factories was placed. In this note striking examples of anti-hygienic working conditions at which the worker «were given... no more than a year can work, becomes the patient...». The large number of notes in «Spark» was devoted to ruthless exploitation of women, children and teenagers. Questions of health protection of workers found reflection on pages of the Bolshevist newspapers «Zvezda» and «Pravda».

The Bolshevist newspapers «Iskra», «Zvezda», «Pravda» specified ways of fight for health protection of workers, for improvement of working conditions and life. Bodies of the Bolshevist press called Russian intelligentsia, including doctors and all medics, for transition from liberal phrases to efficient revolutionary fight together with working class for overthrow of autocracy and a victory of socialism. Active part in this work was taken by doctors Bolsheviks — pupils and V. I. Lenin's colleagues: S. I. Mickiewicz, A. N. Vinokurov, V. M. Bonch-Bruyevich (Velichkina), M. F. Vladimirsky, N. A. Semashko, M. S. Kedrov, S.Yu. Bagotsky, F. N. Petrov, V. A. Radus-Zenkovich, I. V. Rusakov, M. I. Barsukov, 3. P. Solovyov, D. I. Ulyanov and others, many of them, became afterwards organizers of the Soviet health care.

In 1909 in Moscow the I All-Russian congress of factory doctors and representatives of factory administration took place. At a congress there was a group of workers — representatives of labor unions of St. Petersburg, Moscow, the Tsentralnopromyshlenny district, Ukraine and Transcaucasia. Bolsheviks in the performances at a congress disclosed irreconcilability of interests of the proletariat and bourgeoisie, showed heavy a dignity. working condition and life of workers.

Work of Bolsheviks in hospital cash desks which were created as bodies of insurance of workers was of great importance. The demand about introduction of social insurance was made still in the late nineties 19 century. However the law on insurance upon diseases and accidents as a concession to requirements of workers was adopted by the imperial government only in 1912. The law provided that hospital cash desks are created only at the separate plants. The government aimed not to allow merging of working various enterprises. The obligation of hospital cash desks included payment of grants to workers in case of a disease, hl. obr. from funds deposited by workers. Insurance covered only the one sixth part of workers of the country, preferential busy in large-scale industry.

Attaching great value to hospital cash desks, the Central Committee and the Petrograd committee of Bolsheviks directed to work in hospital cash desks as employees and recommended to choose in board of cash desk of prominent Bolsheviks. E.g., board members and the staff of hospital cash desk of Putilovsky (nowadays Kirov) plant at different times (1912 — 1917) were: A. A. Andreyev, V. I. Nevsky, A. I. Voytik, A. N. Poderin, N. A. Podvoyskaya, S. G. Roshal, etc. By means of hospital cash desks the party conducted big legal and illegal revolutionary work among working class.

Program requirements of party in the field of health care gained further development in adopted by the Prague party conference (1912) resolutions «About the relation to the Duma legislation on the state insurance of workers», in a cut requirements of RSDRP concerning insurance were in detail stated; N. A. Semashko, A. N. Vinokurov were delegates of a conference.

The party considered that the state insurance shall provide workers in all cases of loss of working capacity by them (workers have a mutilation, a disease, an old age, disability, besides, pregnancy and childbirth, remuneration of widows and orphans after the death of the getter or in case of loss of earnings as a result of unemployment) and to cover all persons of wage labor and members of their families. The Duma bill concerned only two types of insurance (from accidents and diseases), covered a small part of the Russian proletariat, established beggarly amounts of remuneration and at the same time assigned to shoulders of workers a body of expenses on insurance. Exposing the next attempt of autocracy and the bourgeoisie to create visibility «cares about health of workers at the expense of workers», the party specified the only way of permission of social problems in the country — a way of revolutionary change of society. «A necessary condition of implementation of the insurance reform which is really equitable to interests of the proletariat — V. I. Lenin wrote — final overthrow of a tsarism and a gain of conditions for free class fight of the proletariat is» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 21, page 147).

N. A. Semashko in the article «State Insurance of Workers and Problem of the Moment» published in the Sotsial-demokrat» (1912) newspaper, considering positions of the Duma parties, exposed frank class enemies — right and cadets and inconsistent democrats — tinder funguses, drew a conclusion: «We shall explain to workers that without new revolution (them) not to achieve also the valid insurance». You want the real insurance of workers — fight for a revolutionary revolution — such is there has to be «a keynote of our propaganda».

Close connection of fight for improvement of working conditions with fight for a victory of working class, for the liberation from oppression of the capital found reflection in the resolution on the insurance campaign adopted at the meeting of the Central Committee RSDRP with party workers which was taking place in Krakow from December 28, 1912 to January 1, 1913.

The February bourgeois-democratic revolution of 1917 carried out the major requirement about — — overthrow of imperial autocracy. The real possibility of implementation of a main goal of party — elimination of capitalism and creation of socialism opened.

In the resolution of the VI congress of RSDRP(b) (1917) the Bolshevik party made a number of new demands for improvement of economic and social situation of workers.

After overthrow of a tsarism of V. I. Lenin already in «April theses» put forward a problem of change of the Party program to reflect in it that new that was brought by development of revolutionary public life for the period which expired after the II congress of RSDRP.

According to the decision VII of the April conference V. I. Lenin prepared and published «Materials on review of the party program». In them the important place is allocated for questions of health care. For the benefit of health protection of working class the party demanded not only restrictions of the working day with 8 hours in days, but also providing not less one-hour lunch break. There were new requirements: about reduction of the working day to 4 — hours in productions, unhealthy workers, about restriction of operating time for teenagers and prohibition to work as it at night, in productions hazardous to health and at mines. The question of prohibition of female labor in those industries where working conditions are harmful to a female body, about increase in terms of release of women from work up to childbirth up to eight weeks with preservation of full earnings during this time with the free medical and medicinal assistance, about delivery of grants to nursing mothers and reduction of the working day by it was raised. The party in the specified materials made the demand: «Full social insurance of workers: a) for all types of wage labor; b) for all types of disabilities: from diseases, a mutilation, disability, an old age, occupational diseases, motherhood, widowhood and an orphanhood, and also unemployment, etc.; c) full self-government insured in all insurance institutions; d) payments of expenses on insurance at the expense of capitalists; e) the free medical and medicinal care with transfer of medical business to hands of the self-controlled hospital cash desks elected by workers» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5th prod., t. 32, page 157). Creation a dignity was provided. the legislation providing radical improvement a gigabyte. working conditions, protection of life and health of workers at the enterprises with transfer a dignity. affairs in hands elective from the working organizations a dignity. inspections, and also the publication of the housing legislation and establishment (for supervision for a dignity. condition of premises) housing inspectorate, electoral from the working organizations.

Demonstration of workers on November 7, 1918 at Red Square in Moscow in honor of the first anniversary of Great October socialist revolution.

During preparation of an armed revolt much attention was paid to the organization of medical aid to the armed groups which prepared for a performance against Provisional government. Many physicians Bolsheviks were included into the military and fighting organizations. The doctor Bolshevik M. S. Kedrov was a member of bureau of the Military organization at the Central Committee of RSDRP(B). Doctors M. I. Barsukov, V. A. Avanesov, etc. were a part of the Petrograd revolutionary-military committee. The Petrograd organization of party had in the person of doctors Bolsheviks of vigorous and active workers. The doctor E. P. Pervukhin, was elected the member of the Petrograd committee of RSDRP(b) and the secretary of party committee of Okhtensky district. Representatives of a medical profession were a part of the Petrograd Council of working and soldier's deputies, Central Office of factory committees, the central bodies of labor unions and other mass organizations in the center and on the periphery. In Moscow a lot of work on the organization of medical aid to groups of revolutionary troops was conducted by doctors Bolsheviks R. M. Azarkh, B. S. Veysbrod, M. F. Vladimirsky, V. A. Obukh, I. V. Rusakov, N. A. Semashko, etc. In the Khamovniki district of Moscow 3. P. Solovyov, being a member of regional party committee, headed business of the organization of medical aid to fighting groups.

Creation by working class of own organization of medical aid in a look a dignity. groups had extremely important value. However the problem of medical providing revolutionary troops could not be successfully solved without attraction on the party of revolution at least of a part of medical shots and material resources, to-rymi the military-medical service of army had. Developing mass and political work in army and on the fleet, the Bolshevik party step by step won sympathies of soldier's and sailor's masses, won round as well shots of military-medical department and placed them in service of revolution.

In 1917 in army, including and in the Petrograd garrison, various organizations military medical of workers (The union of doctor assistants to the Petrograd military district, the Union of company paramedics, etc.) worked among whom Bolsheviks conducted big agitation and propaganda work and continuously expanded the influence. Medical officers and the paramedic were quite often elected in soldier's and sailor's committees.

At the end of October, 1917 as a result of vigorous activity of Bolsheviks among troops of the Petrograd garrison and in working districts of the capital considerable success in the organization of medical service of groups of revolutionary army was achieved. On the eve of the October revolt military medical the service of groups received organizational registration.

In the first half of October, 1917 in a number of the districts of Petrograd — Vyborg, Petrograd, Peterhof, and also in Kronstadt and at headquarters of Red guard are created a dignity. departments to which the management a dignity is assigned. groups. The administrative organization in city scale — the Proletarian Red Cross was registered. N. K. Krupskaya, the doctor Bolshevik V. M. Bonch-Bruyevich (Velichkina), the feldsheritsa-midwife T. A. Fortunatova, the student A figured at creation of the Proletarian Red Cross. Butkova, worker of the plant of military-medical preparations T. I. Graf, etc. The proletarian Red Cross was created also in Moscow. He acted as city medical body at Revolutionary-military committee of the Moscow Council of working and soldier's deputies.

During the armed revolt the Medical and sanitary department of Revolutionary-military committee of the Petrograd Council of working and soldier's deputies — the first state body by health care was created on October 26, 1917. In the same day the Revolutionary-military committee appointed the military doctor Bolshevik M. I. Barsukov the chief commissioner of Medical and sanitary department as a part of which A. F. Kornev, T. A. Fortunatova, V. M. Bonch-Bruyevich (Velichkina), A. N. Vinokurov, M. V. Golovinsky, M. G. Vecheslov, K. V. Petrova, M. Ya. Lurye, A. E worked. Artemenko, etc. Thus, from the first day of a gain of the political power the party began to carry out consistently planned program of creation of national health care.

Fight of the CPSU for health protection of the people in the years of foreign military intervention and civil war (1918 — 1921)

As a result of a victory of Great October socialist revolution the Communist Party became ruling party. In difficult conditions the party started creation of new society, before it there were new economic and political tasks. Revolution opened the wide road for the Soviet state construction. Under the direction of the Communist Party the system of public administration, including in the field of protection of national health was on a new basis created. Pursuing the most humane aim — creation of society of original equality and justice, the Communist Party cast in the lot revolution and the new social order which is given rise by it with struggle for life and health of a wide people at large.

Overthrow of the power of landowners and capitalists and establishment of the power of Councils put business of health protection of the people on a strong basis. The first decrees of the Soviet power signed with V. P1. Lenin, about the world, about the earth, about the 8-hour working day, the declaration of the rights of the people of Russia, etc. created political and economic premises for improvement of working conditions and life, poverty eradication and mass diseases, strengthening of health of the population. Lenin decrees about social insurance, about insurance on a case of a disease, about council of medical boards, about creation of a national commissariat of health care, about nationalization of drugstores and many others lifted problems of health care to the level of nation-wide, public tasks.

8 on November (21), 1917. The Soviet government adopted the decree about social insurance which extended to all workers. 14 on November (27), 1917 P1. Lenin signed the decree of Council of People's Commissars «About free transfer of all medical institutions of the enterprise to hospital cash desks, or, in cases of absence of those, about delivery of sums of money on their equipment».

Exclusive value had the resolution of Council of People's Commissars adopted on December 22, 1917, «About insurance on a case of a disease». Types of medical assistance were specified in the resolution: «a) the initial help at sudden diseases in accidents; b) out-patient treatment; c) treatment at home; d) obstetric aid; e) hospital (bed) treatment with full keeping of patients; e) sanatorium and resort therapy». It was provided that medical care is followed by «free delivery of drugs, dressing means, the improved food and all necessary medical accessories». The government resolution extended «to all territory of the Russian republic and to all persons without distinction as to sex, age, religions, nationalities and races occupied on hiring in all industries of work».

October 31, 1918. Council of People's Commissars signed by V. I. Lenina «The provision on social security of workers» was accepted, according to Krom one and all persons whose livelihood is only own work, without exploitation of the stranger were subject to social security. According to Situation entered tasks of social security as well acceptance of precautionary measures against diseases, mutilations, etc., and simplification of their effects is equal. Here, as well as in the majority of the Lenin decrees relating to health protection of workers, questions of prevention were connected with to lay down. help.

On December 28, 1918 the decree about nationalization of drugstores was adopted. According to this decree all drugstores, a coma they belonged and in whose maintaining they consisted, with all stock which is in them, with all accessories and stocks, with the laboratories and warehouses existing at them, and also with working capital appeared property of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and came to maintaining the National commissariat of health care. For the organization of the medicinal help to the population in the National commissariat of health care the pharmaceutical department, and in public health departments of local councils — pharm, sections was created. February 15 — 18, 1919. The All-Russian congress of managers pharm, sections discussed questions of the organization of the medicinal help to the population and planned specific actions for its improvement.

Organizing on a new basis all system of national health care, the party and the Soviet state encountered fierce resistance of enemies of the won socialist revolution. Along with the open armed performances the counterrevolution organized sabotage at the plants and f-kakh, in public institutions. Saboteurs set as the purpose by strikes of employees and technical personnel to disorganize work at the enterprises and in government. Saboteurs were adjoined by hostile medics of Head department Russian about-va Red the Cross, medical bodies of the Territorial and City unions, the Main and District military and sanitary managements. Followed a way of sabotage also Pirogovsky about-in doctors (see. Pirogovsky congresses ). On November 22, 1917 «pirogovets» adopted the resolution, in a cut urged «all medical forces of the country» to become on the way of sabotage of the events in the field of health care held by the Soviet power. However most of doctors and scientists-physicians did not go with «pirogovets». The outstanding neuropathologist and the psychiatrist V. M. Bekhterev in the very first days of Great October socialist revolution was in board of the Head military and sanitary department and told: «I am with you, have me as you want». Many outstanding Russian scientists, and among them I. P. Pavlov, D. K. Zabolotny, K. A. Timiryazev, N. F. Gamaley, continued to work in scientific institutions. Outstanding scientists are employees of Army medical college V. A. Oppel, S. S. Girgolav, R. R. Vreden, G. V. Hlopin, N. Ya. Chistovich, V. P. Osipov — did not stop the scientific work and took active part in the organization of bodies of the Soviet health care.

V. Lenin opened the reasons disloyal and considerably the hostile relation of some workers of old medicine to the Soviet power and its actions. It expressed strong confidence that the Communist Party and the Soviet power will manage to overcome sabotage, to win round thousands of medics. Drastic measures were taken for fight against sabotage. In the largest to lay down. institutions were appointed commissioners of Revolutionary-military committee. Commissioners were appointed in Semenovsky and Peterhof military hospital, in Head department of ROKK, and also in the largest city-tsy. Discharging and isolating explicit counter-revolutionaries, commissioners patiently explained to employees of medical institutions of a problem of new, public authority, exposed saboteurs and their helpers as enemies of the workers trampling on humanistic essence of a medical profession. Leaning on democratic elements of the medical public, commissioners step by step adjusted normal work of hospitals, hospitals and other medical institutions.

A social and political tribune, a cut doctors Bolsheviks for ideological fight for a victory of the principles of the Soviet health care used, there was an Izvestiya Sovetskoy Meditsiny newspaper. Doctors Bolsheviks 3 edited se. P. Solovyov, I. V. Rusakov and M. G. Vecheslov. The basis of activity of the newspaper was formed by V. I. Lenin's instructions on problems of the party and Soviet press. The first Soviet medical newspaper played a big role in fight for unity of the Soviet health care. Proceeding from Lenin instructions, it accurately and clearly formulated the tasks facing the young Soviet republic in the field of health protection of workers, propagandized experience on the organization of medical service on places, exposed enemies of revolution and combated for association around the Soviet power of all medical public.

Relying on mighty support of workers and peasants and the help of the advanced medical public, the party and the Soviet government reconstructed on a new basis business of medical aid to the population.

On places medical and sanitary departments were created. In national commissariats, to the Crimea passed medical managements of mines - in means of communication, internal affairs, education, the state contempt, boards from doctors Bolsheviks were appointed. The task them consisted in breaking sabotage of reactionary employees and to prepare integration of all medical matter in the uniform center.

On January 24, 1918 by the decree of Council of People's Commissars it was created Council of medical boards (see), become «the supreme medical body of the Working and Country government».

Council of medical boards did a great job on strengthening and the organization on places of medical and sanitary departments at Councils of working and soldier's deputies, on unity of medical forces around the Soviet power. A big merit of Council of medical boards are preparation and convocation of the I All-Russian congress of medical and sanitary departments of Councils, on Krom the principles of the organization of the Soviet health care were discussed and the issue of need of creation of the uniform central body knowing all medical and sanitary matter in the country is resolved.

Adoption of the decree about establishment Narkomzdrava at a meeting of Council of People's Commissars. Moscow, the Kremlin, on July 11, 1918 (a reproduction from M. Trufanov's picture).

On July 11, 1918 I. Lenin signed the decree of SNK about establishment of the National commissariat of health care led by N. A. Semashko.

Establishment of the National commissariat of health care in so tough time, a cut was endured by our country, was expression of huge care of the Communist Party and Soviet government about health of workers. The actions which are carried out on a Lenin initiative during this initial stage of the Soviet construction provided further broad and systematic development of the Soviet health care constructed on the basis of prevention, organic communication of science and practice, general availability and free of charge medical aid. Under the direction of the Communist Party the National commissariat of health care started the activity directed to implementation of philosophy of the Soviet health care (see. Ministry of Health ).

A historical event in life of our country was the VIII congress which was taking place in March, 1919 in Moscow. The congress made a number of the major decisions on military construction and to strengthening of Red Army, organizational issues, work in the village and played a huge role mobilization of all forces on repulse to the enemy.

The congress adopted the new Party program, in a cut the foreground was allocated also for questions of health protection of the people. The program generalized experience of party in fight for health protection of the people and defined problems of the Soviet health care for the subsequent historical period. «In a basis of the activity in the field of protection of national health — it is said in the Program — RCP believes first of all carrying out wide recreational and sanitary measures, intended for the prevention of development of diseases» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 2, page 59). The program proclaimed the preventive direction the main, leading principle of activity of bodies of the Soviet power and the Soviet health care.

It was specified in the Program that dictatorship of the proletariat already gave the chance to put into practice a number of recreational and to lay down. actions, impracticable in bourgeois society: nationalization of pharmaceutical business, large chastnopredprinimatelsky to lay down. institutions, resorts, etc.

As the immediate task of party the Program put forward: first — resolute carrying out wide a dignity. actions for the benefit of workers (improvement of the inhabited places, the organization of public catering, carrying out the measures preventing development and spread of infectious diseases, creation a dignity. legislations; secondly — fight against social diseases (tuberculosis, a venerizm, alcoholism etc.); thirdly — ensuring the public free and qualified medical and medicinal help.

Great attention in the Program was paid to such questions as improvement of living conditions of workers, holding necessary actions for protection of motherhood and the childhood, etc. The problem of party consists in that, it is told in the Program that «... to aim in every way at improvement of living conditions of workers of masses; to destruction of density and an antisanitarnost of old quarters, to destruction of unusable dwellings, to reorganization old, construction of the new, corresponding to new living conditions working masses, to rational resettlement of workers» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 2, page 57). Concerning protection of motherhood and the childhood the Program provided such measures as release of women «... from material burdens of an obsolete household by replacement with his houses communes, public dining rooms, central laundries, day nursery, etc.» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 2, page 43). For improvement of public education and liberation of the woman in the Program it was indicated the need of creation of network of preschool institutions: day nursery, kindergartens, etc. It is undoubted that all this had huge value for improvement of living conditions and life of workers.

For health care in general and implementation of the preventive direction in the Soviet medicine in particular also directives of party in the field of labor protection and social security had not less importance. In the section of the Program in the field of labor protection and social security it was written down: «With establishment of dictatorship of the proletariat an opportunity to carry out completely the program at least of socialist parties in the field of labor protection was for the first time created.

The Soviet power in a legislative order carried out and enshrined in «Labour Code»: the 8-hour working day for all workers, as the maximum operating time... prohibition to use work of children and teenagers aged up to 16 years; prohibition of night work and work in especially harmful industries, and is equal also overtime works to all female persons and males who did not reach 18-year age; release of women from works within 8 weeks to and 8 weeks after the delivery with preservation of full earnings for all this time, with the free medical and medicinal assistance providing to workers every three hours not less than half an hour on feeding of the child and delivery to nursing mothers of an additional grant; the inspection of work and sanitary inspection elected by councils of labor unions.

The Soviet power carried out in a legislative order full social security of all workers who are not exploiting the stranger of work from all types of disability and — for the first time in the world — from unemployment, at the expense of employers and the state, at full self-government provided and with broad participation of labor unions» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 2, page 57 — 58). At last, the Party program set the big tasks aimed at the development of science by creation of scientific and applied in-t, laboratories, etc.

The party program adopted at the VIII congress had huge value for further development and improvement of health protection of workers. Socialist humanity and philosophy of the Soviet health care found the bright embodiment in it: preventive direction, statehood, general availability and free of charge medical aid, unity of medical science and practice, involvement in business of health care of workers of masses.

The provisions which are contained in the Program defined the direction of all activity of the party in the field of health protection of the people and had enormous value for the successful solution of those urgent tasks which rose before the Soviet health care in the conditions of civil war.

In the spring of 1918 imperialists of 14 countries with assistance of an internal counterrevolution began predatory war. The Soviet republic appeared in a fiery ring of fronts. In the face of terrible danger the party urged to bend workers of weight all efforts to defeat of the enemy. The decree of VTsIK of September 2, 1918. The Soviet country was proclaimed «the uniform military camp». The party directed the main efforts to strengthening of Red Army, to its transformation into indestructible fighting force. Reorganization of the national economy on a military harmony was at the same time carried out. For the purpose of mobilization of all forces and material resources of the country and their correct use for the benefit of the front the policy of military communism was entered. On November 30, 1918 Council of working and country defense led by V. I. Lenin was created. Extremely complex and responsible challenges rose before workers of young Soviet health care.

Questions of the organization of medical providing the Red Army battling on numerous fronts against interventionists and White Guards were put in the forefront. In the shortest possible time the new system medical - a dignity was created. providing army, providing approach of the surgical help to the front line, medical sorting of wounded and patients, restriction of evacuation inf. patients out of borders of the front. The main organizational principles of medical providing troops gained consecutive development in a number of the leading documents of medical service. Evacuation business was transferred to the jurisdiction of bodies of medical service. Thereby the foundation was laid for creation of uniform, harmonious system medical and evacuation providing (see), constructed on the basis of a strict combination to lay down. and evacuation actions.

Council of working and country defense paid much attention to questions of medical providing troops. Repeatedly hearing N. A. Semashko's reports, 3. P. Solovyova, M. I. Baranov, etc. about a dignity. situation in the back and at the front, Council of defense planned the specific actions directed to improvement of health care in the country.

the Leaflet extending political departments of Red Army in troops in the years of civil war.

Military commissioners of an operating controls of medical service and the soldier were faithful assistants to party in the solution of complex challenges of medical providing troops of Red Army on fronts of civil war. - medical to lay down. institutions. They carried out huge organizational and educational work among medical staff, wounded and sick soldiers, fought against sabotage, helped doctors to overcome difficulties of supply and to adjust medical care of wounded and patients. Emergency measures were taken for providing Red Army with medical shots. The main center of preparation of medical shots for Red Army from the first days of civil war became Army medical college (see).

Daily care of the Communist Party, Soviet government about health of workers, about wounded and sick soldiers of Red Army found reflection in creation public a dignity. organizations. The last was among first of all Russian about-in Red the Cross (see. Union of societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent of the USSR ).

M. I. Kalinin in military hospital, 1920 (a reproduction from P. Puchkin's picture).

By red Cross during civil war it was sent to the front of St. 400 medical institutions. Only for treatment inf. patients the Red Cross developed St. 30 thousand hospital beds. Along with the broad activity which was carried out at the front groups in the back of the country were created hospital and epid, there was a medical aid to the civilian population. In 1921 in connection with a crop failure in the Regions of Volga region and the North Caucasus the Red Cross organized wide network of nutritious points for the starving population and to lay down. institutions. On October 29, 1919 the resolution of VTsIK and SNK created Committee of the help to wounded and sick Red Army men. For the Soviet people personal participation in the help of Red Army to wounded and sick fighters was natural expression of a patriotic debt and love to the army.

In short terms the Committee developed a lot of work at the front and in the back. Then carrying out «weeks» and «days» of the wounded and sick Red Army man was one of forms of involvement of workers of masses to the help to wounded and sick Red Army men. Except «days» and «weeks» of the wounded Red Army man, in the cities and villages of the country, on fronts and in the back those years waged also other similar campaigns. From them it is possible to designate «week of the front», «week of fight with the cold», «week of purity», «week of water supply», etc. All of them passed with broad participation of the population and promoted improvement a dignity. and epidemiol, conditions of settlements, barracks, military units, the railroads, improved living conditions of workers and soldiers of Red Army.

At the initiative of the Central Committee of RCP(b) in January, 1920 «week of the front» was spent. Due to the preparation for this action the Moscow committee of RCP(b) published the address to women, urging them to help with preparation for the army of clothes and linen which assembled are available for citizens of overcoats and regimentals.

Thanks to mobilization of all forces and means of civil health care and medical service of Red Army under the direction of the Communist Party it was possible, despite the hardest conditions in which there was at that time our country, to achieve considerable progress. «We have now — wrote in 1920 N. A. Semashko — 397 496 military and sanitary beds, we have 242 quite equipped sanitary trains; bath-and-laundry, trains medical and nutritious recovered such institutions as trains, able to make pride of any European military and sanitary organization, and, above all, we have the enormous, strictly registered, branched out and centralized body for service of needs of Red Army».

In the years of military intervention and the civil war in the country it developed extremely difficult a dignity. - epid. situation. Wide spread occurance inf. diseases, especially parasitic typhus as at the front, and in the back demanded exclusive attention to the organization protivoepid, actions.

V. I. Lenin's Address to the population of 2/VII 1920 g. «To the aid of the wounded Red Army man».

The problem of fight against epidemics gained huge state value. The Communist Party and the young Soviet state led by V. I. Lenin directed fight against epidemics; all Soviet public was mobilized for this fight!

One of the main reasons of mass distribution inf. diseases during foreign intervention and civil war was extremely heavy a dignity. - epid, the condition of the country which got in inheritance of the Soviet power from the imperial mode.

World War I led to sharp deterioration in already difficult economic situation of imperial Russia, a further impoverishment of workers of masses, decrease in already low level of the general and a dignity. cultures of the population, to growth of incidence, mortality and distribution of epidemics both among the civilian population, and in army. To spread of a typhus and others inf. diseases in the years of civil war troops of White Guard armies promoted. Receding under attacks of Red Army, army of the opponent not only left thousands of patients various inf. diseases, but also destroyed medical - a dignity. institutions in the left districts, creating thereby additional difficulties for bodies of civil health care and medical service of Red Army in the organization of fight against epidemics.

From the very beginning of emergence of epidemics the party organized fight against them in nation-wide scale. For the direct leadership in this work at Narkomzdrava the Neutral commission on fight against epidemic diseases was created. On January 28, 1919

I. Lenin signed the decree of SNK RSFSR «About actions for fight against a sapropyra». In February, 1919 in Moscow at the I All-Russian congress of chiefs and political commissioners a dignity. managements of fronts and districts specific decisions on actions for fight against a sapropyra in army were made.

On April 10, 1919 the decree of SNK «About measures of fight against epidemics» was adopted. In it local councils of working and country deputies, railway managements and the military authorities were offered to take all measures to simplification of hard work of doctors and other medical staff working at the front fight with epid, diseases. In particular, it was offered to improve food position of medical staff by delivery of additional rations, living conditions of medics. The order of delivery of lump sums and pensions to families of the medical personnel which died in fight against epidemics was established. To the medical staff which transferred a sapropyra or any other heavy inf. the disease got at work the right after recovery for additional issue lasting not less than one month with saving the contents was granted.

Poster of the period of fight against epidemic of a sapropyra.

Much attention to questions of fight against epidemics was paid by the VIII All-Russian conference of RCP(b). According to the order of Revolutionary Military Council of the republic of September 22, 1919 in Red Army positions of front consultants, including and a position of front epidemiologists were founded. The big role the organizations of fight against epidemic in the years of intervention and civil war was played by collective bodies of the management in the form of various commissions. The special attention is deserved by work of the extraordinary commissions on fight against epidemics which were created in bodies and connections, in armies and on fronts, and also in all large settlements. For the management of them experienced party workers went. The doctor Bolshevik, the vice-chairman of Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic E. M. Sklyansky was the chairman of the Extraordinary military and sanitary commission. At the head of the Extraordinary commission on East, and also on the Turkestan and Southwest fronts there was B. S. Veysbrod. E. P. Pervukhin headed the Extraordinary commission on fight against epidemics in Northern area etc. Big help in fight against epidemics was given by Political management of Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic, political managements of fronts, armies. They were active participants of all extraordinary commissions on fight against epidemics and on improvement a dignity. conditions of the Republic. When epidemics of sypny and returnable typhus accepted the menacing sizes, on fight against them for the aid to bodies of health care at the initiative of V. I. Lenin the Communist Party attracted the All-Russian extraordinary commission led by F. E. Dzerzhinsky. The considerable role in the organization of fight against epidemics belonged also to other heads of the Communist Party and Soviet government, including M. I. Kalinin, S. M. Kirov, D.3. Manuilsky, G. K. Ordzhonikidze, G. I. Petrovsky, N. I. To Podvoysky, etc. They were directly involved in development of decrees and orders on fight against epidemics, conducted active correspondence with V. I. Lenin and heads Narkomzdrava N. A. Semashko and 3. P. Solovyov on permission of the arising questions a dignity. - epid. conditions of the country, took active part in work of the numerous commissions on fight against epidemics.

Important value for the prevention of spread of infectious diseases had also everywhere the developed sanitary education (with m).

The organization of fight with inf. diseases in the years of foreign military intervention and civil war was under construction on a scientific basis. Questions of fight against epidemics took the main place in the agenda of congresses of bacteriologists, epidemiologists and a dignity. the doctors occurring annually within 1918 — 1921. So, e.g., at the IV All-Russian congress of bacteriologists and epidemiologists which was taking place on August 25 — on September 1, 1920 in Moscow, A. I. Sysin's reports «Of a pandemic of a sapropyra and a typhinia in Russia in 1918 — 1919» were heard. I. V. Davydovsky «Pathological anatomy of a sapropyra», L. A. Tarasevich «An etiology of a sapropyra», and also the reports devoted to questions of fight against cholera, dysentery, plague, smallpox, malaria and others inf. diseases.

Thus, the task of fight against epidemics for the first time was in the history resolved by the combined efforts of all state and the people. This fight was conducted at the same time among troops and the population by strengthening of economy, improvement a dignity. - a gigabyte. living conditions and work, broad holding preventive actions, improvement medical - a dignity. service of the population and army, expansion of amateur performance of masses, increases in the general and dignity. cultures of the population and staff of army.

On March 1, 1920 I. Lenin made a speech at the II All-Russian congress of the Union Vsemedikosantrud. He urged medics to use the best efforts in fight for health of citizens of the republic, first of all — fighters of Red Army. V. I. Lenin's appeals got an enthusiastic response among delegates of a congress, among all numerous army of medics. In response to an appeal of the leader of the Central Committee of labor union Vsemedikosantrud addressed with the appeal all medics to mobilize all forces for rendering medical aid to fighters of Red Army. Apprx. 2 thousand medics came out to the front. Thousands were directed to work in epid, unsuccessful districts of the country. The trade-union organizations gave big help to bodies of health care in selection of shots for BC, policlinics, clinics and other institutions. On March 26, 1920 in «News of the Central Committee of RKSM» the letter of the Central Committee of Komsomol to all Komsomol organizations with an appeal to fight against epidemic of a sapropyra was published. In the letter the attention to need of participation of Komsomol members in a dignity was paid. - a gleam, work among the population, in community work days and the commissions of purity. It was offered to organize special groups of Komsomol members for unloading of trains and transportation of patients. In expansion of this work V. I. Lenin's performance at the III All-Russian congress of RKSM was of great importance, in Krom he urged Komsomol to get into the gear directed to improvement of health protection of the people.

In 1921 in the letter to all provincial organizations of Komsomol the Central Committee of RKSM suggested to develop and put into practice practical actions in the field of fight against cholera, a typhoid and dysentery, and N. A. Semashko urged to render Gubzdravotdela everything full assistance to the RKSM organizations in carrying out this work.

In 1921 the department of propaganda and promotion of RCP(b) of the Central Committee, the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, Heads political educations and Narkomzdrav distributed to all party and trade-union organizations the letter, in Krom special attention to involvement of broad masses of the population to business of fight was paid with went. - kish. diseases which danger of distribution in connection with approach of hot weather sharply increased. «Problems of propaganda and promotion — it was said in the letter — consist in that: 1) to show to a general population nation-wide and directly personal interest in acceptance of precautionary measures; 2) to offer a popular and scientific explanation of epidemics and the recommended means of fight; 3) to teach means of fight; 4) to awaken independence».

The Central Committee of RCP(b) and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions suggested all party, trade-union, Komsomol organizations, and also zhenotdela and the political educational organizations to plan the specific actions following from local conditions. It was offered to organize on f-kakh, the plants, in institutions, in settlements, villages, in military units a dignity. the commissions or the commissions on fight for purity to which to assign the direct leadership in all this work. Appeals of party to show a maximum of efforts in fight against epidemics got the wide response expressed in mass participation of communists in the organization and carrying out protivoepid, actions for all country. Communists steadily stood on the hardest sites in fight against epidemics. All this, despite the hardest conditions in which there was at that time a country allowed to achieve a change, to sharply reduce incidence of infectious diseases and to create necessary premises for complete elimination of epidemics.

the Decree of Council of People's Commissars about supply of bacteriological institutes and laboratories with material and stock, necessary for their work.

In difficult years of foreign military intervention and civil war a number of the decrees of the Soviet government directed to improvement of life of mother and child was issued. Completely free medical aid was provided to them. Pregnant women and nursing mothers received the doubled rations. The special grant to acquisition of objects of care of newborns and to feeding of the child was established.

The question of food of children was particularly acute then very much. It depended on the decision not only physical. development, but also preservation of life of young citizens of the Soviet Russia. In the fall of 1918 decrees about increase in a children's ration up to the size of a ration of adults and creation on places of Fund of baby food, and were issued on February 4, 1919. «About establishment of Council of protection of children». Questions of protection of motherhood and an infancy repeatedly were considered in the Central Committee of RCP(b). So, e.g., on May 4, 1919 on the Plenum of the Central Committee of party the question of catering services of children was raised. The plenum of the Central Committee heard F. E. Dzerzhinsky's report on this matter and made the decision to prepare the special decree about food of children and to bring it in Council of People's Commissars. On September 14, 1922 at the Central Committee of RCP(b) the meeting under the chairmanship of V. V. Kuybyshev was convened, on Krom among other questions V. P. Lebedeva's report on protection of motherhood and an infancy was heard. In the decision of a meeting it was written down: «To put before all party, the Soviet state and labor unions protection of motherhood and an infancy as the task closely connected with the general provision of working class and which is not able to be removed under no circumstances existence of the proletarian state». It was indicated the need to systematically draw attention of the local party organizations to the maximum use of all opportunities and the available local means for business of the help to children and mothers.

Questions of school hygiene and physical. education of children since September 18, 1918 the School and sanitary department Narkomzdrava was engaged. Headed it V. M. Bonch-Bruyevich (Velichkina). The school and sanitary department dealt with issues of statement of training and education of children and teenagers, the organizations physical. cultures, training of school health officers, development of the school mode. All this promoted that the educational system at school received correct a gigabyte. the direction it was also combined with physical. culture in a broad sense this word. At the initiative of V. M. Bonch-Bruyevich in Moscow for scientific development of questions physical. education Ying t of physical culture was organized. Besides, a number of preventive was carried out and to lay down. actions for improvement of children. School out-patient clinics, special facilities were open for education of mentally retarded children, schools sanatoria, and for the children weakened, predisposed to tuberculosis — country boarding schools at which training was combined with treatment and preventive measures are organized.

Thus, already in the years of foreign military intervention and civil war under the direction of the Communist Party in the country originally national system of health protection of workers began to be created. The extensive and versatile experience accumulated by bodies of health care in these heroic and difficult years promoted successful formation and development of the Soviet health care at all subsequent stages of socialist construction.

Activity of the CPSU in the field of health protection of the people in the years of recovery of the national economy and construction of bases of socialism (1921 — 1940)

«We began great war — V. I. Lenin in 1920 wrote — which we at a distant day will end: it is anemic fight of labor armies against hunger, cold and a sypnyak — for the educated, light, full and healthy Russia, but we will terminate this war by the same resolute victory what ended also fight against White Guards» (V. I. Lenin, Poln, SOBR. soch., 5 prod., t. 40, page 71). Essence of «great war», about a cut V. I. Lenin spoke, consisted in the fastest elimination of economic and social effects of civil war and intervention, creation of the socialist industry and collective agriculture, sharp rise in culture and education of the population, creation of socialist system of health protection and implementation of other social and economic transformations planned in the II Party program — the program of creation of socialism in our country. In 1921 — 1940 under the direction of the Communist Party in our country it was generally constructed socialist about-in, social and cultural transformations unprecedented in the history are carried out, including the new socialist system of public health care is created. In two decades our country passed the way equal to centuries, and turned from backward agrarian, into the advanced industrial power.

After exile of interventionists and White Guards before the Communist Party and the Soviet people there were tasks to recover the national economy and to define ways of the further movement to communism.

Transition to peaceful construction happened in a difficult international and internal situation. Danger of military attack on the country of Councils was not removed. «It is necessary to remember — V. I. Lenin specified — that from any invasion we always on a hair» (V. I. Lenin, Half-N of SOBR. soch., 5 prod., t. 44, page 296). Therefore, he said, strengthening of fighting power of Red Army remains the most important problem of party and Soviet power.

The domestic situation of the Soviet country was extremely heavy. The national economy was ruined by imperialistic and civil wars, foreign military intervention. Products of large-scale industry were reduced in 1920 in comparison with pre-war time almost by 7 times. Due to the lack of fuel and raw materials most the enterprises did not work. The population was in dire need for necessary manufactured goods and products.

Situation became complicated the crop failure which captured all Volga region, the North Caucasus, Siberia in 1921, caused hunger, unknown by the sizes. With a new force epidemic of a sapropyra which was already beginning to decline flashed.

In March, 1921 the X congress of RCP(b) which defined philosophy of the new economic policy took place. In activity of the party organizations economic questions became main: recovery of agriculture, the industry and transport, revival of barter between the city and the village, adjustment of credit and monetary system. For more systematic solution of these tasks in February, 1922 at SNK RSFSR the State planning commission (State Planning Committee) was founded.

Before bodies of health care there were also new tasks. It was necessary to start elimination a dignity. effects of war, first of all epidemic trouble, a cut slowed down development of the national economy, caused huge damage to health of the population. At the same time it was necessary to improve sharply rendering medical aid by the worker of the industry, especially its leading industries, and also to peasants and the population of national suburbs of the country, to start holding broad preventive actions for improvement of working conditions and life, on protection of motherhood and the childhood and systematic fight against social diseases, heavy heritage of the past: tuberculosis, venereal and other diseases.

At first constructions of the Soviet health care arose considerable difficulties with financing to lay down. institutions. The budget of the country was intense and to provide optimum financing to lay down. institutions, separate would be transferred to contents pry. enterprises and insurance bodies. The destroyed network of medical institutions in the village was recovered with huge difficulties. Local budgets were insignificant and did not provide requirements of rural health care. For development of network of rural medical institutions the government in 1921 took on state. the budget city and rural medical institutions in national areas and districts, and also in districts, victims of a crop failure. Later, in 1924, on the state budget a considerable part of expenses on the maintenance of all network of rural medical institutions was accepted.

On July 11, 1921 I. Lenin signed the instruction of SNK «About the Organization of Sanitary and Medical Matter in the Mountain and Mining Industry», workers and employees a cut on providing with medical aid were equated to workers of the shock enterprises. In the instruction were instructed on carrying out preventive and to lay down. actions among workers on production and in life. The instruction provided workers with healthy dwellings, the equipment of public baths, laundry, hairdresser's. It was at the same time indicated the need of overseeing by the maintenance of dwellings and yards in purity, taking a step on a dignity. to improvement of settlements, streets, areas, gardens, parks. In the instruction importance of distribution a dignity was emphasized. - a gigabyte. knowledge. For improvement of medical aid by the worker it was planned, in addition to expansion of hospital beds, the organization of first-aid stations, sanatoria and rest houses.

In October, 1921 in Moscow the III All-Russian congress of zdravotdel opened. A half of participants of a congress was made by members of RCP(b). At a congress activity of local bodies of health care in the conditions of the new economic policy was considered, tasks of improvement of medical aid to the population are defined. Due to the cases of withdrawal which were available on places from principles of construction of the Soviet health care the congress confirmed firmness of the principles of unity of medicine and its association in Narkomzdrava and free of charge medical aid. The attention to need of establishment of closer interaction Narkomzdrava with local Soviet bodies, labor unions and broader involvement of workers to work on public health care was paid. The congress adopted the resolution on actions in connection with hunger and the address «To all medical personnel of the Soviet Republic».

On September 4, 1922 the Central Committee of RCP(b) approved «Theses about social insurance» in which it defined policy of the party in social insurance of workers. The Central Committee emphasized that the organizational forms of interaction of bodies of social insurance and health care specified in theses «shall provide fully preservation of the main beginning of the Soviet medicine — unity of the medical and sanitary organization under the direction of bodies of health care» (News of NKZ RSFSR, 1922, No. 5 — 6).

Following instructions of the Central Committee of RCP(b), the IV All-Russian congress of zdravotdel (December, 1922) set the task of further development to lay down. the help, especially insured, planned ways of strengthening of the organization, protection of motherhood and the childhood, condemned attempts of establishment of paid medical aid.

On December 30, 1922 in Moscow the I congress of Councils of federal republics formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The meeting of people's commissars of health care of federal republics authorized N. A. Semashko to be their representative to the government of the USSR.

The most important problem of health care those years was care of creation and expansion of its material resources, the organization of medical supply, development of the domestic medical industry and first of all production of pharmaceuticals.

In 1922 drugstores were transferred to cost accounting. This action strengthened an economic financial position of drugstores and promoted improvement of work of pharmaceutical institutions.

For the organization of supply of the population and network of health care with medical goods and trade in them, and also for production of export-import transactions in 1922 in system Narkomzdrava was formed by RSFSR «Gosmedtorg» reorganized in 1925 into Gosmedtorgprom combining trade and production functions.

According to the decision of the Communist Party and Soviet government measures to improvement a dignity were taken. conditions of the country, to creation of necessary conditions for elimination of epidemics. On March 21, 1921. And. Lenin signed the resolution SNK «About Measures for Improvement of Water Supply, the Sewerage and Sewage Disposal in the Republic», on June 6, 1921 the decree of SNK «About Integration of All Matter of Sanitary Protection of Dwellings in the National Commissariat of Health Care»,

on July 25, 1921. Resolution SNK «About Actions against Cholera Epidemic». On December 19, 1921 SNK issued the decree «About measures of fight with sypny and typhinia», on April 27, 1922. «About measures of fight against cholera», on May 12, 1924. «About actions for fight against malaria». The decree «About sanitary bodies of the republic» (1922) tasks, the rights and duties a dignity were defined. bodies in the area a dignity. protection of water, air, dwellings, foodstuff, organization protivoepidemich. actions. Dignity. doctors were granted the right a dignity. survey of institutions and enterprises, withdrawal of materials and products for a dignity. the analysis, the right of submission to appropriate authorities about imposing of administrative sanctions for disturbance a dignity. governed. Thus, this decree laid the foundation state. dignity. services, obliged local authorities to have on places of qualified specialists on a dignity. to business. As a result of the taken measures considerably improved a dignity. a state in the country, actions for elimination of the centers inf were widely carried out. diseases.

On December 13, 1923 SNK RSFSR adopted the decree «About measures to improvement of the situation of medical and sanitary business». It was offered to bodies of health care to take measures to the best providing workers and country people to lay down. and dignity. the help, and all authorities to render Narkomzdrava and to public health departments all assistance in their work. The Council of People's Commissars planned a number of specific actions for successful carrying out in life of this resolution. The Communist Party and the Soviet government in the conditions of intense and difficult struggle for recovery of the national economy did everything possible and, apparently, impossible for carrying out in life of program requirements but to providing workers public, free and qualified to lay down. and medicinal help.

Considerable work during this period was carried out to the fields of protection of motherhood and an infancy. On health protection of children — future builders of new society — there were hundreds and thousands of communists led by V. I. Lenin and other eminent persons of the Communist Party and Soviet state: F. E. Dzerzhinsky, M. I. Kalinin, N. K. Krupskaya, N. A. Semashko. On February 22, 1921 I. Lenin signed the resolution SNK «About Measures to Implementation of Utility Food of Children», and on September 6, 1921. «About providing child care facilities of the National commissariat of education and the National commissariat of health care with rooms», on September 15, 1921. Provision of SNK «About Health Protection of Children and Teenagers».

The Central Committee of RCP(b), republican, regional, city and regional party committees were initiators and organizers of carrying out mass «days», «weeks», on protection of motherhood and an infancy and summer yaselny campaigns both in the city, and in the village, and also creations of a medical rural day nursery. As a result of dedicated work of communists who rallied around themselves broad masses of workers especially of women, matter of health protection of children in our country was succeeded to adjust quickly.

When our country, fighting against the greatest difficulties, gradually recovered the national economy, directing it on a socialist way, party, the Soviet people, all progressive mankind comprehended the deepest grief. On January 21, 1924 Vladimir Ilyich Lenin died. Heart of the most great revolutionary, the converter of human society, the founder of the Communist Party, the founder of the first-ever socialist state, the leader and teacher of all workers ceased to fight. The message about his death caused inexpressible grief in the Soviet people, in the working and oppressed people of the whole world. The emergency plenum of the Central Committee accepted the address «To party. To all workers». In it it was told: «Everything that is in the proletariat really great and heroic — fearless mind, the iron, staunch, persistent, overcoming everything will, sacred hatred, hatred to death to slavery and oppression, revolutionary passion which moves mountains, boundless belief in a creative power of masses, the enormous organizational genius — all this found the magnificent embodiment in Lenin whose name became a symbol of the new world from the West to the East, from the South to the North» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums, prod. 8, t. 2, page 534).

Saying goodbye to Lenin, party, the Soviet people swore an oath to execute up to the end its precepts, its immortal business, it is even closer to rally incircle of the Communist Party.

Decisions II of the All-Union congress of Councils (on January 26 — on February 2, 1924), the first meeting to-rogo was devoted to V. I. Lenin's memory, obliged, including and workers of medicine, sacredly to store Lenin precepts — to love the Homeland, to be devoted to business of communism, always to remember Lenin care about health of workers, to creatively develop the theory and practice of health care for the benefit of the Soviet people.

The major tasks set by party for health care — reorganization to lay down. affairs on the preventive beginnings and fight with social and the prof. diseases — found reflection in decisions V of the All-Russian congress of zdravotdel (1924).

The congress emphasized firmness of the principles of unity of medicine again and completely supported the slogan proclaimed the National commissariat of health care: «From fight against epidemics — to improvement of work and life». The congress noted that the provision of the Soviet medicine continues to remain still heavy and assumed as a basis further work in the village the decree of SNK RSFSR of June 30, 1924. «About providing country people with medical care». The congress planned carrying out reforms of the higher medical education, proposed the program of development of medical science, measures for improvement of system of health protection of mother and the child.

For health care the XII All-Russian congress of Councils which took place in May, 1925 which heard N. A. Semashko's report and approved the work which is carried out by Narkomzdrav had exclusive value. Noting success achieved in rendering medical aid to urban population, the congress suggested to improve resolutely work on rendering medical aid in the village again. The congress appealed to all bodies of the Soviet power in the center and on places, to all party, trade-union and public organizations, to all workers and peasants to direct a maximum of efforts and funds for business of improvement of the population. Decisions of a congress were an important contribution to performance by the planned set of the program of health protection of the Soviet people.

The defining role the organizations of health care in the village was played by the I All-Union congress of district doctors (1925) which planned a number of specific actions for strengthening of scheduled maintenance on the rural medical site.

According to decisions XIV (December, 1925) and XV (December, 1927) congresses, the party started fight for socialist industrialization of the country and every possible expansion of collectivization of agriculture.

In February, 1926. The Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR determined the immediate tasks in health protection of the Soviet people by the report of the National commissariat of health care. Special attention was paid on specialization of medical aid, on fight against the prof. by diseases, on improvement of the medicinal help to the population, especially in the village.

In April, 1929 in Moscow there took place the XVI party conference which approved the first five-year development plan for the national economy, the beginning of planned system of the national economy. In the address «To all workers and the working peasants of the Soviet Union» the conference emphasized need of expansion of a powerful socialist competition that, carrying out socialist reconstruction of all national economy, in rather short historical time to catch up and overtake the advanced capitalist countries in the technical and economic relation.

In the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU «About the 50th anniversary of the first five-year development plan for the national economy of the USSR» (1979) expressly that «planning of development of the national economy — one of the most important scientific and social gains of the 20th century and revolutionary practice of transformation of public life» (the Pravda newspaper, 18.III 1979 g).

The new tasks which rose before the country demanded review of forms of the organization of medical aid by the worker, development of new methods of work to lay down. - professional, institutions.

On December 22, 1929 the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee «About medical care of workers and peasants» was published. Noting achievements of the Soviet medicine, the Central Committee specified that new problems of the reconstructive period demand radical reorganization of work Narkomzdravov of federal republics since the present condition of their work does not provide carrying out in life of directives of party. «Rate of development of business of health care — it was said in the resolution — considerably lags behind growth of all national economy of the country and needs of working class and the peasantry, the public in work of bodies of health care is poorly developed, participation in their work of labor unions, especially is absolutely not enough union Medsantrud, the attention from the local party and Soviet organizations to questions of health care is not enough, the leading device of health care is weak, in particular, there are not enough workers and, at last, the management from narkomzdrav of federal republics is unsatisfactory of their local committees» (Health care in the years of recovery and socialist reconstruction of the national economy of the USSR, 1925 — 1940, M., Medicine, 1973, page 132). The central committee Narkomzdravam of federal republics suggested to reconstruct radically all practical work in the field of health care, reflecting in it the class proletarian line more accurately; to improve to lay down. - professional, the help in pry. the centers, having allocated the main industrial districts in special group. It was offered also in the fifth anniversary the plan of health care to especially reflect medical service of insured.

Due to the transition to the seven-hour working day and to continuous production week the Central Committee demanded to reconstruct work to lay down. - a dignity. the institutions servicing workers. It was offered to organize evening receptions in medical institutions, to expand number of first-aid stations on pry. the enterprises to eliminate turns in to lay down. institutions to organize a day nursery etc.

In view of especially heavy a dignity. conditions of the Regions of Donbass, Kuzbass and Urals it was offered to Councils of People's Commissars of the USSR, RSFSR and USSR to hold a number of broad events on a dignity. to improvement of these districts.

Considering sharp lag of medical aid in the village, the Central Committee suggested narkomzdrava of federal republics to carry out systematic expansion rural to lay down. networks according to collective-farm and state-farm construction. The central committee put forward as an urgent task radical improvement of structure of medical shots, promotion in health care of a working and country asset, the correct distribution graduated from medical higher education institutions, the direction of ground mass of doctors for work to working settlements and to the village. The Central Committee of party indicated the need of bigger participation of the Soviet, professional and insurance companies in construction of the Soviet health care and demanded revival of work of sections of councils for health care, zdravyacheek at the enterprises and the commissions on labor protection at fabzavkoma, the commissions on improvement of work and life at to lay down. - professional, institutions, a housing dignity. commissions, development and encouragement of a socialist competition and every possible strengthening of labor discipline of medics.

The central committee suggested Councils of People's Commissars of federal republics to develop the specific actions providing improvement of work of bodies of health care on the basis of directives of party and expansion medical - a dignity. constructions according to requirements of the reconstructive period, growth of the population of the country, collective-farm and state-farm construction.

In development of decisions of the Central Committee of V KI (b) on December 26, 1929 SNK USSR adopted the resolution «About Hospital Construction in Industrial Regions», according to the Crimea it was offered to Councils of People's Commissars of federal republics to pay special attention to elimination of shortcomings of the organization of hospital construction. In particular, it was specified in the resolution: «To establish that allocations for construction of necessary medical and sanitary institutions, and also dwellings for their personnel shall be provided in construction plans new and considerable expansion of the existing industrial and agricultural enterprises. The volume, character and projects of new construction and the size of the means provided by the enterprises shall be coordinated with appropriate authorities of health care» (Health care in the years of recovery and socialist reconstruction of the national economy of the USSR, 1925 — 1940, M., Medicine, 1973, page 134).

The plan of implementation of the tasks set by party for health care was considered at the VII All-Russian congress of zdravotdel (1930, March). The Chairman of the Central Election Commission of the USSR M. I. Kalinin made a speech at a congress with the speech. He emphasized a role of the doctor in socialist construction and pointed to underestimation of this role existing still in certain cases while the most honorary duties are assigned to the doctor — to protect the most valuable that the person has — his health, to render it medical aid. M. I. Kalinin in detail stopped on problems of further development of medical aid in collective farms and state farms. «In what the problem of national health care, and first of all, medical business consists? — M. I. Kalinin asked. — In as much as possible to service medical care the main segments of the population. And for this purpose it is necessary to create such conditions, to so organize work of doctors whom we have that they most rationally also were fully used... For this purpose it is necessary to promote in every way creation for the working doctor of the best moral situation, firmly remembering that only during creation of a good moral situation the doctor can give all 100% of the working capacity. Certainly, it will be the real class line and at the same time the obligatory line» (M. I. Kalinin. The speech at the VII All-Russian congress of zdravotdel. At the front there is health care, 1930, No. 5 — 6, page 128 — 129).

In June — July, 1930 the XVI congress which became history as a congress of the developed approach of socialism on all front took place. In the report of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee it was indicated to a congress that the general mortality of the population decreased in comparison with pre-war level at 36% and the nursery by 42,5%; the annual increase in population was made apprx. 3 million by persons.

Party and Soviet bodies on places conducted work on improvement of service of health, labor protection and improvement of life of the Soviet people. Plenums of party committees, the sessions of regional, regional, city and regional councils resolved issues of improvement of health care, quality and efficiency to lay down. works. So, e.g., in September, 1930 at the initiative of Regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) in Ivanov the regional meeting on health care was held. The national commissioner of health care M. F. Vladimirsky took part in work of a meeting.

In March, 1931 the solution of the Moscow regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) on activity of the Moscow oblzdravotdel was. It was specified in the decision that the health care of area did not cope with requirements which were imposed to it by socialist reconstruction of the national economy and by that it «did not execute the December resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) (1929) of the Central Committee on resolute and bystry turn of health care on service of the leading sites of socialist construction». It was offered to Moscow public health department to eliminate the available defects of work, to improve quality of all types of medical aid to working and their families, to reconstruct work on protection of motherhood and an infancy, to pay special attention to expansion of network of a day nursery and kindergartens, etc.

During industrialization of the country and collectivization of agriculture, in days of the first five-years periods there were main services of the Soviet health care: to lay down. - professional, the help to urban and country people, a dignity. - epid, service, system protection of motherhood and childhood (see) etc.

Philosophy of the organization of medical aid to urban and country people of the USSR the territorial uchastkovost and unity began to lay down. and scheduled maintenance. For creation of system of primary medical aid to country people the decree of VTsIK and SNK of RSFSR «About bases of creation of the normal volost (regional) organization of health care» had basic value (1925), the Crimea the organization in each regional (volost) center with the out-patient clinic which is carrying out would be provided not only to lay down., but also preventive functions. Further development of system of medical aid to country people went on the way of strengthening and disaggregation of the rural medical site, completion of rural medical institutions by medical shots, the medical equipment and pharmaceuticals. At the beginning of the 30th in the territory of districts it was created on some rural medical sites that promoted considerable approach of medical assistance to the rural toiler. According to the resolution SNK USSR «About strengthening of the rural medical site» (1938) the network of rural medical sites increased almost to 11,8 thousand, considerable strengthening of their material resources was provided, side material benefits to rural doctors, an order of systematic increase in their qualification were established. Only in 1938 4,5 thousand doctors were directed to work to rural districts.

The system of medical aid to urban population was at the same time created. In 1923 — 1925 in Moscow in the form of experience the so-called out-patient associations which replaced small out-patient clinics in which 2 — 3 doctors worked began to be created. The out-patient associations servicing the population of a certain district and located in its territory pry. the enterprises, rendered both general and medical, and specialized medical aid and, besides, aimed to coordinate the activity to clinics and a dignity. bodies. By an example of Moscow in 1925 — 1926 similar associations began to be created in Leningrad (a so-called zdravobjedineniya), in Ukraine and in a number of the areas of RSFSR. In the mid-twenties to out-patient associations assigned medical examination pry. workers, children up to 3 years, preschool children and school students. The following stage of development of medical aid to urban population was creation of a uniform clinic — the complex establishment combining doctors of a number of specialties and connected with stationary to lay down. institutions. The first uniform clinic — a prototype of modern policlinic was open in Moscow in 1929. However uniform clinics owing to bulkiness and variety to lay down. and preventive tasks could not satisfy need of the population for medical aid completely. Instead of them began to organize policlinics (see), servicing the population by the territorial principle. The territory of service of policlinic was subdivided into medical sites, the local therapist was attached to each of which. Performing outpatient appointment, rendering medical aid at home, implementation preventive, anti-epidemic and a dignity was assigned to the district doctor. - a gleam, works. For an ambulatory care to women and children on the basis of a territorial uchastkovost women's and children's consultations were created. Each policlinic (out-patient clinic) was attached to stationary establishment, in a cut of hl. obr. the population of the district was hospitalized. Such system of medical aid was approved by the order Narkomzdrava the USSR «About improvement of work of institutions of the extra hospital help and measures for decrease in incidence» (1938). Program provision of party about providing the population with free and public medical aid was so realized.

The new tasks which arose in connection with growth pry. the enterprises, demanded review of work a dignity. bodies and expansion of their rights. According to the resolution SNK RSFSR of February 19, 1927. «About sanitary bodies of the republic» and «The provision on sanitary bodies of the republic» of October 8, 1927, approved by SNK of RSFSR, the dignity everywhere became stronger. supervision, functions and competences a dignity considerably extended. bodies in the area a dignity. protection of the inhabited places, dwellings, objects of the environment. So, e.g., dignity. bodies were granted the right to impose requirements about elimination of sanitary defects and disturbances in the established dignity. bodies term to bring to administrative or judicial responsibility the persons guilty of disturbances a dignity. legislation or inobservant instructions dignity. bodies to make inquiries on cases of disturbance a dignity. legislations, and also the right of preliminary closing for use or non-admission to use of rooms, constructions or the enterprises. Situation provided specialization a dignity. affairs (allocation of housing, food, industrial hygiene), and also were entered two forms sanitary inspection (see) — precautionary and current. In 1928 the resolution SNK RSFSR establishing a strict dignity was issued. the mode of zones of sources of the centralized water supply. In 1926 — 1931 a number of the government resolutions providing measures for prevention separate inf was issued. and parasitic diseases. To work a dignity. bodies broad masses of workers were attracted. In the late twenties in the country the new type of institutions which became afterwards the basic in a dignity arose. - epid. to service of the country — sanitary and epidemiologic station (see).

For the purpose of strengthening a dignity. supervision in 1933 as a part of narkomzdrav of federal republics state were organized. dignity. inspections, and in 1935 it is created All-Union state. dignity. inspection (see. Sanitary inspection ). The task set by the Party program — creation effective a dignity was so carried out. legislations and inspectorates for control of its observance.

Socialist construction was followed by active involvement of women in the sphere of production and public work, one of utilities to-rogo was steady development of network of institutions of protection of motherhood and the childhood. In the late twenties — the beginning of the 30th special policlinics for health protection of children of school age and teenagers open, recreational events in kindergartens and a day nursery are held. In addition to the organization of stationary institutions of protection of motherhood and the childhood, mobile groups (mobile consultations) were created. In 1928 in the country there were 2,2 thousand women's and children's consultations. New forms of work were found. In 1930 in rural districts day nursery of the extended day, two-shift and round-the-clock day nursery, mobile — in the field for children of chest age began to be organized. Since 1931 at large children's consultations food stations where milk and children's kitchens entered began to be organized. In 1940 in the country there was a St. 8,5 thousand women's and children's consultations, worked apprx. 11 thousand doctors of obstetricians-gynecologists and St. 19 thousand pediatricians, visited constant child care facilities apprx. 2 million children.

Questions of training of specialists for all industries of the national economy were put forward by the Communist Party as priorities of socialist construction. They were formulated in solutions of July (1928) and November (1929) of plenums of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). In pursuance of these decisions at the beginning and the middle of the 30th a number of party and governmental decrees concerning training of specialists with the higher and secondary education was issued and radical reorganization of vocational education, including and medical is carried out. On June 19, 1930 the resolution SNK RSFSR «About reorganization of system of preparation of medical shots», on July 23, 1930 — the resolution of the CEC and SNK USSR «About reorganization of higher educational institutions, technical schools and working faculties» was accepted.

In view of an acute shortage of medical shots enrollment of students in educational institutions was considerably increased and are open new medical in-you. On June 1, 1931 the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) adopted the resolution «About Medical Shots», in Krom further expansion of enrollment of students and training of graduate students was planned, ways of improvement of ideological and educational, educational and scientific work in medical in-ta were specified. For further improvement of statement of the higher medical education a big role played the resolution of the Central Election Commission of the USSR of September 13, 1932. «About training programs and the mode at the higher school and technical schools», the resolution SNK RSFSR of September 8, 1933. «About a condition of the higher medical education in RSFSR», the resolution of the Central Election Commission of the USSR of September 3, 1934. «About training of doctors», and especially the resolution SNK USSR and Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of June 23, 1936. «About work of higher educational institutions and about the management of the higher school». The resolution of the Central Election Commission of the USSR of September 3, 1934 installed uniform training programs, specialization in the main specialties (to therapy, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology) on the V course, were established pediatric f-you, obligatory state were established. final examinations, increased allocations for medical education. Since September, 1936 the All-Union committee on affairs of the higher school began to perform the general management of higher educational institutions. From 1933 for 1940 medical in-you were open in all federal republics, their number reached 72.

I. P. Pavlov gives a lecture in Army medical college, 1920 (a reproduction from D. Alkhovsky's picture).

The Communist Party and the Soviet government gave great attention also to questions of training of paramedical staff. On September 8, 1936 the resolution SNK USSR «About preparation of average medical, dental surgery and pharmaceutical shots» was issued, according to the Crimea instead of the existing medical technical schools in the country medical assistant's and obstetric schools, schools of medical and yaselny sisters, courses of medical laboratory assistants, dental surgery and pharmaceutical schools were created. The resolution made essential changes to preparation of dental surgery and pharmaceutical shots of the top skills. In development of this resolution on May 14, 1939 SNK USSR adopted the resolution «About Improvement of Preparation of Average Medical Shots», according to the Crimea a number of the new actions directed to improvement of this work was outlined.

Successfully the Soviet medical science developed. The important action of party and government which considerably strengthened material and technical resources of the Soviet medical science was the organization according to the resolution SNK USSR of October 15, 1932. All-Union institute of experimental medicine. The wide network of scientific in-t, including in federal republics was created, preparation of national scientific shots was carried out (see. Research institutes ). Large contribution to a treasury of world science was I. P. Pavlov's doctrine about higher nervous activity. Original Soviet clinical schools were created. The world recognition was gained by the methods of plastic surgeries developed by V. P. Filatov and a keratoplasty. An important role for practical implementation of the preventive direction of the Soviet health care, the organization and carrying out a dignity. - a gigabyte. and anti-epidemic work played researches of the Soviet hygienists, epidemiologists, microbiologists, physiologists, parasitologists. The Soviet scientists developed the most important questions of the doctrine of epidemic process, by E.N school. Pavlovsky the doctrine about a natural ochagovost of transmissible diseases, and K. I. Scriabin's school — doctrines about the dewormings and devastation which played the major role in fight against helminthoses is created. Group of scientists led by E. I. Martsinovsky and P. G. Sergiyev according to solutions of party developed scientific bases of fight against malaria which systematic implementation led to elimination of malaria as a mass disease in the territory of the USSR. D. K. Zabolotny's researches, etc. on epidemiology especially dangerous inf. diseases allowed to liquidate them in the territory of the USSR and it is reliable to localize the natural centers of plague. On the basis of the complex researches of problems of food conducted under the leadership of M. N. Shaternikov and P. N. Diatroptov rational standards of food were developed for various groups of the population. Decrease in incidence of the prof. of diseases was promoted in many respects by D. P. Nikolsky's researches, S. I. Kapluna, etc., the production factors which studied influence on health of workers. In providing dignity. wellbeing of the country, prevention of distribution inf. diseases the big role was played by the works on utility hygiene which are carried out by groups of scientists under the leadership of A. N. Sysin, G. V. Hlopin, etc. For development of the Soviet health care researches in the field of social hygiene and the theory of health care which founders were prominent statesmen of our country of N. A. Semashko and 3 had basic value. P. Solovyov.

According to the principles of the Soviet health care developed by party feature of the Soviet medical science became the closest communication with life, with problems of practical health care. I. P. Pavlov well told about it: «Earlier the science was idealistic, was aloof from the population, and now I see other: respects science and appreciates all people». On reception in the Kremlin on the occasion of the XV International congress of physiologists (1935) I. P. Pavlov spoke about exclusively favorable conditions for development of science in the country: «We, heads of scientific institutions, are directly in alarm and concern about whether we will be able to justify all those means which to us are provided by the government».

the Fragment of the Decree of Council of People's Commissars about the organization of resorts in the Crimea.

Much attention was paid to development a dignity. - hens. affairs and organizations of rest of workers. Along with recovery and expansion of the existing resorts for the purpose of studying of medical action of resort factors, development of methods of complex resort therapy in the country the network of scientific research institute of balneology began to be created. Essentially new approach to a dignity. - hens. to business, implementation in it the preventive beginnings defined emergence of new types of spa facilities (rest houses, boarding houses, tourist bases, etc.). Along with it sanatorium institutions in which patients on the state can combine treatment with work at the enterprise began to be created (night sanatoria dispensaries at the industrial enterprises). Permits in sanatorium and institutions of rest by the worker and employee were in most cases provided free of charge or for 30% of cost. In 1940 in the USSR bylosv. 1800 sanatoria on 240 thousand places, including for children more than 950 on 95 thousand places; in sanatoria dispensaries there were 15 thousand places, in rest houses and boarding houses — 195 thousand places (see. Resorts ).

The XVII congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) (January — February, 1934) approved the second five-year development plan for the national economy of the USSR (1933 — 1937). It was necessary to carry out enormous technical reconstruction of the national economy, to execute the program of further rise in health care. Allocations for needs of health care, development of physical culture and rest of workers in the second five-years period increased in comparison with the first five-years period more than by 4 times. The five-year plan provided growth of number of hospital beds in the cities for 44%, in rural areas — for 48%, growth of number of yaselny places in the cities — for 164% and in rural areas — for 129%.

The role of health care during this period was well defined by M. I. Kalinin who, speaking at the XVI All-Russian congress of Councils, declared: «... in the socialist country health of workers, health of peasants — the main care of the state» (the XVI All-Russian congress of Councils. Bulletin No. 17, M., 1935, page 10).

For further improvement of health care the resolution SNK USSR and Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) «About salary increase to health workers and about increase in allocations for health care in 1935» on March 4, 1935 was accepted. According to this resolution since March 1, 1935 the salary to a large number of doctors, dentists and nurses raised. In addition rates for the medical workers working at Far North, the Far East in Transbaikalia and some districts of Central Asia raised. At the same time considerably standard daily rates of expenses on food of patients would increase in. In comparison with previous year the volume of expenses on medical - a dignity. business in 1935 increased by 1478 million rubles.

Escalating value of health care for development of economy and culture of the Soviet society caused the decision to form an allied and republican National commissariat of health care which was created by the resolution of the CEC and SNK USSR on July 20, 1936. Formation of an allied and republican National commissariat of health care was of great importance for further improvement of the leadership in matter of health care in the country. G. N. Kaminsky was appointed the first people's commissar of health care of the USSR.

Profound changes in life of the country found reflection in the new Constitution of the USSR adopted on December 5, 1936 at the VIII Extraordinary congress of Councils. The constitution legislatively fixed the main social gains of workers — the right for work, rest, the eight-hour working day with its reduction at heavy and especially severe conditions, right to maintenance in an old age and on a case of a disease, on free medical aid, social insurance at the expense of the state.

The XVIII congress of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) (on March 10-21, 1939) approved the third five-year development plan for the national economy of the USSR (1938 — 1942). The plan provided further improvement of working conditions and life of the Soviet people, increase in expenses on social insurance, at education, at grants to mothers having many children and satisfaction of other social needs of workers and employees. Considerably the public expenditures on health care increased. Improvement of the hospital help to the population, growth of network was planned to lay down. - professional, and a dignity. - protivoepid. institutions, improvement of business of health protection of mother and child, the task of further strengthening regional with policlinic as center of specialized medical aid to country people would be set. The attention to need of expansion of production and improvement of quality of the medical equipment and tools, vaccines, new pharmaceuticals was paid.

Success of the Soviet people in construction of socialism in the USSR achieved under the direction of party, holding broad social and economic actions of achievement in the field of health care and medical science promoted improvement of indicators of health of the population. By 1940 the general and child mortality sharply decreased, average life expectancy increased. Dangerous epidemic diseases were liquidated, incidence of malaria, by others inf was sharply reduced. and parasitic diseases.

Following Lenin national policy, the Communist Party and the Soviet government paid special attention to preparation of national medical shots, the organization of network to lay down. - professional, institutions in the territory of federal republics. By 1940 the number of doctors in the territory of the Kazakh SSR in comparison with 1913 increased more than by 11 times, the Uzbek SSR — more than by 22 times, the Kyrgyz SSR — almost by 30 times, in the Tajik SSR — by 34 times. The quantity of beds for the same period increased in the Kazakh SSR more than by 14 times, in the Uzbek SSR — by 20 times, in the Kyrgyz SSR — by 38 times, and in the Tajik SSR — by 112 times. In tens of times the number of doctors and bed fund in Armenia, Azerbaijan and other republics increased.

By 1941 in the country the modern material and technical resources of socialist health care which had wide network of stationary, ambulatornopoliklinichesky and sanitary and anti-epidemic institutions, institutions of protection of motherhood and the childhood, enormous army of doctors and average medics, own medical industry were created. Forward development of the Soviet health care, all peace course of economic and cultural development of our Homeland were interrupted with treacherous attack to the Soviet Union of fascist Germany.

Achievements of the Soviet health care and medicine were brightly shown in days of the Great Patriotic War when they promoted successful treatment of wounded and sick soldiers, and also preservation a dignity. wellbeing of the front and back.

Activity of the CPSU in the field of health protection in days of the Great Patriotic War (1941 — 1945)

fascist Germany suddenly attacked on June 22, 1941 the Soviet Union. The Great Patriotic War, the most bloody of all wars in the history of mankind, one of the very grave tests ever endured by our Homeland began. One of the most heroic and difficult periods in the history of the Communist Party and the Soviet people began.

For mobilization of all forces and funds of the country for defeat of the enemy on June 30, 1941 the joint decision of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) and Council of People's Commissars of the USSR created the State Committee of Defense (SCD). In hands of this extraordinary body all completeness of the power in the state concentrated. It combined activity of all state and military institutions, party, trade-union and Komsomol organizations.

At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War activity of the party was directed to stopping the enemy, to cause it the greatest loss and to prepare conditions for fundamental change of the course of war in favor of the USSR.

All resources of the country were turned on achievement of a victory over fascism. «All for the front, all for a victory!» — this appeal of party became the fighting program of fight of all Soviet people for honor, freedom and independence of our Homeland. In the shortest possible time the army was mobilized. The industry, transport, agriculture were reconstructed for satisfaction of needs of the front. From front districts in vost. districts of the country were evacuated the industrial enterprises, educational institutions, research in-you, to lay down. - professional, institutions, the state and collective-farm property, millions of Soviet citizens. With unprecedented speed the plants and f-ki were developed on new places, acreage were expanded, everything became to provide all necessary field army, to stop and beat the enemy, to save the Homeland from danger of death.

Despite the heaviest conditions of the first months of war, the party constantly cared for life of the workers and employees evacuated together with the industrial enterprises in vost. districts of the country. The resolution SNK USSR and Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of

August 16, 1941 is a striking example of this care. «About the military and economic plan for the IV quarter 1941 and for 1942 on the Areas of Volga region, Urals, Western Siberia, Kazakhstan and Central Asia». This resolution which played an exclusive role in the forced development of military-industrial base in the east of the country offered to provide to workers and employees of the evacuated enterprises the long-term credit for individual housing construction of 50% of cost of dwellings, and to accept other part of cost of dwellings into the account of the state budget. Narcomats had to render every possible assistance to workers and employees in implementation of individual housing construction, and Councils of People's Commissars of federal and autonomous republics, regional and regional executive committees — to allocate in the woods of local value sites for preparation of wood on individual housing construction, giving to workers and employees necessary help in sawing and export of the construction wood.

Having mobilized huge human reserves and economic resources of the country, having stopped the enemy, the party directed efforts of the people to defeat of the enemy, organized victorious approach of the Soviet troops to expel fascist invaders from the Soviet land. These years with a new force the best qualities of the Soviet people were shown: their boundless devotion to ideals of communism, the deepest patriotism, fidelity to an international debt, a deep-seated faith in a victory over fascist aggressors. The multinational socialist state first in the history showed to the whole world superiority of the economic, public, political way, great vital force and indestructibility.

The Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945 was the most serious testing for the Soviet health care, before the Crimea there were exclusively complex and responsible challenges: to render necessary medical aid to wounded and sick soldiers, to provide bystry return them in a system, to protect troops and the civilian population from epidemics and infectious diseases — these inevitable satellites of wars of the past.

In unusually difficult and intense situation the medical service of Armed Forces did everything to adjust accurate and uninterrupted medical providing troops. Thanks to the constant help from party and the government, organizing activity of command, hard work of medical structure managed to mobilize quickly all forces and funds of the Soviet health care for needs of the front.

From the first days of war the attention of command, political bodies, all medical service was chained to the solution of the major question — the organization of timely carrying out of wounded from the battlefield. «Any wounded shall not remain in the battlefield!» — it the requirement sounded those days, heavy for the Homeland, in directives of the Head military and sanitary department of RKKA (GVSU), in orders of top military commanders of fronts and armies, in instructions of chiefs of medical service of all degrees. The major document which exerted positive impact on the organization of first aid by the wounded and their carrying out from the battlefield was the order of the People's Commissar of Defence of the USSR of August 23, 1941 which is put into operation on telegraph, the Crimea was defined an order of representation to government award of military hospital attendants and porters for carrying out from the battlefield of wounded with their weapon. Tens of thousands of hospital attendants, hospital attendants-porters, dignity. instructors, including many patriotic female, were awarded the highest awards of the Homeland. They in a difficult fighting situation, risking life, heroically fulfilled the duty, saving wounded.

In a short time field medical institutions were created. Continuously the hospital bed network increased that provided timely and full treatment of wounded and sick soldiers.

On the basis of the uniform field medical doctrine the system was created stage treatment (see) wounded and patients with evacuation to destination, edges provided holding successive and consecutive actions in combination with evacuation for medical indications and taking into account a fighting situation. For the first time in the history of domestic military medicine the specialized medical aid as close as possible to the battlefield was organized. From institutions of military-medical service and evakogospitaly system Narkomzdrava millions of fighters who had fighting experience for continuation of fight against the enemy were returned to a system. During war the role of medical service as important factor of replenishment of staff of Armed Forces was more and more clearly shown. Success achieved in treatment of wounded and patients in return them in a system and to work, on the value and volume is equal to a prize of the largest strategic battles.

The most strict system of anti-epidemic actions including creation protivoepid, barriers between the front and the back, systematic observation for early detection inf. patients with their immediate isolation, regular a dignity. processing of troops, use of effective vaccines, yielded positive takes. To understand a huge contribution of physicians to preservation epidemiology, wellbeing of troops in the period of the Great Patriotic War, it is necessary to remember that in the past of loss from infectious diseases losses by wounded, as a rule, exceeded. World War II, unknown on the scales, which was followed by devastation of huge territories and mass migration of the population, apparently, created premises for distribution of mass epidemics, but they were not allowed.

Much attention to questions of the organization of medical service was paid by commanders, members of the Councils of War, chiefs of the back of fronts and armies, commanders of connections and parts, their deputies for the back. In fight for high performance of medical ensuring fighting of troops, treatment of wounded and sick soldiers the big role belonged to political bodies and the party organizations of military-medical parts and institutions. According to the decision of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee in August, 1941 political departments in front, distribution and in some local evacuation centers were created, than more specific and purposeful leadership in party and political work in hospitals was provided. Being guided by indications of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee, the Head political department of Red Army in the directive of August 11, 1941 defined that a main objective all carried out in to lay down. institutions by political bodies and the party organizations of work consisted in increase in responsibility at communists for performance of the office and party debt, strengthening of their influence on all staff of medical parts and institutions for the benefit of high-quality treatment of wounded and sick soldiers, bystreyshy return them in a system.

During war political bodies and the party organizations carried out active work on selection to party of the best of the best, placing at the same time emphasis on inclusion in party of specialists of the leading professions.

The medics inspired by the Communist Party showed examples of heroism and dedication on all sites where they had to work — from a first line to the deep back of the country.

In history of the Great Patriotic War bright pages were entered by the fearless national avengers who rose by protection of the socialist Fatherland in the back of the opponent. According to the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee of July 18, 1941. «About the organization of fight in the back of the German troops», the guerrilla movement in days of the Great Patriotic War became a continuous part of the unified strategic plan of defeat of the enemy. Hand in hand medics struggled with guerrillas, rendering to wounded and sick guerrillas medical aid, showing heroic examples of performance of the patriotic debt to Rodina. Work of physicians in the back of the enemy took place in difficult and unusual conditions. Not only the first medical aid, but also difficult surgery quite often had to be made in the wood, on the cart, on a groundsheet and at best in a dugout or a country log hut.

Distinctiveness of the Soviet health care and socialist tenor of life were most brightly shown in really national help of the population in treatment of wounded and sick soldiers. From the first days of war workers on own initiative, on a need of the heart took part in the organization of hospitals, in their equipment, repair, providing with all necessary, in care of wounded and patients, in cultural and mass and their consumer services. The party, trade-union, Komsomol organizations looked after over to lay down. institutions, collected for them stock and the equipment. Workers and collective farmers aimed to help wounded everything, than could. Female workers gave to care of wounded the leisure hours. For the direct leadership in this patriotic movement on October 8, 1941 the resolution of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) organized All-Union committee of the help with service of sick and wounded fighters and commanders of Red Army. The committee consisted directly at the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), it was headed by the secretary of the Central Committee A. A. Andreyev. The committee combined efforts of a number of departments and organizations (Narkomzdrav, the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, the Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League, Executive committee of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, etc.). Similar committees were organized in federal and autonomous republics, edges, areas and districts.

The organization of the help to wounded took active part about-va Red the Cross and Red Crescent, the developed mass training of nurses and sandruzhinnitsa, tens of thousands of which helped to look after wounded, to unload sanitary trains and steamships. In the country

was widely adopted donorship (see), in Krom deep patriotism of the Soviet people, its continuous communication with Armed Forces was shown. In total during war was apprx. 5500 thousand donors. They gave to the front of St. 1 700 000 l of blood and helped to save life to thousands of wounded and patients.

20 thousand people were awarded by the breastplate «Honourable donor».

The big role in the organization of medical ensuring fighting of troops, in improvement of methods of treatment of wounded and patients was played by the Academic medical council at the chief of GVSU of Red Army created in 1939 shortly before the beginning of war. Prominent scientists-physicians and figures of the Soviet military medicine and health care were its part. The academic council discussed questions of the organization medical and evacuation, a dignity. - a gigabyte. and anti-epidemic providing troops, organization of medical supply, preparation soldier. - medical shots and development the soldier. - medical sciences. On the V plenum of Academic medical council (February, 1942) the uniform field medical doctrine which became a basis of activity of medical service on fronts of the Great Patriotic War was accepted. For years of the Great Patriotic War the group of talented figures of the Soviet military medicine grew. Along with such large scientists-clinical physicians as M. N. Akhutin, S. I. Banaytis, H. N. Burdenko, A. A. Vishnevsky, M. S. Vovsi, S. S. Girgolav, P. I. Egorov, P. A. Kupriyanov, N. S. Molchanov, V. N. Shamov, successfully solved complex problems of medical ensuring strategic operations heads of medical service A. Ya. Barabanov, A. I. Burnazyan, M. M. Gurvich, N. I. Zavalishin, P. G. Stolypin, N. P. Ustinov, etc.

A leading role in the organization of medical providing field army was played by the Head military and sanitary department headed by E. I. Smirnov. The party and the government highly appreciated activity of heads of medical service, their dedicated work, having awarded 13 people with awards of a military leader.

Continuous care of party, mass heroism of medics, their dedicated work, equipment of medical service necessary means, the perfect organization of their activity which is based on scientific bases, and also close interaction with bodies of civil health care allowed the soldier. - medical service with honor to fulfill the military duty and to make an essential contribution to a victory of the Soviet people.

Experience of war with all persuasiveness proved correctness of basic bases on which the Soviet medicine in general and the Soviet military medicine in particular was created, under construction and developed. Medics saved life and recovered health to millions of defenders of the Homeland. They returned St. 72% of wounded and 90% of patients in a system.

The homeland highly appreciated military and labor feats of the Soviet physicians. In the years of war and right after its termination a number of outstanding Soviet scientists was awarded ranks of the Hero of Socialist Work and much of them awarded the State awards. Handing on May 20, 1943 the gold medal «Sickle and Hammer» and the Order of Lenin of H. N. Burdenko, M. I. Kalinin told: «This rewarding means that medical care of our Red Army costs in the same row with aviation, artillery service that health workers in the ranks of Army are so necessary, as well as fighters and commanders».

More than 115 000 soldier. - medical workers were awarded by awards of the Soviet Union. The highest award — ranks of the Hero of the Soviet Union were awarded 44 military physicians (see. Physicians are Heroes of the Soviet Union ).

Activity of medical service of Armed Forces of the country in days of the Great Patriotic War took place in close interaction with civil health care, before the Crimea from the first days of war there were difficult tasks. Bodies of civil health care at sharply reduced opportunities had to provide successful treatment in evakogospitalyakh wounded and sick soldiers, keep a dignity. - epid. wellbeing of the back to preserve work of workers and collective farmers the, including women and teenagers who replaced the husbands and fathers who left on the front, to establish strict medical supervision of the evacuated children, to create medical - a dignity. service at local divisions of air defense.

In several months after the beginning of war, on September 22, 1941, the resolution state treasury bills on transfer evakogospitaly, located in rear districts, was published maintaining bodies of health care. Management rear exercised of evakogospitaly Head department evakogospitaly Narkomzdrava the USSR headed by S. I. Milovidov. The same managements were organized as a part of narkomzdrav of federal republics. On places departments evakogospitaly as a part of regional and regional zdravotdel and narkomzdrav of the ASSR were created. In 1942 at Head department evakogospitaly Narkomzdrava the USSR organized Hospital council.

On January 12, 1942 the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) adopted the resolution «About Party and Political Work in Hospitals Narkomzdrava of the USSR», according to the Crimea all party members working in hospitals including and the communist military personnel, were transferred to the account to regional and city committees of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). The local party organizations undertook to give daily practical help to primary party organizations and military commissioners of hospitals in carrying out partiynopolitichesky work among wounded and service personnel.

Before bodies of health care, in addition to problems of rendering medical aid to the soldiers sent to rear evakogospital there was an urgent problem of rendering medical aid to the civilian population and first of all the worker of the defense enterprises. At the large defense plants began to create medical and sanitary parts (see), the network extended health centers (see), policlinics (see), out-patient clinics (see), hospitals (see).

Creation of wide network of medical institutions and dedicated work of medical staff, public asset provided systematic decrease in incidence and traumatism among the working industrial enterprises.

For years of war in a number of the republics the network of rural medical institutions increased, considerably increased ud. the weight of the rural medical sites having-tsy. E.g., in the Uzbek SSR before war 39% of rural medical sites, and by 1945 — 81%, in the Kyrgyz SSR — respectively 32% and 58%, in the Turkmen SSR — 11% and 43% etc. would have.

Providing dignity. - epid, wellbeing of the country in the years of war was the major nation-wide task. According to the special decision of state treasury bills of February 2, 1942 in all republics, areas, the cities and areas the extraordinary anti-epidemic commissions which had large powers were created. People's commissar of health care of the USSR G. A. Miterev was appointed the representative of state treasury bills for anti-epidemic work that allowed to concentrate in hands of uniform body all measures for prevention of epidemics and providing a dignity. wellbeing. Fight against epidemic threat drew to itself daily attention of party and government. The Pravda newspaper in the editorial «Sanitary service of the population» (on March 6, 1942) wrote: «In fight for the best sanitary service of the back of the country bodies of health care can always count on active assistance of the Soviet public. Call, companions health workers, and to you will come to the rescue the sanitary links created at the enterprises in institutions and houses, sanitary posts, sanitary druzhinnitsa, the many thousands asset representing serious force will come to the rescue».

Practice showed that in the conditions of the socialist state at the correct carrying out necessary anti-epidemic actions (see) it is possible to prevent development of mass epidemic diseases even in the most severe military conditions.

Special sharpness was gained by questions of the organization of the help to children. The war which brought incalculable disasters to the Soviet people became the tragedy for many thousands of children who lost parents, and at times and all relatives. The children who are taken out from zap fell into especially difficult situation. the districts of the country occupied by fascist aggressors. These children who transferred a deep moral and mental shock, deprived of a usual situation and an environment needed the special help and care.

The party considered care of the children deprived of a family and houses as business of paramount importance. January 23, 1942. The Council of People's Commissars of the USSR adopted the resolution «About the Device of the Children Who Were Left without Parents», and on October 27, 1942. «About actions for improvement of work of bodies Narkomzdrava and child care facilities on medical care of children and strengthening of their food». In various r-na of the country children's homes, day nursery, milk kitchens, «food stations» were created, the new form of the help to children — patronizing of children in families of workers, employees and collective farmers appeared. Active part in assistance to children was taken by bodies of health care. As a result of the taken measures, party and state approach to this question normal living conditions were created to all children who lost parents, an opportunity to study, to receive a profession is given, they were surrounded with attention, care, caress. The country kept them the most expensive — the childhood.

At the initiative of the trade-union and Komsomol organizations the fund of the help to children was created. On the funds raised by the Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League orphanages, health resorts, recreational platforms in addition were open. In 1944 SNK USSR approved actions for expansion of network of child care facilities and improvement of medical and consumer services of women and children and accepted the plan of expansion of child care facilities. The evidence of care of the Communist Party and the Soviet state on strengthening of a family, health of mother and the child was the decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR of July 8, 1944. «About increase in the state help to pregnant women, having many children and lonely mothers, strengthening of protection of motherhood and the childhood, about establishment of an honorary title „Mother heroine“ and establishment of the award „Maternal Glory“ and medal „A medal of motherhood “».

Set of the governmental and public activities on protection of motherhood and the childhood which is carried out in days of the Great Patriotic War allowed to achieve considerable progress in business of health protection of children. In our country there was no sharp increase in the general incidence of the Children's population. Mortality of children was considerably reduced. Many thousands of lives were kept for our Homeland.

The party and the government took necessary measures for development and strengthening of health care in the freed districts. To the aid of local bodies of health care party and public organizations were mobilized, considerable appliances are allocated, medical shots are directed.

In the territory which is temporarily occupied by the enemy sharply worsened a dignity. - a gigabyte. and epid, a condition of the population, among locals various diseases, including and infectious gained big distribution. The original centers of epidemics were fascist concentration camps. All this created real threat of penetration inf. diseases in field army.

35-volume edition «Experience of the Soviet Medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945».

On August 21, 1943 SNK USSR and Central Committee All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) issued the resolution «About Urgent Measures for Recovery of Farms in the Areas Freed from the German Occupation». The created zdravotdelam, scientific in-ta went to these districts and to lay down. institutions specialized crews of the help. First of all these crews developed fight against epidemics, liquidated the centers of an infection. Baths, disinfection chambers, insulators built up, revived to lay down. - professional, institutions. Voyen. - the medical service together with bodies of health care took the effective measures which reliably protected troops from threat of epidemics. Along with carrying out protivoepidemich. the actions directed to protection of troops, the medical service performed a lot of work on improvement of local population, processing and elimination epid, the centers, to treatment inf. patients.

The party with special attention and care concerned the people who lost health in fights with fascist aggressors, became disabled people. She aimed to make everything to help them to be restored to life, to find the place in it. In addition to wide network of special hospitals in which recovery treatment was performed the system of the prof. of preparation, employment, social security of disabled people of Patriotic war was developed.

The Great Patriotic War was severe check of viability Soviet medical industry (see). In premilitary years the ground mass of medical products was developed by the enterprises which were in the European part of the country. Already at the beginning of war production of pharmaceuticals and the medical equipment at the plants located in the territory of Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia was stopped, and a considerable part of the equipment of these enterprises is evacuated to the deep back. In 1942 — 1943 toilers of the medical industry in incredibly short time created in Siberia five new chemical - pharm, the plants which together with the enterprises of Central Asia and the plants of Moscow and Leningrad issued St. 300 names of pharmaceuticals. On the basis of the Leningrad plant «Krasnogvardeets», the Moscow experimental plant and the Kiev plant of the medical tools which are partially evacuated to the Urals the enterprises in Sverdlovsk and Nizhny Tagil were created. There began release of medico-tool products the plants and in other cities.

During war 4000 drugstores, St. 8000 pharmaceutical points were destroyed. The release pharm, shots was reduced. From 9 pharm, in-t during the first period of war only 3 worked. Well organized pharmaceutical service took out tests of wartime. New pharmaceutical institutions and the enterprises, especially in the Central Asian federal republics and east districts of the country were in a short space of time created. In 1944 the Central pharmaceutical research institute was created. For the purpose of strengthening of the management of pharmaceutical economy in 1945 the Head pharmaceutical department Narkomzdrava was created by the USSR.

Broad development in the years of war was gained by medical science, a cut the Communist Party always paid much attention. Not only methods of treatment of wounds, injuries, recovery of working capacity, hemotransfusion and blood-substituting liquids, fight against shock and postwound complications were developed, effective pharmaceuticals are offered, but also the basic researches defining perspectives of development of the major directions of modern medical science continued to be conducted.

During this period the large number of scientific works which helped to improve treatment in hospitals was published and to lay down. institutions and to provide a dignity. wellbeing in the country. Care of party and government of every possible prosperity of the Soviet medical science was brightly shown in establishment in 1944. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (see), combined leading research in-you medical and medical - biol, a profile. The first president of academy elected outstanding Soviet scientific H. N. Burdenko. The largest Soviet scientists were among the first academicians of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences.

March 27, 1946. The council of ministers of the USSR adopted the resolution «About scientific development and synthesis of experience of the Soviet medicine during the Great Patriotic War (1941 — 1945) », eminent persons of military medicine and Soviet health care took part in preparation for the edition to-rogo.

In the Great Patriotic War our people directed by the Communist Party defended freedom and independence of the Soviet Union, protected gains of Great October socialist revolution. «A victory of the Soviet people in this war — it is said in the Program of the CPSU — confirmed, that in the world there are no forces, which could stop forward development of socialist society» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, t. 8, page 207).

The victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War exerted deep impact on the further course of historical development around the world. As a result of this victory the international authority of the Soviet Union immeasurably increased, forces of socialism and democracy grew and got stronger. The historical victory of the Soviet people led to emergence of world system of socialism, the crash of colonialism, to a new ratio of forces on the world scene. The leading and organizing role in achievement of a victory in the Great Patriotic War belonged to the Communist Party. She developed the program of fight against fascist aggressors, mobilized millions of Soviet people for its performance, inspired and conceptually armed them, led to the victory.

Activity of the CPSU in the field of health protection of the people during the post-war period and during creation of the developed socialist society (1946-1965)

After the victorious termination of the Great Patriotic War all forces of the Soviet people were directed to recovery and further development of the national economy, to completion of construction of socialism and creation of material and technical resources of communism. The domestic and foreign policy of party was subordinated to the solution of these tasks. At the same time the main goal of foreign policy activity of the party consisted in ensuring lasting and lasting peace, to strengthen positions of socialism on the world scene, to help the people which tore with capitalism, to build new life. War and temporary occupation by fascist troops of a part of the territory of the Soviet Union brought to the Soviet people an enormous loss. On fields of battles, temporarily occupied territories, in fascist concentration camps died apprx. 20 million Soviet citizens, hundreds of thousands of people became disabled people. Millions of civilians remained homeless, thousands of children — orphans. In temporarily occupied districts fascists destroyed and plundered huge values. They destroyed in whole or in part 1710 cities and apprx. 70 thousand villages and villages, apprx. 32 thousand pry. enterprises, 65 thousand km. - of ways, plundered 98 thousand collective farms, 1876 state farms and 2890 mashinotraktorny stations, is destroyed and plundered apprx. 40 thousand BCs, policlinics and other medical institutions. In general material losses of the Soviet people made apprx. 2600 billion rubles (in the pre-war prices), including damage caused to health care according to incomplete data made 6,6 billion rubles. Any country in one war had no such enormous losses and destructions. Any capitalist state, having suffered so huge loss, it would be discarded far back and would become dependent to stronger powers. But it did not happen to the Soviet country. The socialist system, heroic work of the Soviet people directed by the Communist Party provided bystry recovery and further development of the national economy.

In a number of party and state documents of that period political, economic and ideological problems of party and the people for the next years and for longer time were concretized. These tasks gained specific expression in the fourth the fifth anniversary the plan of recovery and developments of the national economy of the USSR (1946 — 1950) accepted by the Supreme Council of the USSR in 1946.

In decisions of the first session of the Supreme Council of the USSR of the second convocation (March, 1946) the task to recover affected districts of the country, to reach the pre-war level of the industry and agriculture, and then to surpass this level in considerable sizes was set. The five-year plan for 1946 — 1950 provided actions for further improvement of medical aid to the population, including growth of number of hospital beds, networks of women's and children's consultations, a children's day nursery and BC, recovery of network of rest houses and sanatoria, providing disabled people with medical service, increase in production of medicines, medical tools, the equipment, etc. By 1950 it was planned: to bring number of hospital beds to 985 thousand against 710 thousand in 1940, number of places in a constant children's day nursery to 1251 thousand against 859 thousand in 1940, and also to expand network of nurseries and clinics for women, children's BCs and milk kitchens; to completely recover network of rest houses and sanatoria, to bring number of places (one-time stay) in sanatoria to 250 thousand and in rest houses to 200 thousand; to provide with medical service of disabled people of Patriotic war, to increase for them number of BC, rest houses and sanatoria, to organize production of advanced prostheses; to increase production of medicines, medical tools and the medical equipment at the enterprises of the medical industry to 1200 million rubles in 1950 (is 85% more in comparison with 1940). Overall appropriations for health care and physical culture by 1950 were supposed to be increased in comparison with 1940 by 2,6 times.

Successful performance of the tasks set for health care required further expansion and improvement of training of doctors. Medical in-you, the countries evacuated during war in depth, were returned to places of former dislocation where not only recovered pre-war material resources, but also expanded it. In Yaroslavl, Krasnoyarsk, Chelyabinsk and other cities from where in-you there were reevakuirovana, opened new medical in-you. Besides, after war new medical in-you were open in Kalinin, Kemerovo, Barnaul, Chita, Andijan, Karaganda, Semipalatinsk, Blagoveshchensk, Aktyubinsk, Vladivostok, Luhansk, Ternopil, Chisinau, etc. the cities. For further improvement of training of doctors in 1945 the 6-year course was established, curricula and programs are revised, ideological and educational work and inservice training is strengthened, measures for strengthening of in-t by the faculty are taken. A certain role in the solution of these questions was played by the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee of August 2, 1946. «About preparation and retraining of the leading party and Soviet workers». In 1948 the new order of distribution of young specialists, and also specializations and improvements of doctors was established.

Completion of recovery treatment of disabled people of Patriotic war became one of priorities of health care during the post-war period. In August, 1945 the resolution SNK USSR «About improvement of medical care of disabled people of Patriotic war» was issued, according to the Crimea the inventory of the disabled people needing stationary recovery treatment was made, the network of the specialized hospitals completed with the qualified medical shots is created. Treatment of disabled people of Patriotic war was based on the basis of their free ensuring highly skilled medical aid with all types and a dignity. - hens. treatments, and also a trudoobucheniya in medical institutions, free providing them with prostheses, orthoses and so forth.

On service of elimination a dignity. effects of war the medical science was put. The USSR Academy of Medical Sciences held the all-Union conferences devoted to scientific synthesis of data medical - a dignity. effects of war and to actions for their elimination. Merging of out-patient and polyclinic institutions with

would be the important and repaid organizational action that promoted strengthening of material and technical resources of medical institutions, to considerable improvement of diagnostic and to lay down. works; more timely hospitalization of patients began to be performed, succession in work of institutions of the stationary and extra hospital help improved.

Serious changes happened in rendering medical aid to country people. Along with growth to lay down. institutions and increase in number of doctors the system of the organization of specialized medical aid to country people began to develop. There was a reorganization of out-patient local institutions in hospital, merging of regional BCs with others regional to lay down. - the prof. institutions, completion by their specialists doctors and the modern medical equipment. In short terms in regional departments on the main specialties would be created, in rural districts the stationary and out-patient and polyclinic help with ophthalmology, dermatology, otolaryngology and other specialties began to develop. In April, 1949

the I All-Union meeting on medical service of country people would recognize as the leading link of medical aid to country people regional, edges, except rendering highly skilled and specialized medical aid to the population, had to become the organizational and methodical center for upgrading of work of regional healthcare institutions.

In post-war years the Communist Party and the Soviet government gave great attention to health protection of mother and child. The child care facilities and maternity homes which were injured during war were completely recovered, the quantity of obstetric and children's beds increased, the network of collective-farm maternity homes extended.

In high gear developed a dignity. - epid, service. In 1946 in the USSR a dignity. - epid, stations was twice more, than before war; in a dignity. - epid, institutions the St. 88,5 thousand persons worked. Work on a dignity extended. to protection of sources of water supply, air basin, soil.

On the basis of rapid growth of industrial production and development of agriculture the party achieved increase in material well-being of the Soviet people. At the end of 1947 the monetary reform was undertaken, the rationing system on food and industrial products is cancelled. In wide scales recovery of housing stock and new housing construction was carried out: for 1946 — 1950 in the cities and working settlements it was recovered and constructed houses by the area of St. 100 million sq.m, in rural areas — 2,7 million houses. A lot of work on improvement of working conditions and life of the population was carried out: to utility improvement of the inhabited places, creation favorable a dignity. conditions on pry. the enterprises, replacement of hard manual skills mechanized, to development of public catering. In the resolution of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee of March 6, 1948. «About a condition of party and political work in mines of Kuzbass» the tasks to draw attention of the trade-union organizations to questions of cultural and community service of workers, improvements of work of medical institutions, to take measures for improvement of labor protection and the accident prevention in mines were set for the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions and a number of mines - in, including for M3 of the USSR. Steady improvement of working conditions and life of the population was result of all these measures that in turn promoted strengthening of health of the Soviet people.

As a result of successful performance of tasks of the fourth five-years period by 1950 indicators of health care considerably exceeded pre-war level. There were noticeable shifts in the state of health of the population: the general mortality in comparison with 1940 decreased twice, child mortality — more than twice; many times over incidence inf decreased. diseases. The number of doctors increased by 71%, average medics — for 52%, the number of hospital beds, nurseries and clinics for women, policlinics and others to lay down. - professional, institutions also exceeded pre-war level.

The essential contribution to development of health care was made by toilers of the medical industry, edges successfully implemented the plan of the fourth five-years period. In 1950 the enterprises chemical - pharm. the industries made pharmaceuticals 23% more, than it was provided by a task.

The medicinal help to the population improved: by 1950 the number of drugstores increased up to 12,3 thousand, pharmaceutical points — up to 55 thousand.

Despite huge difficulties of the post-war period, noticeable success in a dignity was achieved. - hens. construction. It was succeeded to bring number of sanatorium places in 1950 to 255 thousand, i.e. on 15 thousand places to surpass pre-war level and to exceed a plan target of the fourth five-years period.

Distinctiveness of the Soviet health care and all socialist tenor of life was most brightly shown in that really national help and broad participation of the most various circles of the population of our country in recovery and further development of health care. Many thousands of activists of the Soviet Red Cross were attracted to participate in actions for elimination a dignity. effects of war. Much attention was paid to rendering the medico-social help to disabled veterans, orphan children and families of the died soldiers.

In October, 1952 the XIX congress took place. He approved Directives by the fifth five-year development plan for the USSR further rise in socialist economy on the basis of preferential development of the heavy industry, the further growth of material well-being, health care and cultural level of the people Was planned for 1951 — 1955. Much attention in Directives was paid to strengthening of material and technical resources of health care, upgrading of medical aid and training of medics. In particular, it was provided to increase number of hospital beds not less than by 20%, number of places in sanatoria approximately for 15%, in rest houses — for 30%, in a children's day nursery — for 20%, and in kindergartens — for 40%, release of doctors — not less than for 25% with simultaneous expansion of actions for their improvement. The congress considered necessary to provide further equipment of BC, clinics, sanatoria with the latest medical equipment and increase in culture of their work. In this regard it was provided to increase in

1955 not less than by 2,5 times in comparison with 1950 production of medicines, the medical equipment and tools, having paid special attention to expansion of production of the latest medicines and others effective to lay down. - professional, means, and also the modern diagnostic and medical medical equipment. In Directives of a congress it was provided «to direct efforts of medical scientists to the solution of the major problems of health care, having concentrated special attention on questions of prevention, to provide bystreyshy implementation in practice of achievements of medical science» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 6, page 362).

For years of the fifth five-years period the Soviet health care achieved new progress. In high gear the network of medical institutions grew, a lot of work on improvement of organizational forms of medical aid by the worker pry was carried out. enterprises, to urban and country people. In September, 1953 the Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU which adopted the resolution «About Measures of Further Development of Agriculture of the USSR» took place. In decisions of the Plenum it was noted that collective farms, in process of growth of their public economy, have a full opportunity to use a part of the income on construction of kindergartens, a day nursery and maternity homes to create the best conditions to collective farmers for work in collective-farm production and more active participation in public life. In pursuance of decisions of the Plenum the order M3 USSR «About improvement of medical care of country people» was issued on December 22, 1953. In the village the special session of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences which took place in Krasnodar in March, 1954 was devoted to questions of the organization of health care. At a session special attention was paid to questions of prevention and, in particular, use of a dispensary method at service of collective farmers and employees of state farms.

Those years the party paid special attention to growth of grain farm. The party saw the main link in increase in production of grain in development virgin and laylands in Kazakhstan, Siberia, etc. districts of the country. March 2, 1954. The plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU adopted the resolution «About gaveneyshy increase in production of grain in the country and about development virgin and laylands». On call of the Communist Party from every quarter of the country to districts of development virgin and laylands for permanent job tens of thousands of specialists — engineers, machine operators, combine operators and tractor operators, agronomists and livestock specialists left, and also it is a lot of medics wishing to participate the personal labor in performance by the planned set of the program of rise in agriculture. Only in 1954 — 1956 it was mastered apprx. 36 million hectares virgin and laylands, from them in 1954 — 1955 in Kazakhstan — 18 million hectares. The country received in addition hundreds of millions poods of bread. Development of virgin lands promoted transformation of huge districts in the east of the country; in the territory of Kazakhstan, Altai, Siberia the new cities, the plants, factories, schools, medical institutions grew. For rather short term indicators of the state of health, level and quality of medical aid to the population of these districts considerably improved. «Plowing of virgin lands in Kazakhstan — comrade of JI wrote. I. Brezhnev — was not only the largest, but also economic action... The virgin soil gave a powerful spur to development of productive forces of Kazakhstan, growth of its economy, science and culture» (JI. I. Brezhnev, Tselina, M., Politizdat, 1978, page 78 — 79).

The Soviet people successfully completed implementation of the fifth five-year development plan for the USSR, including and in the field of health care, in preparation and education of medical shots. In 1955 in the country there was a St. 334 thousand doctors, apprx. 1 million paramedical staff. By the number of doctors the Soviet Union won first place in the world. The number of hospital beds in the country in the fifth five-years period increased by 27,1% and reached nearly 1,3 million. And in such republics as the Kazakh SSR, the number of beds increased almost by 60%, in the Lithuanian SSR — for 49%, in the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic — for 46%, in the Moldavian and Tajik SSR — for 41%. Care of party of development of health care was shown also in resolutions on rewarding of medics for long service and excellent job, about provision of pensions, about salary increase to medics.

In days of the fifth five-years period the Soviet scientists-physicians made and implemented in practice many discoveries, in particular were developed and surgical methods of treatment of heart diseases, new methods of conservation of blood, original blood substitutes, vaccines and serums began to be applied to prevention and treatment inf successfully. diseases. It was succeeded to reduce incidence of the prof. of diseases sharply. In medical practice radioisotopes (cobalt — were implemented at diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors, iodine — a thyroid gland etc.), supermicroscopes, television monitors and other devices. At treatment of many diseases use of domestic antibiotics extended. Progress in treatment and prevention of children's infections — whooping cough, measles, and also achievement in the area a gigabyte is well-known. sciences, work of malariologists, etc. All this allowed to reduce considerably incidence of the population, especially inf. and parasitic diseases.

XX congress of the CPSU (February, 1956) approved Directives of a congress by the sixth five-year development plan for the national economy of the USSR for 1956 — 1960. The congress developed the program of further economic growth of our country, powerful raising of all industries of the national economy, substantial increase of material well-being and cultural level of workers, every possible improvement of working conditions and life, protection and strengthening of health of the Soviet people. Among delegates of a congress there were figures of medical science and health care, including M. D. Kovrigin, A. V. Palladiya, etc. The congress recognized necessary to provide further development of health care, to raise the level of preventive activity of bodies of health care, to increase culture of medical service of the population. To increase number of hospital beds in 1960 in comparison with 1955 approximately by 28%, number of places in a children's day nursery — for 44%, number of places in kindergartens — for 45%, number of places in sanatoria — for 10% of willows rest houses — for 13%. To provide development of network of sanatoria and rest houses of hl. obr. in the central and northern districts of the European part of the USSR, in the districts of the Urals, Western and Eastern Siberia, the Far East, Central Asia and Kazakhstan. To improve equipment to lay down. - professional, institutions by the modern medical equipment. To construct for years of the sixth five-years period-tsy by quantity of beds 2,8 times bigger, than in the fifth five-years period, a children's day nursery and kindergartens 2,4 times bigger, than in the fifth five-years period, widely attracting mines-va, departments of the USSR and federal republics to construction to lay down. - professional, and child care facilities. To expand construction of houses for disabled people and aged. To provide further development of medical science, having concentrated strengths of the Soviet scientists on research of new methods and prophylactics and treatments. To increase production of products of the medical industry not less than twice in comparison with 1955, having paid special attention to expansion of production new, more effective to lay down. - professional, means, and also modern surgical tools, the diagnostic and medical medical equipment and the equipment. To improve work on labor protection and the prevention of diseases of workers and the serving industrial enterprises, and also on protection of water sources, free air and the soil from pollution as industrial emissions.

With Lenin care of the benefit and health of the Soviet person decisions of a congress on reduction of duration of the working day in predvykhodny and holiday days, about gradual transfer of workers and employees into the 7-hour working day, and in some industries on 6-hour are imbued. Soon after the congress the 6-hour working day for teenagers from 16 to 18 years was established. The decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR of March 26, 1956 prolonged issue to women on pregnancy and childbirth from 77 to 112 calendar days. Among the special events which are of great importance for health care it should be noted acceptance by the Supreme Council of the USSR on July 14, 1956 of the law «About the State Pensions». Considerably the state allocations for social insurance and social security, especially increased by grants to having many children and lonely mothers, increase in pensions, the best device aged and disabled people.

An extraordinary XXI congress of the CPSU (January — February, 1959) summed up the results of socialist construction in our country, having made the major for tasks and perspectives of further development a conclusion that socialism gained a clear and final victory in our country. As a result of heroic work of party and all Soviet people, perfect political, economic and cultural transformations the country entered the new period of the development — the period of the developed construction of communism, the main objectives to-rogo are: creation of material and technical resources of communism; development and improvement of the socialist public relations; education of the Soviet people in the spirit of communism. A main goal of the development plan for the national economy of the USSR approved by a congress for 1959 — 1965 was further powerful raising of all industries of economy on the basis of the preferential growth of the heavy industry, considerable strengthening of economic capacity of the country to provide continuous increase in living standards of the people. At the same time the party considered the major task essential raising of the real income of the population in the city and the village, substantial increase of the salary. Target figures of development of the national economy of the USSR for 1959 — 1965 provided measures for further improvement of public health care, capital investments in construction of healthcare institutions, social security, physical culture and sport and in the medical industry were planned for the sum of St. 25 billion rubles, input in the cities and working settlements of 15 million apartments with a total area of 650 — 660 million sq.m and apprx. 7 million houses in rural areas, increase in production of food stuffs and consumer goods, further reduction of the working day and implementation of actions for widespread introduction of automation and mechanization in industrial and page - x. production. Allocations for the sum of 72 billion rubles for improvement of the inhabited places (water supply, the sewerage, cleaning, etc.), and also were planned for elimination and the prevention of pollution of free air, reservoirs and the soil by industrial emissions and economic and household waste. For strengthening of material and technical resources of health care it was planned to increase number of hospital beds by 530 thousand, including St. 300 thousand due to construction of new stationary institutions, to bring number of places in sanatoria and institutions of rest to 480 — 490 thousand, in preschool child care facilities — to 6,1 million. It was planned to increase production of medical products in comparison with 1958 approximately by 3 times, including production of antibiotics by 3,7 times, vitamins — by 6 times, medical tools, devices and devices by 2 — 2,5 times. Delegates of a congress were A. A. Vishnevsky, And. V. Palladiya, etc. scientists-physicians, organizers and workers of practical health care.

Transition to a new stage of communistic construction — to mature socialism — marked statement of new tasks before bodies and healthcare institutions. Fuller satisfaction of needs of the population for all types to lay down. - professional, the help demanded further strengthening of material and technical resources of health care, approach to the population of highly skilled specialized medical aid, strengthening a dignity. supervision of a condition of objects of the environment, working conditions and life. At the same time for performance of these tasks network to lay down. - professional, institutions at that time was still insufficient, and their low power, especially in rural areas, slowed down development of specialized medical aid. Thus, there was an imperative need of expansion and integration of network ambulatornopoliklinichesky, stationary and a dignity. - protivoepid, institutions and providing with their highly qualified personnel specialists doctors and average medics, and also the modern medical equipment to lay down. and diagnostic equipment, equipment and tools; increases in release of doctors and average medics, creations of effective system of specialization and improvement of medical shots; strengthenings of security services of health of women and children; acceptances of urgent measures for further rapprochement of level of medical aid to urban and country people. Implementation of these tasks made the main content of activity of bodies and healthcare institutions.

Decisions of a congress were unanimously approved by party, all Soviet people. Fight for their implementation, for early performance of tasks of the economic plan was started. Considerable development was gained by the movement for communistic work. Having arisen at the initiative of team of workers-railroad workers of Moscow Classifying section depot, it quickly went beyond the plants and FGC. It joined scientists, cultural figures, medics. The high feeling of a public debt, aspiration to connect the work with public fight for communism were a basis of a patriotic act of big group of the doctors, nurses and paramedics of Tashkent who showed willingness to pass to permanent job in rural-tsy the remote districts of Uzbekistan. An initiative of doctors of Uzbekistan scientists Rostov medical in-that supported, the countries which addressed all scientists-physicians with the letter, in Krom it was told about readiness to make the contribution to business of medical aid to city and rural toilers. The communistic relation to work was expressed in the aspiration of medics to improve the skills, to seize adjacent professions, to implement in practice of achievement of science and the best practices, to give patronage help lagging behind to lay down. to institutions, in all the acts to follow the principles of communistic morals. An initiator of the movement for the communistic relation to work among medics of our country would be collective of the nursery No. 4 of the Zhdanov district of Moscow (March, 1960). By the time of convocation of the XXII congress of the CPSU the movement for the communistic relation to work captured many collectives to lay down. - the prof. of institutions of all federal republics. Communists were at the head of this movement. The party organizations supported valuable undertakings, cared for creation of conditions for growth of creative activity and an initiative of each medic. In November, 1961 to the first in the country to lay down. - professional, to establishment — the Moscow nursery infectious No. 27 would give the rank of collective of communistic work.

In the village decisions December (1959) and January (1961) plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU, and also the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of January 10, 1961 were of great importance for development of health care. «About measures for further strengthening of economy and a financial condition of collective farms». These decisions planned the ways providing strengthening of an economic and financial condition of collective farms and state farms, technical progress of page - x. productions, strengthening of rates of equipment of collective farms and state farms new equipment for complex mechanization, gradual transformation of agriculture into a kind of industrial work. The direction of capital investments on development of agriculture and strengthening of a financial condition of the enterprises of page - x. productions allowed to allocate in addition to budgetary appropriations considerable funds at the expense of state farms and indivisible funds of collective farms on construction and reconstruction to lay down. - professional, institutions. Already by the beginning of 1961 the number of the central regional and regional BCs made nearly 3,3 thousand (against 2,6 thousand in 1950), the bed fund of rural stationary institutions increased in comparison with 1950 almost by 130 thousand beds and reached 353,7 thousand (1 on 305 rural zhit.). If in 1950 15,3% of city and only 7,5% of villagers, then in 1960 — respectively 23,1% and 16,2% were hospitalized, i.e. not only the volume of the stationary help to country people more than twice increased, but also the gap between the volume of hospitalization of urban and country people was considerably reduced. For hospitalization of villagers began to be used city to lay down much more widely. institutions (in 1960 from 100 hospitalized villagers St. 40 were treated in city hospitals). Considerably also the volume of extra hospital medical assistance to country people grew. For the purpose of further improvement of completing of rural medical institutions by medical shots and reduction of their flowability according to the resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR of September 18, 1959. «About participation of the industrial enterprises, state farms and collective farms in completing of higher education institutions and technical schools and training of specialists for the enterprises», broad attraction in medical in-you rural youth was provided. It was authorized to collective farms and state farms to send to medical higher education institutions of scholars which upon termination of in-that had to be returned to work in to lay down. - professional, institutions of the collective farms and state farms which directed them to study. Besides, the number of the young doctors directed upon termination of in-that to work in rural medical institutions increased.

For further improvement of service of the children's population on May 21, 1959 the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR adopted the resolution «About Measures for Further Development of Preschool Institutions, Improvement of Education and Medical Care of Children of Preschool Age». It was recommended to party and Soviet organizations to support in every possible way the initiative of collective farms in construction of preschool institutions at the expense of own means, training of tutors and medical staff. The close check behind supply of city and rural preschool institutions with high-quality products of baby food was established. For the benefit of implementation of a uniform educational system of children of preschool age the resolution offered taking into account local conditions and opportunities to combine day nursery and kindergartens in uniform preschool institution — a day nursery gardens.

Specific objectives of party, Soviet, public organizations, operating controls the industry and agriculture, bodies of health care in the light of decisions of the XXI congress of the CPSU and tasks of the economic plan were determined by improvement of business of public health care in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of January 14, 1960. «About mer on further improvement of medical care and public health care of the USSR». The resolution covered all parties of health care and was aimed first of all at the development of specialized types of medical aid, at its approach to urban and country people. For this purpose the resolution determined tasks on increase numbers of hospital beds from 1532,6 thousand in 1958 to 2148,6 thousand in 1965, including 279,8 thousand at the expense of the organization of medical institutions in the buildings allocated by local Soviet, economic, cooperative, public organizations and collective farms. It was provided to allocate the funds allocated for construction of BC, policlinics, maternity homes, first of all for strengthening of the existing medical institutions and also for construction both in the cities, and in rural areas of preferential large BCs (in the cities and industrial centers for 300 — 400 beds, in the large cities on 600 and more); to carry out integration of rural regional BCs, having finished number of beds in them to 100 — 200 and more, having staffed them by doctors on the main specialties: therapies, surgeries, to pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, stomatology, etc.; to provide increase in capacity of ambulatornopoliklinichesky institutions, equipment to lay down. - professional, institutions by the modern medical equipment, the equipment and tools, expansion of network of drugstores, completion a dignity. transport of institutions of fast and acute management.

It was offered to concentrate attention of scientific institutions on the research of effective remedies and methods of treatment and prevention extended inf. diseases, to development of actions for further decrease in child mortality, ensuring health of mother and child, the prevention of incidence of workers in the new industries of production, to treatment and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and malignant new growths; to development of standards in the field of hygiene of the inhabited places, hygiene of food, the prof. and school hygiene. Need of profound development of the main questions of the theory of medicine — physiology, biochemistry, cytology, virology, immunology was emphasized.

Much attention in the resolution was paid to measures for improvement to lay down. - professional, the help to women and children, preparation of medical shots, activity of bodies state a dignity. supervision, and also on increase in production of medicines, the medical equipment, tools, etc. In particular, it was offered to take measures for expansion of network of women's and children's consultations, preschool child care facilities, for increase in training of dentists; to develop and carry out actions for elimination and the prevention of pollution of reservoirs, free air and the soil industrial emissions and economic and household waste, on improvement of water supply, the sewerage and a dignity. to cleaning of the inhabited places; on further improvement of working conditions and the accident prevention. It was entrusted to m3 of the USSR to develop offers on strengthening a dignity. supervision, the provision on certification of doctors to hold events for considerable expansion and improvement of system of improvement of medical shots, to revise curricula and programs of preparation a dignity. doctors, having provided deeper acquaintance about a dignity. - a gigabyte. the questions connected with implementation of new technology in all industries of the national economy. The Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR obliged local party and Soviet bodies to take measures to considerable improvement of working conditions and life of medics, especially in rural areas, and to timely providing them with the dwelling. In the resolution it was emphasized that continuous care about health of the person is one of the most important tasks of party, Soviet, Komsomol, trade-union and other public organizations.

For improvement of water supply, strengthening of supervision for a dignity. a condition of water sources in April, 1960. The council of ministers of the USSR adopted the resolution «About Measures for Streamlining of Use and Strengthening of Protection of Water Resources of the USSR», the Crimea all completeness of responsibility for protection of reservoirs from pollution was assigned to councils of ministers of federal republics.

For the solution of a problem of advance planning of scientific research in the field of medicine and health care the special commission considered and approved a long-term plan of development of medical science in the country till 1980. The retrospective view of the predictive document, the first in the history of the Soviet health care, in the field of science gives the grounds to claim that its main positions were defined correctly, and anticipation was true and evidence-based.

XXII congress of the CPSU (October, 1961) adopted the new Program of the CPSU — the third Party program. «The new Program creatively generalizes practice of construction of socialism, considers experience of revolutionary movement around the world and, expressing a collective thought of party, defines the main tasks and the main stages of communistic construction.

The prime target of party — to construct communistic society on which banner it is traced: „From everyone — on abilities, everyone — on requirements”. The slogan of party will fully be realized: „All for the sake of the person, for the benefit of the person”» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 8, page 198). Ways of the embodiment of this main slogan of party, creation of communism is connected with the solution of three historical tasks: creation of material and technical resources of communism, development of the communistic public relations, education of the new person. An ultimate goal of all social and economic transformations provided by the Program — steady increase in material well-being and culture of the people. «The CPSU — it is said in the Program — sets a task of world-wide and historical value — to provide in the Soviet Union the most high living standards in comparison with any country of capitalism» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 8, page 265). In the Program

measures for protection and strengthening of health, increase in life expectancy figure prominently. The full satisfaction of needs of the population for high-quality and various food, implementation of the wide program of housing and utility construction, improvement of the inhabited places, including gardening, flood, resolute pollution control of air, the soil and reservoirs, ensuring further improvement of living conditions is planned. Reduction of the working day, gradual elimination of night shifts, except the productions demanding implementation of continuous technological process, implementation at all enterprises of modern means of the accident prevention and providing a dignity are provided. - a gigabyte. the conditions eliminating operational injuries and occupational diseases.

«The socialist state — it is told in the Program — the only state which undertakes care of protection and continuous improvement of health of all population» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 8, page 209). And increase in life expectancy the special section of the Program is devoted to care about health. The main objective of the state in the field of health care is the full satisfaction of needs of «urban and country people in all types of highly skilled medical care» on a basis «... broad construction of medical institutions, including hospitals and sanatoria, equipment by the modern equipment of all medical institutions, coverage of all population of the country dispensary observation» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 8, page 209). Special attention is paid to protection of motherhood and the childhood. «The party considers one of the major tasks — it is specified in the Program — to provide education, since the earliest children's age, physically strong younger generation with harmonious development of physical and spiritual powers. It demands every possible encouragement of all types of mass sport and physical culture, including at schools, involvement in the sports movement more and more of a general population, especially youth.... To provide the happy childhood to each child — one of the most important and noble tasks of construction of communistic society» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 8, page 269 — 270). In the Program need to pay special attention to expansion in the cities and a rural .mestnost of network of institutions on health protection of mother and child (maternity homes, consultations, children's sanatoria and BC, country boarding schools, etc.) is emphasized. Also measures for further improvement of material security of the citizens who incapacitated on age or in connection with disability are provided: increase in the sizes of sick pays, old-age pensions and disability, broad expansion in the cities and rural areas of well-planned houses nursing homes for aged and disabled people to accept on free keeping of everyone.

The party always considered a decisive factor of powerful development of productive forces science. «Development of science and implementation of its achievements in the national economy will be and further a subject of special care of party» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 8, page 292 — 293). At the same time «large shifts are coming in development of all complex of biological sciences in connection with requirements of the successful solution of problems of medicine, further rise in agriculture. Interests of mankind put forward before these sciences as the main tasks clarification of essence of the phenomena of life, opening of biological patterns of development of the organic world, studying of physics, chemistry live, development of various ways of management of vital processes, in particular a metabolism, heredity and the directed changes of organisms.... The medical science shall concentrate efforts on opening of warning facilities and overcomings such diseases as cancer, virus, cardiovascular and others life-threatening diseases of people. Particularly important studying and wide use of microorganisms in the national economy and health care, including for development of food and fodder means, vitamins, antibiotics, enzymes become...» (The CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 8, page 293 — 294).

The new Program of the CPSU defined the main objectives of the Soviet people in all fields of economic, economic and cultural construction, including and in the field of health care, for the entire period of construction communistic about-va.

Among delegates of a congress there were doctors — veterans of party N. A. Alekseev, F. N. Petrov, V. A. Radus-Zenkovich, I. S. Frangulyan; eminent persons of health care and medical science — H. N. Blochin, N. A. Vinogradov, S. V. Murashov, A. V. Palladiya, B. V. Petrovsky, F. G. Uglov, rectors of medical in-t, directors of research in-t, heads of bodies of health care, workers to lay down. - professional, institutions.

The Soviet people inspired with decisions of a congress started performance of majestic outlines of party. With a new force the socialist competition was developed, the movement for communistic work spread. If to the 1st All-Union meeting of drummers of communistic work (1960) 5 million people participated in the movement for communistic work, then to the 2nd All-Union meeting (1963) it captured already 23 million, including nearly 700 thousand medics. A high rank of collectives of communistic work 135 medical institutions were awarded, 10 thousand crews, departments and posts, a rank of drummers of communistic work won 67 thousand medics.

A lot of work in the field of health protection was carried out by the party organizations of the republics, edges and areas. E.g., the Kemerovo regional committee of the CPSU carried out effective actions for reduction of pollution of objects of the environment, improvement and gardening of the inhabited places, construction of utility and household institutions, improvement of working conditions, upgrading and cultures of medical aid. According to the decision of bureau of regional committee of the CPSU schools of the best practices on health protection of workers were created. For the purpose of control of work on health protection of workers crews of regional committee of the CPSU which part party, trade-union, technical and health workers were were organized. Crews directly at the enterprises studied questions of conditions and labor protection, the accident prevention, the organization and a condition of medical service, gave practical help on places.

Carrying out the tasks set in the Program of the CPSU, the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR in 1962 — 1963 took a number of effective measures for strengthening of material and technical resources of the Soviet science, to increase and improvement of preparation scientific and research and educational personnel, to improvement and planning of forms of the leadership in scientific research, development of the higher and secondary vocational education in the country. These measures were important for development of medical science and strengthening of scientific and technical potential of the Soviet health care.

Resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of June 13, 1961. «About measures for improvement of preparation scientific and research and educational personnel» and of May 12, 1962. «About measures for further improvement of selection and preparation of scientific shots» need was noted «To carry out considerable expansion and upgrading of the scientific research having paramount value for the development of the theory and practice providing further scientific and technical progress, synthesis of experience of communistic construction in our country and permission of other urgent scientific problems. On this basis systematically to carry out increase and improvement of preparation scientific and research and educational personnel, increase in their qualification according to requirements of the national economy» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 8, page 164).

Important role in carrying out uniform state policy according to the management of cross-industry and complex scientific problems, improvements of planning and the organization of scientific research, the fastest implementation them played solutions of December (1963) the national economy Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU of April 10, 1962. «About the management of the Leningrad city town committee of the CPSU of the party organizations of research institutes» and the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of March 5, 1963. «About further improvement of the leadership in development of science and technology in the country». They aimed Academy of Sciences of the USSR, industry and republican academies, mines-va and the departments having scientific research institute and developmental institutions, the management and the party organizations of scientific research institute on concentration of forces and means on the main directions of development of science, complex development of scientific problems, ensuring performance of research works in strictly established periods. «The responsible tasks set by party for the Soviet science — it was said in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU of April 10, 1962 — demand education of scientists and specialists in the spirit of strong ideological commitment, boundless devotion to communistic ideals. The party organizations shall support in every possible way young specialists, create conditions for their creative growth, try to obtain promotion of young scientists for independent work. To oppose resolutely attempts to monopolize development of separate problems by a narrow circle of specialists» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 8, page 358). Of March 5, 1963 the uniform order of the management, coordination and planning of researches, implementations of their results in the national economy was defined by the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR. The attention to drawing up short-term and long-term forecasts of the main directions of scientific research was paid.

Carrying out outlines of party, the Soviet scientists-physicians developed the main directions of basic and applied scientific research, actions for creation of the new research centers, streamlining, coordination and planning of scientific works in the field of medicine. At M3 of the USSR Council for coordination of researches and implementation in practice of new achievements of science which together with Presidium of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences opredet was organizedsilt the list of the most important, the problems of medical science having nation-wide value, made the consolidating problem and thematic plan of scientific research in the field of medicine. Significant progress was made in a question of communication of scientific research with requests of practical health care, bystry implementation of their results in to the practician. In 1961 — 1964 new methods of operations on heart, large vessels and a brain were successfully developed and implemented in practice, improvements in surgical treatment of parkinsonism and some forms of hyperkinesias by means of stereotaxic operations on subcrustal nodes of a brain, a new technique of slukhovosstanavlivayushchy operation at an otosclerosis are implemented. Cardiopulmonary bypasses, including for regional perfusion, the ultrasonic and electrodiagnostic equipment, one - and two-channel electrocardiographs, the universal device for a gas anesthesia, devices for a suturing intestines, «an artificial kidney», the 16-channel electroencephalograph, the semi-automatic audiometer for a research of hearing, etc. are created and implemented in production. The effective protivokorevy vaccine is received and implemented, a cut within 1962 — 1963 the St. 500 thousand children was imparted. In medical practice new domestic pharmaceuticals for treatment of malignant new growths, an idiopathic hypertensia, atherosclerosis, new antibiotics were implemented. Scientific and research and educational personnel special meetings of boards of mines - in health care of the USSR and federal republics were devoted to measures for improvement of preparation.

Basic value for development biol, and medical sciences, expansion fundamental medical - biol, researches, improvement of quality of training of medical and scientific medical shots had the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR adopted in January, 1963 «About measures for further development of biological science and strengthening of its communication with practice». The resolution obliged to reconstruct resolutely the organization of scientific activity in the field of biology, in a new way to estimate reached, to increase efforts for the solution of new tasks, to expand and strengthen relations and interaction between biology, medicine and other sections of natural sciences, to organize continuous contact of researchers with practical workers of health care, wider to involve in scientific work of practical doctors for ensuring timely implementation of achievements of modern biology in applied medicine.

As a result in 1964 — 1965 the scope of basic researches in the field of medical biology, virology, experimental and medical genetics, cytology, etc. was considerably expanded and deepened. Theoretical bases of modern geographical pathology are developed. The nature of so-called regional anemias of Tajikistan is deciphered, morphological substrates of collagenic diseases etc. are established. Data, important for theoretical medicine and practice of health care, were obtained as a result of complex researches on problems «general physiology and pathology of a nervous system and higher nervous activity», «physiology and pathology of cardiovascular system and breath», «biochemistry and a patokhimiya of a metabolism and mechanisms of its regulation», etc. The resolution played an important role in overcoming the vicious theories in biology which developed as a result of administration and a monopoly position of group of scientists, «denying — as the president of Academy of Sciences of the USSR academician M. V. Keldysh spoke — a number of the major directions of biological science and implementing the points of view which often are not corresponding to the modern level of science and the experimental facts. . in particular, the most important achievements of genetics were denied, unreasonable concepts about a look and speciation and some other unjustified provisions were imposed».

The task of universal providing the population with all types of medical aid set by the Program the CPSU demanded significant increase and improvement of preparation and improvement of medical shots, improvement of planning of health care. The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of May 9, 1963. «About measures for further development of the higher and secondary vocational education, improvement of preparation and use of specialists» the measures providing further systematic increase in training of specialists with the higher and secondary vocational education according to the need for shots of the industries of the national economy and culture were outlined. The resolution defined an order of planning of training with the higher and secondary vocational education, ways of strengthening of material and technical resources of the highest and average special educational institutions. It was indicated the need of strengthening of independent work of students, more active attraction them to research, improvements of the organization of a work practice, tasks of development and the organization of system of professional development of teachers of higher education institutions and technical schools were set. Party and Soviet bodies of the republics, edges and areas, a departmental operating controls were offered to provide the correct use of young specialists. In pursuance of this resolution M3 USSR effective measures for increase in number and improvement of quality of training of medical shots were carried out. In 1959 — 1964 it was open 2 new medical in-that and 1 medical f-t at un-those, the number f-tov medical in-comrade increased. In 1964 carried out training of doctors in a medical business 76 f-tov (instead of 70 in 1959), pediatrics — 34 (instead of 28 in 1959), stomatology — 32 (instead of 19 in 1959), sanitary business — 23 (instead of 20 in 1959). The satisfaction of requirements of scientific research institute of healthcare institutions for the shots owning methods of modern biochemistry and biophysics caused emergence of new medical specialties. In 1963 were open new f-you: medicobiological at the 2nd Moscow medical in-those and biophysical at Kaunas medical in-those. For these years the material and technical resources of the highest medical educational institutions considerably became stronger: new clinical and laboratory cases are constructed, equipment of departments and laboratories considerably improved, the clinical base, hl extended. obr. at the expense of clinics of scientific research institute, large republican, regional and city BCs. Upgrading of educational process was promoted in many respects by new curricula and the merging of some departments of medical in-t which is carried out in the form of experience with profile scientific research institutes, and also creation at a number of departments of problem laboratories. For 1959 — 1965 the St. 190 thousand doctors was trained, number them in 1965 reached 554,2 thousand.

Considerably the base of secondary medical education became stronger. In 1960 — 1965 it was open St. 100 new medical schools, the contingent of pupils in averages medical and pharm, educational institutions in 1965 reached 330 thousand people (against 226 thousand in 1960), and release of 74,5 thousand (against 62,2 thousand in 1960). For 1959 — 1965 it was prepared apprx. 460 thousand average medics, number in the country in 1965 reached them

1692 thousand 6 March, 1965. The council of ministers of the USSR adopted the resolution «About System of Professional Development of Workers from among Average Medical Personnel» which played an essential role in upgrading of rendering medical aid to the population.

Much attention was paid also to development of system of specialization and improvement of medical shots. The resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR «About system of professional development of doctors» (1963) regulated an order of the direction of doctors and pharmacists in in-you of improvement and on advanced training courses and specializations, it was specified that professional development of doctors with a separation from work can be made not only in in-ta of improvement of doctors, but also on f-takh improvements at medical in-ta and high fur boots, advanced training courses and specialization at the highest medical educational institutions, research in-ta and large to lay down. - the prof. institutions. In 1965 the state system of specialization of doctors and pharmacists consisted of 13 in-t of improvement of doctors, 14 f-tov improvements of doctors at medical in-ta and 3 f-tov improvements of pharmacists. Only for 1965 improvement or specialization there underwent St. 49 thousand doctors (against 26 thousand in 1959).

To further improvement dignity. wellbeing of the country, to decrease in incidence inf. diseases, to improvement of business dignity. protection of objects of the environment, dignity. conditions of production objects, in many respects promoted improvement of the inhabited places accepted on October 29, 1963. Council of ministers of the USSR the resolution «About the State Sanitary Inspection in the USSR», a cut brought organizational clearness in creation a dignity. - epid, services and considerably expanded the rights of bodies of health care in the field of state. dignity. supervision. The new resolution provided substantial increase of responsibility of heads of the enterprises, economic organizations and institutions and established an order of imposing of sanctions against the persons breaking a dignity. legislation and instructions dignity. bodies. Rules about a dignity. to patrolling of the USSR, the approved M3 of the USSR in 1963, considerably expanded the rights a dignity. - epid, services in carrying out administrative and sanitary and medical - a dignity. the measures warning a drift on the territory of the USSR inf. diseases. The material and technical resources a dignity became stronger. - epid. institutions, in particular the number a dignity increased. - bacterial, and other laboratories, disinfection departments as a part of SES. Number of doctors dignity. - protivoepid, a profile in 1965 made 36,3 thousand (against 31,5 thousand in 1960), assistants to health officers and epidemiologists — 30 thousand (against 28,2 thousand in 1960). Considerable improvement dignity. conditions of the country and activation of activity dignity. - epid, services promoted further decrease inf. incidences. So, in 1966 in comparison with 1959 incidence of poliomyelitis decreased by 50 times, diphtheria — by 31 times, a brucellosis — twice, etc. Considerable decrease in occupational diseases and operational injuries was promoted by improvement of working conditions on pry. enterprises, widespread introduction of automation and complex mechanization. So in practice decisions of the XXII congress of the CPSU were realized.

The graphic evidence of monolithic unity of party, fidelity to its Lenin principles were decisions October (1964) Plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU. The decision of the Plenum indicated increases in responsibility of heads the need, provided measures for elimination, subjectivity, administration, to further improvement of forms and methods of the leadership in economic and cultural construction. Decisions of October and November (1964) Plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU played an important role in improvement of the management of bodies and healthcare institutions, improvement of its style and methods, development of a creative initiative, elaboration of evidence-based approaches to planning and activity of all security services of health.

The outstanding role in further development of national economy was played by decisions of March and September (1965) Plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU. The development of socialist production of the decision of a March Plenum based on the Lenin principles of managing taking into account objective economic patterns was directed to elimination of shortcomings of the management of agriculture. The plenum planned the measures directed to steady rise in agriculture and increase in material well-being of the people. Decisions of a September Plenum were aimed at improvement of forms and methods of planning and management of the national economy, ensuring proportional and systematic development of economy, obtaining the maximum economic effect at the minimum expenses. The plenum in a new way put a problem of self-financing and economic incentives of the enterprises. Decisions of the Plenum were directed to increase in technological level of the industry, growth of interest in results of work of the enterprise of each certain worker, development of housing construction, considerable raising of material well-being of the people. The embodiment in life of the scientifically based program developed by the mentioned Plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU promoted growth of economic power of the country and welfare of the people, considerable development industrial and page - x. productions and to increase in its efficiency that defined high rates of capacity-building of the Soviet health care in days of the eighth and ninth five-years periods.

As a result of persistent work of party and all Soviet people tasks of the economic plan for 1959 — 1965 were successfully performed. Considerably welfare of the people, the real income of each worker grew. The resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR of October 17, 1964 established the right for pension for members of collective farm, according to the Crimea only in 1965 to old-age pension, in connection with disability or loss of the supporter received apprx. 9 million people for the sum of St. 2 billion rubles. New manifestation of care of growth of welfare of workers, including medics, acceptance by the IV session of the Supreme Council of the USSR of the law «About Salary Increase to Workers of Education, the Health Care, Housing and Communal Services, Trade and Public Catering and Other Industries of the National Economy Which Are Directly Servicing the Population» was on July 15, 1964. The decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR from 10. XII 1965 the holiday «Day of the Health Worker» is established. This state act became a joyful event in life of the Soviet physicians, manifestation of deep respect for their humane work, an appreciation by party and all Soviet people of the contribution made by the Soviet health care in a great cause of communistic construction. The day of the health worker is celebrated annually over all country on the third Sunday of June. This date is inseparably linked with history of the Soviet health care, with day of signing of the Lenin decree about establishment of the first-ever central public authority of management of health care — the National commissariat of health care of RSFSR.

In 1959 — 1965 the volume of medical aid to the population considerably grew. So, the number of visits in to lay down. - professional, institutions in 1965 made 1349,3 million (against 1044,3 million in 1960), for the same years number of visits by doctors at home and number of persons, the Crimea medical aid of ambulance by stations is rendered, grew almost by 1,5 times. At the same time skills of medical assistance were considerably improved: along with the local therapist of patients specialists doctors began to visit at home. Almost twice the number of therapeutic sites increased. Considerable work on improvement of the stationary help, expansion of bed fund, integration of stationary institutions, further expansion of specialized medical aid is done. In 1959 — 1965 the bed fund of stationary institutions increased almost by 700 thousand and reached 2225,5 thousand beds. Considerably the volume of the stationary help (in 1965 in hospitals of the country 47,3 million people against 39,5 million in 1960 were hospitalized) increased, equipment of BC of modern diagnostic considerably improved and to lay down. equipment. Medical aid to country people improved, integration of rural stationary and out-patient polyclinic institutions is carried out, are open new regional and regional-tsy. Level of hospitalization of villagers in 1965 was almost made even to the level of hospitalization of urban population. A lot of work is carried out on improvement of activity of institutions of health protection of mother and child. The number of clinics for women, children's policlinics and out-patient clinics grew from 16,4 thousand in 1960 to 19,3 in 1965, number of beds for pregnant women and women in labor according to 213 thousand to 227 thousand, number of the children visiting constant preschool institutions from 4,4 million to 7,7 million, number of doctors of obstetricians-gynecologists from 28,7 thousand to 35,4 thousand, pediatricians — with 58,9 to 71,7.

The network a dignity extended. - hens. institutions and institutions for rest of workers. The number of places in sanatoria and boarding houses with treatment in 1965 increased in comparison with 1960 almost by 80 thousand, in sanatoria dispensaries — almost by 30 thousand, in houses and boarding houses of rest — by 50 thousand. In 1965 in a dignity. - hens. institutions and institutions of rest it was treated and 8,3 million people had a rest (against 6,2 million in 1960). Apprx. 7 million workers and employees received permits free of charge or for 30% of cost. For further improvement of rest of workers and them seMay the Council of ministers of the USSR in 1965 accepted offers of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions on construction in 1966 — 1970 of rest houses on 145 thousand places, tourist and recreational institutions on 213 thousand places.

Activity of the CPSU in the field of health protection in the period of the developed socialist society (1966 — 1979)

the Member of the politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU V. V. Grishin and the Minister of Health of the USSR B. V. Petrovsky on laying of the All-Union cardiological scientific center which is under construction at the expense of means of the All-Union Lenin communistic community work day (1971).

The new stage of communistic construction marked the XXIII congress of the CPSU (on March 29 — on April 8, 1966). Found the embodiment and further development of provision of October, November (1964), March and September (1965) Plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU in decisions of a congress. The congress accepted Directives by the five-year development plan for the national economy of the USSR for 1966 — 1970 which main economic target consisted in that on the basis of every possible use of achievements of science and technology, industrial development of all social production, increase in its efficiency and labor productivity to provide further significant growth in the industry, high steady rates of development of agriculture and thanks to it to achieve essential rise in the standard of living of the people, fuller satisfaction of material and cultural needs of the Soviet people. In particular, it was provided to raise the salary of workers and employees on average not less than for 20%, and the monetary and natural income of collective farmers from public economy — on average for 35 — 40%; to increase not less than by 40% the monetary payments and privileges provided to the population at the expense of public funds of consumption; by 1,3 times to expand the volume of housing construction. Need of widespread introduction at the enterprises of electrification, mechanization, automation, modern means of the accident prevention, creation a dignity was noted. - a gigabyte. working conditions; much attention was paid to improvement a dignity. conditions of settlements, organizations of resolute pollution control of water sources and air basin; to strengthening of nature protection, especially in residential suburbs.

Directives provided measures for further development and improvement of national health care and the medical industry, improvement of medical aid to urban and country people. It was provided to develop construction of the new BCs equipped with the modern medical equipment in wide scales, to increase network of the large multi-profile BCs and policlinics capable to provide specialized medical aid, paying special attention to construction to lay down. - professional, institutions for women and children. By 1970 it was planned to bring quantity of hospital beds to 2680 thousand. The task to increase production more than by 1,7 times, to considerably expand production and to improve use of medical tools, devices, devices and the equipment, pharmaceuticals, especially effective medicines for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, malignant new growths, viral diseases was assigned to the enterprises of the medical industry. In the eighth five-years period it was planned to train specialists with the higher and secondary education 65% more, than in 1961 — 1965, including to increase by 1970 number of doctors (including tooth) up to 695 thousand, to produce annually 130 thousand average medics. In decisions of a congress the big place was given to development of the Soviet science, edges acts as direct productive more and more: force of society. «Activity of our scientists — it was said in Directives — it has to be directed to the further solution of urgent scientific problems of the present, to every possible acceleration of scientific and technical progress, bystreyshy implementation of results of scientific research in the national economy, ensuring high growth rates of labor productivity» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 9, page 29).

In the field of medical science as a priority moved forward: «further development of scientific research in the field of medicine, studying of physiology and pathology of the person for the prevention and treatment of malignancies, cardiovascular, viral and other diseases», and also it was provided to accelerate «... development of problems of genetics of hereditary diseases» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 9, page 45). The XXIII congress with a new force showed ideological and organizational unity of party, solidity of its ranks, unity of party and the people. It defined not only the main tasks of the forthcoming fifth anniversary, but also a way and methods of their decision, the new principles of the management of economy, economic and cultural construction. Figures of medical science and health care, including H took part in work of a congress. N. Blochin, A. A. Vishnevsky. L. A. Vorokhobov, F. N. Petrov, B. V. Petrovsky, V. V. Trofimov, workers to lay down. - professional, institutions, departments, scientific in-t, medical higher education institutions.

In the light of decisions of a congress before the Soviet health care there were new tasks. For their performance it was necessary to raise considerably the level of management of health care and medical science, to develop new forms and methods of the management to lay down. - professional, institutions to improve the organization of medical aid to urban and country people, to improve planning of scientific research, to subordinate activity of the scientists occupied in medical higher education institutions and scientific research institute, to the solution of topical issues of health care, fight for health and longevity of the Soviet people. The party and the government were convinced that these tasks will be carried successfully out by the Soviet medics. «The Communist Party and the Soviet government — comrade A. N. Kosygin said from a tribune of the XXIII congress — pay constantly attention to national health care.... We do not doubt that our scientists-physicians, doctors and all health workers who are highly esteemed the people with honor will carry out the tasks set for them, will achieve new success in health care» (And. N. Kosygin, Chosen articles and speeches, Politizdat, M., 1974, page 347). The medics of the country inspired with decisions of a congress with a bigger energy and enthusiasm undertook performance of the tasks facing them. The Soviet health care was on the threshold of new big fulfillments.

Performance of tasks of the eighth five-years period took place in a situation of exclusive labor and political rise, the party organizations were an inspirer and the organizer to-rogo.

the Model of the All-Union cardiological scientific center which is under construction in Moscow for «couples of means of the All-Union Lenin communistic community work day (1971).
the Oncological scientific center of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences constructed at the expense of means of the All-Union Lenin communistic community work day (1969).
the Building of All-Union research institute of obstetrics and gynecology in Moscow built at the expense of means of the All-Union Lenin communistic community work day (1975).

The All-Union Lenin communistic community work days held on April 12, 1969 to commemoration of the 50 anniversary of the first communistic community work day and on April 11, 1970 in honor of the 100 anniversary since the birth of V. I. Lenin and which became since then remarkable labor tradition became bright expression of political and labor activity of all Soviet people. It is indicative and is deeply symbolical that the majority of the means received as a result of high-powered work on community work days was directed to construction of new medical institutions (Oncological scientific center, All-Union cardiological scientific center, All-Union research in-that obstetrics and gynecology, maternity homes, children's BCs, etc.) *

Mass character in healthcare institutions and the enterprises of the medical industry was gained by a socialist competition and the movement for the communistic relation to work. Following the results of 1967 the St. 216 thousand employees of healthcare institutions and the enterprises of the medical industry were awarded ranks «Drummer of Communistic Work».

Since 1969 according to the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of health care and development of medical science in the country» (1968) All-union musters of work of healthcare institutions began to be taken annually. For encouragement of winners of reviews 10 Red Banners of M3 of the USSR and the Central Committee of labor unions of medics were founded. Following the results of 1970 in a socialist competition the St. 3,2 million employees of healthcare institutions and the enterprises of the medical industry, including participated in the movement for the communistic relation to work — apprx. 2,9 million persons. In healthcare institutions and the enterprises of the medical industry nearly 1,5 million drummers of communistic work worked, 830 staff of healthcare institutions and the enterprises of the medical industry was carried by an honorary title «Collective of communistic work».

Dedicated work of workers of health care was highly appreciated by the Communist Party and the Soviet government.

February 4, 1969. The big group of practical health workers in number of 72 people was awarded with the decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR a high rank of the Hero of Socialist Work. It was later the Decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of October 23, 1978 of this honorary title 40 workers of health care and the medical industry are awarded, and all by 1979 in the country of this rank it was awarded apprx. 200 health workers (see. Physicians are Heroes of Socialist Work ), many are awarded by awards and medals of the USSR, more than 9 thousand doctors are awarded ranks of the honored doctor of RSFSR, St. 250 thousand medics are awarded by a badge to «The excellent student of health care».

The 50 anniversary of Great October socialist revolution was an outstanding event in life of the people of the USSR and all progressive mankind. The June (1967) Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU accepted Theses of the Central Committee of the CPSU of «50 years of Great October socialist revolution» in which the results of a heroic way of working class and the working peasantry were summed up, world-wide and historical value of Great October socialist revolution and its growing influence on world revolutionary process revealed. «50 years of October are a rise in living standards of the people — it was said in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU of January 4, 1967, About preparation for the 50 anniversary of Great October socialist revolution". — The right for work and rest, for free education, medical care and provision of pensions became natural and usual for the Soviet people» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 9, page 196). In 50 years of the Soviet power duration of working week at continuous salary increase was considerably reduced. According to the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Council of ministers of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions of March 7, 1967 a transfer of workers and employees into five-day working week with two days off was made. The real income of workers and the average salary of workers and employees increased. The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR adopted on the eve of the 50 anniversary of Great October of September 26, 1967. «About actions for further increase in welfare of the Soviet people» provided further increase in the minimum size of the salary, improvement of provision of pensions, etc. Achieved outstanding success also the Soviet health care. In 50 years the number of doctors in comparison with the pre-revolutionary period increased by 21,3 times, honor average medics by 40 times, hospital beds — by 11,5 times, out-patient and polyclinic institutions — almost by 7 times. By 1967 82 medical and pharm, in-that and 7 medical f-tov high fur boots annually produced St. 30 thousand doctors and pharmacists; 629 medical and pharm, schools — St. 115 thousand average medics. The course towards construction planned by party large to lay down was successfully carried out. - professional, institutions, development of specialized medical aid. Great success was achieved in health protection of mother and the child. On guards of health of women and children there was a St. 37 thousand doctors of obstetricians-gynecologists and 75 thousand pediatricians. Preschool institutions were visited by St. 8 million children. Achievements in health protection of villagers, development of health care of the national republics and districts, especially Central Asia, Far North, Siberia and the Far East are big. For years of the Soviet power the material and technical resources of the Soviet medical science are newly created — in 1967 in the country were available apprx. 400 scientific medical institutions, and the number of scientists exceeded 47 thousand persons.

The big role for growth of welfare of the people and protection of his health, strengthening of material and technical resources of the Soviet health care was played by solutions of party on economic economic problems. Along with improvement of operational performance at the enterprises as a result of the economic reform undertaken according to decisions of a September (1965) Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU the salary increased, the funds of the enterprises spent for material encouragement of workers and technical officers, welfare and recreational actions, housing construction were created. In all decisions of the Central Committee of the CPSU devoted to problems of economic reform constantly it was emphasized that basic purpose of the additional resources received as a result of increase in efficiency of industrial production and labor productivity is the satisfaction of the growing material and cultural needs of workers, further improvement of conditions of their life that the sense of modernization of the industrial enterprises consists not only in increase in volume of products and increase in its quality, but also in improvement of working conditions, improvement a dignity. - a gigabyte. a duty of the enterprises, elimination of profvrednost, decrease in operational injuries, etc. E.g., in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU of November 28, 1966. «About work of party committee of the Orekhovo cotton plant of Nikolaeva K. And.» the management and party committee of plant, and also the higher party and economic organizations undertook to increase the responsibility for mechanization of labor-intensive processes in the main and auxiliary productions, for strict observance of the labor legislation, rules and norms of production sanitation and the accident prevention, work on reconstruction of ventilating and moistening installations, lighting systems and sanitary and household rooms at factories of plant; to carry out construction of houses, preschool institutions, policlinics with a hospital, objects of municipal services. The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of May 6, 1967. «About measures of acute management for further development of the coal industry of the Kuznetsk basin, improvement of living and cultural and community conditions of miners» strengthening of complex mechanization and automation of productions, implementation of construction and input of houses, preschool institutions, healthcare institutions, and also constructions of water supply and the sewerage and other domestic objects was provided.

To actions for improvement of working conditions and life of workers, implementation of a close check behind observance of the labor legislation, norms and safety regulationss and labor protection, to providing a dignity. - a gigabyte. the mode at the enterprises, to injury prevention, construction of housing, BC, child care facilities, subjects to water supply and the sewerage, gasification and central heating and other questions relating to public health care it is paid in resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU of September 18, 1967 much attention. «About work of the party organizations of the Perm region on the guide of labor unions», of March 21, 1968. «About the leadership of the Vorkuta city town committee of the CPSU of the Komi ASSR in business of further improvement of working and domestic conditions of workers of the city», of October 8, 1968. «About work of the Rostov regional committee of party on implementation of solutions of September (1965) Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU on implementation of new methods of managing». Especially much attention was paid to these questions in the report of the Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU comrade L. I. Brezhnev and decisions of a December (1969) Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU. In the late sixties work on drawing up and implementation of comprehensive plans of improvement of conditions, labor protection and sanitary and recreational actions considerably amplified.

The effective measures for further development of industrial production, improvement and improvement of working conditions and life of workers taken by party, and also implementation of mines - you and departments together with bodies of health care of a complex a dignity. - a gigabyte. and dignity. - tekhn, actions promoted strengthening and preservation of health of the population. For years of the eighth five-years period operational injuries decreased by 35%, the prof. incidence — almost for 20%. Implementation of economic reform allowed the industrial enterprises to increase considerably costs of holding sanitary and recreational actions, to participate in construction more widely to lay down. and child care facilities, dispensaries, boarding houses, rest houses, tourist, bases. E.g., for 1965 — 1970 for 20,4% the number of MSCh at the industrial enterprises increased, and bed fund in them by 31,4%, the St. 400 sanatoria dispensaries on 48 thousand places are constructed.

In days of the eighth five-years period work on further rise in agriculture, its intensification on the basis of mechanization, electrification and chemicalixation of page was developed - x. productions. At the same time the party constantly cared for further improvement of working conditions and life of toilers of the village, improvement of the rural inhabited places, strengthening of material resources of healthcare institutions in the village.

The big role in strengthening of economy of collective farms and state farms, growth of welfare of rural toilers was played by resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of May 16, 1966. «About increase in material interest of collective farmers in development of social production», of April 13, 1967. «About transfer of state farms and other state agricultural enterprises into full cost accounting», of November 28, 1969. «About the Approximate Charter of collective farm», etc., and also decisions October (1968) and July (1970) Plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU.

As a result for years of the eighth five-years period the average monthly monetary salary increased in collective farms and state farms for 25%, labor productivity — for 30%, was constructed houses of 183 million sq.m. Considerably the group of the rural intellectuals grew, its further growth was promoted by the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of August 20, 1969. «About the organization of preparing rooms at higher educational institutions». According to this resolution at a number of medical in-t preparing rooms which allowed to increase reception of rural youth in medical in-you the countries were created.

Realizing solutions of party, important actions for improvement of medical aid to country people, strengthening of material and technical resources of rural medical institutions, completion by their shots and to equipment by the modern medical equipment, to strengthening of control for a dignity were carried out. a condition of the rural inhabited places and working conditions in the village - x. production. For years of the eighth five-years period are organized 354 central regional-tsy, the bed fund in rural areas increased more than by 150 thousand beds, at the same time at the expense of collective farms and state farms only in 1966 — 1970 was entered apprx. 40 thousand hospital beds. Especially considerably the bed fund of rural medical institutions increased in the Armenian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Georgian, Moldavian, Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic, in the Rostov, Omsk, Kalinin regions, the Stavropol and Krasnodar regions, Mordovian the ASSR. Integration of rural medical institutions was successfully carried out. So, by 1971 apprx. 40% of the central regional BCs reached the power of 200 and more beds, in them specialized departments and offices on 7 — 10 specialties, clinical diagnostic laboratories, etc. were created. Completion of rural medical institutions by medical shots continued. Only for 1967 — 1970 for work 30 thousand graduates medical in-were sent to comrade to rural areas. A number of side benefits was provided to rural medics. Measures were taken for improvement of emergency medical service to country people of the country.

For years of the eighth five-years period for the purpose of approach medical, including specialized, medical aids to country people centralization of medical aid and mobile types of specialized medical aid gained broad development (mobile X-ray fluorographic stations, dental offices, clinical and a dignity. - epid, laboratories Etc.).

Strengthening of system of medical aid to country people, creation of multi-profile regional BCs and integration of the central regional BCs allowed to raise even above the level of rendering medical aid to country people.

The largest actions of party in the field of health care were the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of July 5, 1968. «About measures for further improvement of health care and development of medical science in the country», and also the resolution of the Supreme Council of the USSR «About a condition of medical care and measures for improvement of health care in the country», accepted by the Supreme Council on June 26, 1968. The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of July 5, 1968 according to decisions of the XXIII congress of the CPSU defined the main directions of development of health care and medical science in our country for the next decade. In the resolution it is once again confirmed that health protection of the people is the most important task of all party, Soviet, economic and public organizations of our country. The Central Committee of the Communist Parties and councils of ministers of federal republics, marginal and regional party and Soviet organs was offered to concentrate attention on problem solving on further development of health care and medical science, to improve work on selection, arrangement and ideological and political education of medical shots, to attentively review needs and requests of healthcare institutions, involving public organizations in rendering the practical help to them more widely; to take necessary measures to development and strengthening of material and technical resources of health care, to establish a close check behind the course and quality of construction works on health care facilities and behind their timely input in operation. The resolution obliged M3 of the USSR, councils of ministers of federal republics, mines-va and department to develop and carry out actions for improvement of work of medical institutions and increase in responsibility of bodies and healthcare institutions for further improvement of medical aid and public health care. «The Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR — it was said in the resolution — consider that performance of tasks of health protection of our people imposes heavy responsibility tsa health workers and imposes to them high requirements in consecutive carrying out in life of the principles of communistic morals, standards of medical ethics and selfless service to the debt. Workers of health care, relying on achievements of modern science and technology and using the best progressive traditions of domestic medicine, shall increase constantly professional standard, show the sensitive and attentive attitude towards patients, fight persistently for life and health of the Soviet person» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, t. 9, page 442 — 443). The resolution provided release of the new, third BME edition in 30 volumes.

The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of July 5, 1968 was an important factor of further improvement of medical aid to the population. In all federal and autonomous republics, edges and areas party and Soviet bodies considered questions of strengthening of material and technical resources of healthcare institutions and increase in level of medical aid. So, in October, 1968. Gorky regional committee of the CPSU approved the development plan for medical institutions of area, and also offered a number of actions for mobilization of medics on improvement of quality of medical aid to the population. It was entrusted to Soviet bodies to exercise together with the trade-union organizations more effective control behind safety arrangements and the environment. It was offered to heads of the industrial enterprises to strengthen work on construction of treatment facilities, to create sanitary and industrial laboratories at the enterprises.

In October, 1968 the resolution of bureau of the Mordovian regional committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers Mordovian the ASSR «About tasks of the party, Soviet, economic, trade-union and Komsomol organizations Mordovian the ASSR on implementation of the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of July 5, 1968» was accepted. Ways of further development of health care of the republic and, in particular, improvement of stationary medical aid were outlined in it. The taken measures provided considerable expansion of network of medical institutions in the republic.

An important milestone in the history of the Soviet health care, the act of huge political value was acceptance on December 19, 1969. The Supreme Council of the USSR of «Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about health care», in Krom the Lenin principles of care of party and state of health protection of the people found the full embodiment. In Bases of the legislation on health care it is emphasized that only the socialist social order creates all conditions for the maximum use of social and economic gains of socialism, achievements of science and technology for the benefit of health of the person (see. Legislation on health care ).

The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of health care and development of medical science in the country» and «Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about health care» opened new opportunities for a creative initiative of workers of the Soviet health care. The basic transformations which caused significant increase in capacity of health services, increase in level and quality of medical aid and a dignity were carried out. - protivoepid. providing population of the country. The material and technical resources of the Soviet health care extended and became stronger. E.g., the number of beds in medical institutions reached 2663 thousand by 1971. The course towards integration of medical institutions was successfully realized. So, the number of the regional BCs having St. 600 beds made in 1970 41,1% against 16,9% in 1960, city BCs the power of St. 200 beds respectively — 26,3% instead of 15,8%. In 1966 — 1970 in the country construction of large multi-profile BCs was conducted. By the end of a five-years period-tsy 600 — 1000 and more beds were entered into Dushanbe, Barnaul, Grodno, Yerevan, Kaluga and some other the cities; more than 40 such BCs were in a stage of construction. It was paid to expansion and integration of city and regional BCs, equipment by their latest medical equipment much attention. For years of the eighth five-years period of healthcare institution received the medical equipment, devices, devices, surgical instruments allocations for treatment and food of patients Were considerably increased by the sum of St. 880 million rubles. Level of the out-patient and polyclinic help increased, diagnostic and laboratory services considerably became stronger, the number of specialized offices and departments, and also specialized BCs increased.

A lot of work was carried out on preparation, improvement and education of medical shots. By 1971 in the country the St. 5 million medics, including 668,4 thousand doctors, 47,7 thousand pharmacists and 2123 thousand average medics worked. Thus, the number of doctors for a five-years period increased by 114 thousand, pharmacists — by 12 thousand, average medics — by 431 thousand. Inclusion in the highest and average medical educational institutions increased. In 1971 in 83 medical and pharm, in-ta and 9 medical f-tov high fur boots the St. 51 thousand people, in medical and pharm, schools — St. 180 thousand arrived. The reorganization of educational process provided by the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of July 5, 1968 was successfully carried out. In 1971

34 medical in-that were transferred to a new form of training of doctors (see. Health care, health care workforce, their preparation and improvement ; Health care workforce , Medical education ).

According to resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of September 3, 1966. «About measures for improvement of training of specialists and improvement of the management of the higher and secondary vocational education in the country» and of November 16, 1967. «About improvement of preparation scientific and research and educational personnel» measures for improvement of educational process and a technique of teaching are carried out. Number increased and level of training of scientific and scientific and pedagogical medical shots increased.

the Law USSR «About the statement of Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about health care» of December 19, 1969 (fragment).

For further increase in level of ideological and educational work in the highest and average medical and pharm, educational institutions a big role actions played the games plaid according to the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU of October 1, 1968. «About the 50 anniversary of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League and problems of communistic education of youth».

For years of the eighth five-years period the network considerably extended and the power of the institutions rendering increased to lay down. - professional, the help to women and children. The number of clinics for women and children's policlinics in 1966 — 1971 increased by 1,7 thousand, honor doctors of obstetricians-gynecologists on 7 thousand, and pediatricians — on 9 thousand persons. Disaggregation of pediatric sites is carried out; the number of the children serviced by one local pediatrician in 1970 the little exceeded 1000 persons. In 1970 there were 444,1 thousand beds for sick children against 353,5 thousand in 1965, 198 thousand medical beds for pregnant women and women in labor — against 190,9 thousand in 1965, 154,5 thousand gynecologic beds against 125,2 thousand in 1965. The number of the children visiting constant preschool institutions increased on 1,6 million and made nearly 9,3 million persons. For years of a five-years period the number of places in children's sanatoria increased; in 1970 almost in 1,2 thousand children's sanatoria it was treated and the St. 470 thousand children had a rest.

The resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of November 10, 1966. «About measures of further improvement of work of high comprehensive school» indicated the need of elimination of an overload of pupils, improvements a dignity. - a gigabyte. the mode of schools, implementation of the measures providing further strengthening of health and increase in level of physical development of school students. In this regard school programs were revised, developed a gigabyte. recommendations of educational and labor loading and mode of occupations for school students, and also requirements to standard projects of school buildings and school equipment. At the initiative of bodies of health care balanced and good nutrition of school students was organized.

The attention to systematic medical overseeing by children of early age was strengthened. In 1970 St. 96% of children within the first year of life were systematically observed in children's policlinics, 86,6% of children were visited monthly at home by the nurse, periodic medical examinations captured 98,5% of the children attending kindergartens, 98,2% coming to the 1st class, 96,7% of all school students. In days of the eighth five-years period with active assistance of party and Soviet bodies in RSFSR, the Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Moldavian, Georgian and Kazakh SSR specialized preschool and school institutions were open for children with not severe forms of chronic diseases. A lot of work for years of the eighth five-years period is carried out on specialization of the pediatric help, construction of multi-profile children's BCs on 300 — 600 beds, to reconstruction and enlargement of existing, the pediatric help with specialties developed: children's surgery, otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology, traumatology and orthopedics, neurology, etc. (see. Health care , health protection of women and children).

Developed and became stronger a dignity. - epid. service. In 1970 in the country there were 4,6 thousand SES, the St. 39,5 thousand doctors, apprx. 6 thousand other specialists worked with the higher education (chemists, biologists, engineers, etc.), 153 thousand average medics, the material and technical resources a dignity improved. - protivoepid, institutions.

Much attention was paid to implementation of measures for the prevention of pollution of free air, the soil, water sources. The technologies, processes providing the maximum processing of raw materials and fuel, and also excluding or limiting emergence and emission of harmful waste were developed and implemented. Treatment facilities were put into operation. Streamlining of use of water resources of the country and improvement of a san.okhrana of water sources were promoted by acceptance by the Supreme Council of the USSR of «Bases of the water legislation of USSR and federal republics» (1970). In pursuance of this law only in the basin of the Volga Rivers and the Urals for years of the eighth five-years period 670 complexes of treatment facilities and the neutralizing devices by the general power of St. 3 million m3 a day were entered. Dignity. - epid, the service exercised not only supervision, but also actively participated in development of effective measures on a dignity. to protection of objects of the environment.

Work on a dignity was widely carried out. to education. The in-volume which is released Central a dignity. educations the press bulletin were printed by St. 1000 newspapers with a circulation of 94,3 million copies. Annually to screens of the country there were St. 30 movies a dignity. - a gleam. subjects.

Considerable success was achieved in fight with inf. diseases. For 1966 — 1970 incidence of diphtheria decreased by 4 times and in a number of the cities of the Estonian, Latvian, Belarusian, Armenian, Lithuanian, Moldavian and Georgian SSR was almost liquidated; whooping cough and measles — by 4,5 times; for 1961 — 1971 incidence of a typhoid countrywide decreased almost by 3 times, and in the Turkmen SSR — almost in by 6 times.

In 1967. The presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR adopted the Decree on formation of the all-union Ministry of the medical industry (see), the enterprises producing pharmaceuticals and the medical equipment, state farms on cultivation of medicinal plants, a number of research and developmental institutions were transferred to Krom. For further development of the medical industry the Council of ministers of the USSR in August, 1967 adopted the resolution «About Development of the Medical Industry in 1967 — 1970.», in Krom tasks of production of antibiotics, vitamins, synthetic chemical - pharm, means, products of the medical equipment were defined (see. Health care, medical industry ; Medical industry ).

Achievements of the Soviet health care in strengthening of health of the Soviet people and decrease in incidence were promoted in many respects by snowballing of the Soviet medical science and bystry implementation of its achievements in practice. In days of the eighth five-years period the Soviet scientists developed fundamental problems of physiology, the pathology, medical genetics, virology, biochemistry, biophysics and other sciences studying basic processes of life activity of a healthy and sick organism. On their basis new more effective diagnostic methods, treatments and prevention of diseases, protection against influence of adverse factors of the natural and production environment were developed and implemented. For years of a five-years period the Siberian branch of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (see), the Central scientific research institute of gastroenterology, All-Union scientific research institute of pulmonology, All-Union scientific research institute of flu, scientific research institute of organ and tissue transplantation, the State scientific research institute on standardization and control of pharmaceuticals, Ying t of medical genetics were created. In many in-ta new departments and laboratories are open. The leading place in researches was taken by problems of cardiovascular pathology, the reason and origins of malignant new growths, and also development of methods of treatment and prevention of these most widespread diseases. Research teams in Moscow, in Kaunas and Sverdlovsk successfully worked on studying of bases of the organization of medical aid by a sick myocardial infarction and methods of treatment of this disease. Implementation of results of their researches considerably improved outcomes of a myocardial infarction. So, by data Ying-that cardiology of professional. And. JI. Myasnikova, as a result of active treatment of the St. 80% which had a myocardial infarction were returned to work, and it is more than a half without any restrictions. These works in 1969 were conferred State awards of the USSR. In 1970 the State award USSR the group of the Soviet scientists for development and deployment of a method of a countershock was conferred. Considerable success was achieved in the field of diagnosis and surgical treatment of heart diseases and vessels. Many surgical methods of treatment of diseases and injuries of heart and vessels offered by the Soviet scientists found application not only in Soviet, but also in foreign clinics and-tsakh.

In the field of experimental and a wedge, oncology researches for the purpose of clarification of the virus nature of leukoses, disclosure of mechanisms of malignant regeneration, distribution of cancerogenic agents in the environment were conducted. Methods of early diagnosis, and also treatment of malignant tumors are developed and implemented. Problems of prevalence of malignant new growths and the long-term results of their treatment were investigated. A number of basic researches of the Soviet oncologists gained the international recognition.

Achievements and in other fields of medicine are considerable. E.g., development and deployment in practice of a method of mass vaccination against measles allowed to reduce for 1968 — 1970 incidence of this disease almost by 4 times. Methods of early identification and treatment of a number of hereditary diseases are implemented. The method of ultrasonic surgery at bone, cartilages and joints operations is developed. Experiments and operations on organ transplantation and fabrics were successfully performed. The Soviet ophthalmologists and otorhinolaryngologists offered the original operations recovering sight and hearing. To group of the Soviet scientists in 1970 the State award USSR for creation of a prosthesis of a forearm with bioelectric management is awarded.

Researches of the Soviet hygienists were concentrated on studying of problems of physiology of work, especially in intensively developing industries, impacts of noise and vibration on an organism, on studying of questions of the prof. of orientation and selection, rationing and the mode of work. For years of the eighth five-years period the new standards providing the prevention of pollution hazardous to health of free air, an action for protection and improvement of working conditions in mining machine-building were developed and other industries, recommendations about preliminary estimate of toxicants are generalized, norms of food depending on age, sex, the nature of work, climatic and other conditions are offered.

According to the tasks set by the Party program, decisions of the XXIII congress of the CPSU and the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of October 8, 1970. «About measures for improvement of management in the national economy on the basis of wide use of computer aids», events for implementation in practice of health care of cybernetic devices and computer facilities were held. In 1970 the Main computer center of M3 of the USSR is organized, work on the organization of computer centers in federal republics, in a number of in-t medicobiological, a wedge is begun., a social and hygienic profile, the laboratories and departments of medical cybernetics equipped with modern electronic computers were organized. On the basis of methods of cybernetics the algorithms of forecasting of fibrillation of ventricles of heart which formed a basis for creation of the special computer device, cybernetic systems of overseeing by patients during operation and after it and also systems were developed for mass diagnosis of some oncological diseases, heart diseases, automation of researches at an ischemic disease.

The decisions of the XXIV congress of the CPSU (on March 30 — on April 9, 1971) which defined the general direction of foreign and domestic policy of our country were the largest contribution to the theory and practice of communistic construction. The congress gave the characteristic developed socialist about-va in the USSR, formulated problems of the present stage of communistic construction in the USSR, delegates unanimously adopted the Program of the world — the most important social and political document of the present. The Soviet Union opposed to aggressive policy of an imperialism policy of active defense of peace and strengthening of the international security. For the whole world constructive proposals of the Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU of JI were heard. I. Brezhneva: «The Soviet Union is ready to deepen the relations of mutually beneficial cooperation in all areas with the states which in return aim at it. Our country is ready to participate together with other interested states in the solution of such problems as preservation of the environment, development of energy and other natural resources, development of transport and communication, the prevention and elimination of the most dangerous and widespread diseases, a research and space exploration and the World Ocean» (L. I. Brezhnev, the Lenin course, t. 3, page 226). Among delegates of the XXIV congress there was a big group of figures of medicine and health care, including A. A. Vishnevsky, P. V. Gusenkov, F. N. Petrov, B. V. Petrovsky, V. D. Timakov, V. V. Trofimov. The congress approved Directives by the five-year development plan for the national economy of the USSR for 1971 — 1975 which armed party and the people with the evidence-based program of social and economic development of the country. The most characteristic feature of the ninth five-year plan consisted that it provided brand new, huge scales and a high level of development of the national economy, at the same time «The main task of a five-years period consists in providing considerable rise in the material and cultural standard of living of the people on the basis of high rates of development of socialist production, increase in its efficiency, scientific and technical progress and acceleration of growth of labor productivity» (L. I. Brezhnev, the Lenin course, t. 3, page 237). Considering that at the present stage of development of socialist society opportunities for growth of welfare of the people considerably extended, the congress set the task even more to aim economic construction at increase in the material and cultural standard of living of the people. At the same time in the Report to a congress comrade L. I. Brezhnev emphasized, «that this course will define our activity not only in the forthcoming five years, but also the general orientation of economic development of the country to the long term» (L. I. Brezhnev, the Lenin course, t. 3, page 238).

Directives according to the ninth five-year plan the wide social program providing implementation of system of actions for improvement of living conditions of all segments of the population, further improvement of working conditions, increase in the income of the population and the funds allocated for education of younger generation was outlined; assistance to large families and improvement of working conditions and life of women; completion of introduction of general secondary education; essential rapprochement of the standard of living of urban and country people. It was planned to increase the real income per capita, to raise the salary to workers, the employee, workers of the unproductive sphere, and first of all doctors, teachers and employees of preschool institutions, compensation of collective farmers. It was planned to increase number of the paid days on a nosotrophy the child and to establish 100% leave allowance on pregnancy and childbirth to the working women, irrespective of their length of service, to expand network of child care facilities, to increase the minimum size of pensions to collective farmers, to improve provision of pensions of the disabled people and families which lost the supporter, to increase the sizes of grants in the highest and average special educational institutions. Measures for improvement of living conditions and improvement of the cities and villages were provided. It was planned to complete generally providing urban population with the centralized water supply, to construct for the fifth anniversary water supply systems in 700 cities and working settlements. To bring gasification of housing stock in the cities and settlements of city type to 65 — 75%, and in rural areas — to 40 — 50%, to strengthen works on improvement a dignity. conditions of the inhabited places and the environment.

Upgrading of specialized medical aid and fuller providing urban and country people with all its types remained the main direction of development of health care in the ninth five-years period. It was planned to continue construction of large specialized multi-profile BCs, policlinics, clinics; to expand SES network and stations of ambulance; to bring by 1975 quantity of hospital beds to 3 million; to improve equipment to lay down. - professional, institutions by the latest medical equipment; it is fuller to provide need of the population and healthcare institutions for pharmaceuticals; to increase norms of allocations for food in-tsakh. It was planned to increase the number of doctors and to increase level of training of medical staff; to provide further development of sanatorium treatment and organized rest of workers. It was supposed to provide further development of scientific research in the field of the biology and medicine directed first of all to the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, oncological and viral diseases, creation of new physiologically active drugs for medicine, development of problems of genetics of hereditary diseases.

At the end of November, 1971 in Moscow the All-Union meeting of an asset of workers of health care took place, on Krom tasks of bodies and healthcare institutions for implementation of decisions of the XXIV congress of the CPSU were discussed.

According to decisions of the XXIV congress of the CPSU the party in the economic policy made abrupt turn to an intensification of production, increase in its efficiency, acceleration of growth of labor productivity, connecting the solution of these tasks first of all with implementation in production of achievements of science and technology, its modernization, improvement of planning and management, improvement of working conditions and life of workers. The Central Committee of the CPSU exercised systematic control of progress in each industry of the national economy, timely giving specific instructions on topical issues of economic and social development.

Resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU of August 17, 1972 were devoted to these questions. «About progress in automation of technological processes in ferrous metallurgy», of April 10, 1973. «About the course of implementation of Directives of the XXIV congress of the CPSU on modernization of the coal industry», of November 10, 1974. «About work of the Ministry of the oil-processing and petrochemical industry of the USSR on increase in production efficiency and capital investments», the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of April 22, 1974. «About some measures for improvement of planning and economic incentives of production of goods of light industry», etc. The new equipment a continuous stream came to all industries of the national economy. At the same time wide front carried out reconstruction and re-equipment of the operating industrial enterprises. The scales of reconstruction and modernization of the industry which are carried out in days of the ninth five-years period had not equal for all history of our country. These actions had exclusive value for improvement of the state of health of workers of the industry, and strengthening of business economics created conditions for broad implementation of social and recreational actions: considerably allocations for labor protection and the accident prevention, improvement of medical aid and rest of workers of the industry and construction increased. So, the general costs of actions for protection and improvement of working conditions made 15,4 billion rubles against 10,7 billion in the eighth five-years period. The quantity of MSCh at the industrial enterprises by 1976 increased to 1,3 thousand, 7,4 thousand medical shop sites and St. 6 thousand medical assistant's health centers were their part; the bed fund of hospitals of MSCh increased up to 205 thousand. For strengthening of material and technical resources to lay down. - professional, institutions at the industrial enterprises construction of large MSCh with hospitals on 300 — 400 and more beds or independent policlinics was made, cooperating in case of need for construction of such institutions of means of the enterprises of various ministries and departments.

For years of the ninth five-years period for 20% the number of sanatoria dispensaries, and number of places increased in them — for 38%. New and valuable experience to lay down. - works at the industrial enterprises creation by experience of Chelyabinsk of medical and engineering crews which in a complex resolved issues of improvement of working conditions and life of workers was professional.

Special attention was paid to improvement of working conditions, their reduction in compliance about a dignity. - a gigabyte. norms. In this work active part was taken by bodies and institutions a dignity. - epid, services. As a result of performance of a complex a dignity. - tekhn, the actions directed to improvement of working conditions and consumer services of workers of the industry and construction, the level of the prof. of incidence in the country in 1975 decreased in comparison with 1970 by 24%, operational injuries — for 18%. This decrease was followed by growth of industrial production and number of the workers occupied in it.

The comprehensive long-term program of snowballing of agriculture developed by a March (1965) Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU and approved by decisions XXIII and XXIV of congresses of the CPSU continued to be carried out. The party focused attention of toilers of the village on strengthening of economy of collective farms and state farms, mechanization of page - x. productions, land reclamation and their chemicalixation. The material and technical resources of collective farms and state farms were strengthened, measures are taken for providing them by shots. The party persistently tried to obtain further improvement of living and utility conditions, cultural and community and medical service of toilers of the village. Measures for rapprochement of levels of medical aid to urban and country people were carried out. About efficiency of these measures it is possible to judge by many objective indicators. E.g., if in 1965 — 1975 security with doctors on 10 000 city zhit. increased for 27%, and hospital beds — for 13%, on 10 000 rural zhit. security with doctors for the same period increased for 52%, and hospital beds — for 39%. For years of a five-years period the material and technical resources of healthcare institutions in rural areas considerably became stronger. Their bed fund increased almost by 85 thousand beds, including at the expense of means of collective farms would be constructed on 24 thousand beds. Significant increase in bed fund happened despite the continuing reduction of number of low-power BCs and the organization on their base of medical out-patient clinics and transfer of 17,4 thousand beds from rural- c in city medical hospitals. Those years it was organized St. 160 central regional BCs. Their srednekoyechny power increased. Work on the organization of specialized departments in the central regional would be continued. Much attention was paid also to strengthening of material and technical resources of regional BCs. So, within 1971 — 1975 new rooms or separate cases Chelyabinsk, Gorky, Chernihiv, Grodno, Mogilev and many other regional BCs were built. As a part of regional BCs specialized stationary, polyclinic and powerful medical and diagnostic departments were created. Considerable development was gained by the out-patient and polyclinic help at the expense of the organization of policlinics and medical out-patient clinics. The number of medical out-patient and polyclinic institutions in rural areas increased almost on 900 and by 1975 reached 3,3 thousand. Mobile forms of medical aid continued to develop (X-ray fluorographic, dental offices, clinical diagnostic laboratories on the car, etc.). The base of policlinics of the central regional BCs is strengthened. For approach of highly specialized types of medical aid to country people in the Ukrainian SSR and other republics work on the organization of interdistrict specialized departments was carried out. At several large pages - x. the enterprises in the form of experience MSCh were organized.

Further strengthening rural was carried out to lay down. - professional, institutions by medical shots. For 1971 — 1975 to work to rural areas it is directed apprx. 40 thousand graduates of the medical higher education institutions which passed an internship. The differentiated salary increase to doctors of rural areas is carried out that also was one of the factors promoting involvement of doctors for work in the village.

«Taking measures for acceleration of scientific and technical progress — said in the Report to the XXIV congress of the CPSU of comrade of JI. And. Brezhnev — it is necessary to make everything that it was combined with a thrifty attitude to natural resources, was not a source of dangerous air pollution and water, exhaustion of the earth. The party increases insistence to planned, economic organizations and the design organizations, to all our shots for good reason of design and construction new and improvements of work of the operating enterprises from this point of view of nature protection» (JI. I. Brezhnev, Lenin course, t. 3, page 257). For years of the ninth five-years period large actions for protection of natural resources and improvement of the environment are developed and carried out. Since 1971 these actions began to join in economic plans of federal republics as their obligatory part. In 1971 — 1975 a number of the party and state documents which defined the strategy of the state in nature protection, preventions of pollution of free air, the soil and water sources and improvement their dignity was accepted. states as countrywide, and in the separate objects having the state value. The most important of them were: resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of June 16, 1971. «About additional measures for ensuring rational use and preservation of natural wealth of the basin of Lake Baikal», of March 13, 1972. «About measures for prevention of pollution of basins of the Volga Rivers and the Urals the crude drain waters», the resolution of the Supreme Council of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of nature protection and rational use of natural resources» (1972, September).

The wide comprehensive program of measures for environmental control is stated in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of December 29, 1972. «About strengthening of nature protection and improvement of use of natural resources». To the Central Committee of the Communist Parties and councils of ministers of federal republics, marginal and regional party and Soviet organs, min. - to you and departments of the USSR it was offered to strengthen attention to questions of nature protection. To establish systematic control of the correct use by collective farms, the enterprises and the organizations of lands, waters, the woods, a subsoil and other natural wealth, of observance by them of the existing rules and norms on prevention of pollution of soils, surface and underground waters, on preservation of the water preserving and protective functions of the woods, the water regulating role of peat arrays, on prevention of pollution of free air, on strengthening of fight against production and household noise. The resolution assigned to councils of ministers of federal and autonomous republics, the region - regional - and the Executive Committees of the City Soviet of People's Deputies separate of mines-va and department responsibility for the organization and implementation of the state control of protection of the corresponding objects of the environment and rational use of natural resources. In particular, on M3 of the USSR the state control of holding the actions directed to elimination and the prevention of pollution of the environment, including actions for elimination and the prevention of pollution of the surface and underground waters used for drinking, domestic, recreational and other needs of the population was imposed. The m3 of the USSR was entrusted also together with Min-vom of internal affairs of the USSR to exercise supervision of observance a dignity. rules of maintenance of streets, yards and other territories of settlements, and also country vacation spots of workers and beaches. Responsibility for ensuring holding actions for protection of free air in the cities and other settlements, control of carrying out by all enterprises and the organizations, irrespective of departmental subordination, actions for nature protection and improvement of use of natural resources was assigned to councils of ministers of federal and autonomous republics, the region - regional - and the Executive Committees of the City Soviet of People's Deputies.

Min-va and departments of the USSR, councils of ministers of federal republics undertook to provide by drawing up design assignments of the new enterprises, constructions, technological processes the actions providing sharp reduction or a complete elimination of pollution of the atmosphere, reservoirs and the soil with harmful emissions and drains, and mines - to you and departments which enterprises use in production of chemical substance and connection, it was offered to develop in coordination with M3 of the USSR and Head department of hydrometeorological service and to carry out actions for decrease in emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere for prevention of dangerous concentration of pollution of free air during the periods of unfavorable weather conditions.

For improvement dignity. conditions of the cities, residential suburbs, working settlements, the rural inhabited places it was offered to councils of ministers of federal republics to consider a condition of construction of water supply systems, sewer and treatment facilities and to take necessary measures to their unconditional commissioning at the scheduled time. At the same time it was emphasized that treatment facilities of water supply systems and the sewerage shall be projected taking into account perspective of development of the cities and working settlements.

The resolution provided considerable expansion of research and development according to the solution of the major scientific and technical problems in the field of rational use of natural resources and protection of the surrounding environment.

The Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR recognized necessary to strengthen among the population dissemination of knowledge on nature protection and an explanation of importance of rational use of its riches.

The planned actions successfully were carried out, napr, in Moscow in 1971 — 1975 was annually entered to 300 gas-dust catchers, by the end of a five-years period their number exceeded 7 thousand. By 1976 impurity of air in the city decreased in comparison with 1970 by 3 — 4 times. In Leningrad only in 1975 it was carried out apprx. 400 actions which provided considerable decrease in level of impurity of free air. For years of a five-years period the condition of the air basin considerably improved also in Dushanbe, Ashgabat, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk, Kuibyshev, Kharkiv, Bitter, Omsk and other cities.

A lot of work was carried out also on a dignity. to protection of water sources. For 1971 — 1975 sewer constructions with bioscrubbling of drain waters in Kalinin, Perm, Ulyanovsk, Penza, Kostroma, Ufa, Saransk, Orenburg, Astrakhan, Volgograd, Zhigulyovsk, Pavlovo Posada are constructed; constructions of power tool cleaning are opened up in Gorky, Kuibyshev, Kazan, Saratov, Kirov, Tambov and other cities. Considerably impurity of Volga below Kalinin, Yaroslavl, Astrakhan, New and Gorky oil refinery decreased, waters of the Urals Rivers, by Béla, Kama, Oka, Moscow, etc. were considerably purified.

Putting into operation of a large number of treatment facilities, systems of reverse water supply and other measures taken in a number of federal republics (RSFSR, USSR, the Kazakh, Lithuanian, Latvian, Moldavian and Georgian SSR), provided almost complete cessation of dumping into reservoirs crude or not enough purified sewage. The measures for environmental control which are carried out and carried out by party (see) not only keep health to hundreds of thousands of Soviet people today, but also serve as a reliable guarantee of health and wellbeing of the future generations.

Having successfully implemented grandiose plans of the ninth five-years period, the Soviet people showed huge opportunities of mature socialist society in development of economy and rise in welfare of the people again. «... the ninth five-years period — comrade L. I. Brezhnev in the Report to the XXV congress of the CPSU said — has not equal. We reached higher, than in any previous fifth anniversary, prirost of industrial output, capital investments, allocations of the state for holding new actions for increase in welfare of the people.... And the first what it is necessary to tell about, are achievements in the solution of that task which the XXIV congress of the CPSU will define as main — in increase in the standard of living of the people. History of the country does not know so wide social program as that which was executed for the reporting period» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 12, page 118). Real income per capita increased almost for 25%, the average monthly salary of workers and employees increased by 20%. During 1971 — 1975 the minimum sizes of the salary were increased, the sizes of grants to students of higher education institutions, pupils of average special educational institutions and technical schools, and also the sizes of pensions and grants are increased. In general across the USSR compensation was increased by 75 million people, and due to increase in the size of pensions and grants the income at 40 million persons increased. Growth of welfare of doctors and employees of preschool child care facilities was promoted by the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Council of ministers of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions of July 13, 1972. «About increase since September 1, 1972 in rates and official salaries of doctors, teachers and tutors of preschool institutions». Medics answered this new manifestation of care of the Communist Party with further improvement of quality of medical aid to the population of the country.

Thanks to high rates of housing construction for 1971 — 1975 it is constructed St. And one million apartments and individual houses with a total area of 544 million sq.m that allowed to improve living conditions of 56 million zhit.

The ninth five-years period became the most important stage of development of the Soviet health care, strengthening of its material and technical resources and personnel resources, increases in level and quality of medical aid to the population and improvement of its specialized types. For a five-years period expenses on needs of health care considerably increased. So, in 1975 allocations under the state budget increased in comparison with 1970 by 23%, for a five-years period bed fund to lay down. - professional, institutions increased by 346 thousand, and a source of a gain was hl. obr. (more than for 90%) new construction modern large (600 — 1000 and more beds) multi-profile and specialized BCs, carried out according to new standard projects. In 1971 — 1975 are entered 34-tsy on 600 — 1000 and more beds in Tbilisi, Alma-Ata, Rostov-on-Don, Leningrad, Moscow, Gorky, Voronezh, Sverdlovsk, Andijan, Krasnoyarsk, Zaporizhia and other cities. In a stage of construction there would be 82. Besides, construction of 103 maternity homes, 130 children's BCs, 69 TB facilities, etc. was complete. Average power of medical institutions increased, and their enlargement continued. So, for 1971 — 1975 the average power of regional BCs increased from 597 to 715 beds, city — with 166 to 191, central regional — from 165 to 206 beds. In 1975 the number of regional BCs the power of St. 600 beds reached 60,2%, city the power of St. 200 beds — 30,3%, regional (rural districts) the power of St. 200 beds — 34%. Along with growth of bed fund its further specialization was carried out.

Much attention was paid to development and strengthening of material technical base of the extra hospital help that was promoted in many respects by establishment in economic plans since 1970 of tasks on construction of out-patient and polyclinic institutions. Development of network of the out-patient and polyclinic help was carried out by the organization and construction of large policlinics on 800 — 1200 and more visits per shift. In total for a five-years period it was entered policlinics on 697 thousand visits per shift. Measures for specialization of out-patient and polyclinic institutions and their equipment by the modern medical equipment, and also disaggregation of territorial therapeutic sites were carried out that determined growth of the contingent of the population captured by dispensary observation. If in 1965 in institutions of system of Min-va of health care on dispensary observation there were 17,3 million adults and teenagers and 3 million children aged up to 15 years, then in 1975 their number increased respectively up to 28,3 million and 6,3 million people; the indicator of coverage dispensary observation countrywide made in 1975 151,4 on 1000 people of the corresponding contingents of the population.

The service of emergency medical service continued to develop. The number of stations and departments of emergency medical service increased from 3,3 up to 4 thousand, their equipment of diagnostic considerably improved and to lay down. the equipment, the number of specialized crews increased. The organization of hospitals of emergency medical service proceeded, by 1975 their number increased to 54, in institutions of emergency medical service worked apprx. 25 thousand doctors and St. 60 thousand average medics.

Work on expansion of network of medical institutions in federal republics was actively conducted. In pursuance of solutions of party and government, napr, in the Kazakh SSR, for the ninth five-years period it was constructed 150 various stationary to lay down. - professional, institutions and apprx. 200 policlinics. In the Ukrainian SSR during the same period on construction to lay down. institutions it is spent apprx. 600 million rubles. Thanks to big organizational work of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan additional opportunities of construction to lay down were found. institutions by the industrial enterprises, collective farms and state farms. It allowed to master in 1971 — 1975 on construction of BC and policlinics of 211,3 million rubles.

For years of the ninth five-years period of the Central Committee the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR adopted a number of the resolutions promoting further improvement of health of women and children: «About improvement of providing with maternity allowances and on a nosotrophy the child» (1973), «About measures for further development of network of preschool institutions in collective farms» (1973), «About further increase in the help to the needy families having children» (1974), etc. Improvement of health of the school students and teenagers studying in technical training colleges was promoted in many respects by implementation of the measures provided by resolutions of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About further improvement of system of vocational training» (1972), «About measures for further improvement of operating conditions of rural comprehensive school» (1973) and the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU «About measures for further improvement of rest of pioneers and school students» (1974). Payment of maternity leaves by everything to the working women irrespective of the seniority was entered by 100%, the of the paid days on a nosotrophy is increased by the child to the 7th, grants to mothers having many children increased, payment of grants to families in which the total income did not exceed 50 rub on each family member, etc. is entered. Considerable success in health protection of women and children is achieved (see Health care, health protection of women and children).

Main directions of improvementI the obstetric and gynecologic help in the ninth five-years period there was a further development of its specialized types and increase in volume of scheduled maintenance. The specialized stationary help for women with diseases of cardiovascular system, not incubation of pregnancy, immunoconflict pregnancy, endocrine disturbances, puerperal complications, etc. was created. Semi-sanatorium departments of pathology of pregnancy, and also special sanatoria dispensaries and rest houses for pregnant women were organized.

Further development was gained by pediatric service. For years of a five-years period the network of pediatric sites considerably became stronger and extended, scheduled maintenance among children of all age is strengthened, the volume of the specialized stationary and out-patient and polyclinic help is increased. Presence of specialists in children's policlinics allowed to reveal deviations in the state of health of children earlier that considerably increased quality and efficiency of treatment and medical examination.

Construction large multi-profile and enlargement of the operating child care stationary facilities was successfully carried out that also allowed to expand considerably the volume of specialized medical aid to children.

In days of the ninth five-years period the new form of rendering medical aid to children — the organization on the basis of scientific research institute and multi-profile children's BCs of the all-Union, interrepublican, republican, regional, interregional and regional specialized centers gained development: surgical. pulmonary, orthopedic, burn, recovery treatment, for treatment of the children having paralyzes, etc.

E.g., by 1976 in the country there were St. 90 nurseries of pulmonary and 70 nurseries of the allergological centers, etc.

The network of children's sanatoria extended. In 1975 in the country 1219 children's sanatoria on 162,5 thousand beds in which the St. 600 thousand children was treated functioned. The vast majority of children's sanatoria were specialized. Gained further development pioneer the camp of sanatorium type. Only in 1975 in them had a rest and it was treated apprx. 400 thousand children.

Much attention was paid to recreational work among teenagers (15 — 18 years). In 1975 it was developed apprx. 2,7 thousand teenage offices in which the St. 2,6 thousand doctors worked. For a five-years period the number of teenage offices increased by 25%. In territorial policlinics on each 1,5 thousand teenagers the position of the teenage doctor was entered. Work on creation of teenage departments in policlinics and hospitals and teenage clinics was at the same time carried out.

Considerably the number of medical shots increased: in 1975 in the country 834,1 thousand doctors, 61,9 thousand pharmacists, 2515 thousand average medics worked. Thus, for a five-years period the number of doctors increased on 165,7 thousand, pharmacists — on 14,2tys., average medics — on 392 thousand. The annual release of doctors increased, in 1975 it made 43 thousand people, almost on 9 thousand people it is more, than in 1970.

According to the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of July 18, 1972 t. «About measures for further improvement of the higher education in the country», defined the main directions in development of the Soviet higher school, reform of the higher medical education was followed by considerable strengthening of educational and methodical work, review of curricula, programs, improvement of practical training of students in relation to conditions of their future work in healthcare institutions. The system of preparation and professional development of teachers of the highest medical educational institutions was improved. Special significance was attached to increase in level of ideological and educational work, edges considerably improved after the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU of June 5, 1974. «About work in the Moscow highest technical school of N. E. Bauman and the Saratov state university of N. G. Chernyshevsky on increase in ideological and theoretical level of teaching social sciences». Important political and educational value had the approval by Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR on March 26, 1971 of the text Oaths of the doctor of the Soviet Union (see) and regulations on an order of bringing of the Oath.

In 1975 transition of medical in-t and medical f-tov high fur boots on new system of training of doctors with primary specialization (internship) was complete. In 1975 primary specialization was entered on a dignity. - a gigabyte. and stomatol, f-takh.

For years of the ninth five-years period the system of preparation and professional development of executives of health care is created, the list of senior positions which substitution demands special preparation on social hygiene, the organization of health care and scientific bases of management is defined. For professional development of workers of mines - in health care of the USSR and federal republics, directors of scientific research institute and rectors of higher education institutions at corresponding mines Vakh were organized universities of health care (see).

In the light of the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of August 22, 1974. «About measures for further improvement of the management of average special educational institutions and about improvement of quality of training of specialists with secondary vocational education» a great job on improvement of educational and methodical work, professional development of teachers, strengthening of material and technical resources of averages medical and pharm, educational institutions is done. Only in RSFSR, the Ukrainian, Belarusian, Uzbek, Moldavian and Kyrgyz SSR for 1971 — 1975 for medical schools constructed 56 educational cases and 65 hostels.

Expansion of network dignity. protivoepid. institutions it was carried out by hl. obr. by creation of large SES and strengthening of their material and technical resources. In 1976 in the country there was a St. 4,7 thousand SES in which worked apprx. 50 thousand doctors and apprx. 10 thousand other specialists with the higher education.

In 1973 new situation about state a dignity was approved. supervision, a cut expanded competences a dignity. - epid, services, raised its role and value in public health care. In particular, the rights of M3 of the USSR in control of use of new chemicals in production of food stuffs considerably extended, and also it is right in the area a dignity. protection of objects of the environment.

For development of sanatorium business in days of the ninth five-years period resolutions of Council of ministers of the USSR of August 28, 1970 had basic value. «About measures for streamlining of building of territories of resorts and recreation areas and construction of sanatorium institutions and institutions of rest» and of September 5, 1973. «About the adoption of the Provision on resorts». The order of consideration and the approval of projects of regional designs and master plans of resorts, withdrawal of the land plots for construction new and expansions of the operating sanatorium institutions was established by these resolutions. Considerably the network of sanatoria and institutions of rest, the number of places in which for years of the ninth five-years period increased on 484 thousand, extended. In 1975 in the USSR there were 2350 sanatoria and boarding houses with treatment on 504 thousand places, St. 2,2 thousand sanatoria dispensaries on 163 thousand places, rest houses and boarding houses on 339 thousand places, recreation facilities on 489 thousand places, tourist bases on 300 thousand places (see. Resorts ). In development of sanatorium business the considerable attention was paid to specialization and increase in number of places in sanatoria of those profiles in which the greatest requirement was felt (for persons with diseases of cardiovascular system, a respiratory organs of not tubercular character, etc.). The number of places in specialized sanatoria and sanatorium departments for teenagers increased by 43,1%, sanatoria for parents with children from 4 to 14 years began to be organized; in their 1975 was 16 on 5,5 thousand places. Only in 1975 in sanatorium and ozdorovitelno - preventive institutions it was treated and 12,3 million people had a rest, from them St. 11 million people received permits free of charge or for 30% of cost. 1115 million rubles are spent for the organization of sanatorium treatment and rest of workers and their children from means of the state social insurance.

Carrying out decisions of the XXIV congress of the CPSU, toilers of the medical industry successfully worked on modernization of the enterprises of the industry, on development and deployment of the new medical equipment and expansion of the range and the output of pharmaceuticals. For years of the ninth five-years period only at Min-va enterprises of the medical industry of the USSR the output increased by 1,7 times (against provided by the plan 1,6), the production of 180 new medicines is mastered, and all taking into account production of pharmaceuticals by the enterprises of Min-va of the meat and milk industry and other mines - in and departments it is developed and allowed for use apprx. 240 new pharmaceuticals.

In the light of the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of November 10, 1970. «About increase in a role of standards in improvement of quality of products» Min-vom of health care of the USSR was carried out big and laborious work on streamlining of the nomenclature and requirements to quality of pharmaceuticals. As a part of M3 of the USSR management on implementation of new pharmaceuticals and the medical equipment is organized, the State register which is the main legal document which included pharmaceuticals, medicinal raw materials, supporting materials used for production of dosage forms is developed and published. Review of normativnotekhnichesky documentation promoted increase in requirements to quality and efficiency of pharmaceuticals. From 1971 for 1974 it was excluded St. 350 outdated drugs, periods of validity of 770 pharmaceuticals are extended.

Much attention is paid to creation and implementation of the new medical equipment. For 1971 — 1975 it is developed and implemented in production apprx. 600 new products of the medical equipment, including narcotic and respiratory devices, monitor control systems and registration the set fiziol, parameters, original devices for ultrasonic diagnosis of diseases of a brain and eyes, biochemical automatic machines, radio telemetric system for a research of key parameters of a condition of a stomach, etc.

Pressures chamber began to come to medical institutions that created conditions for use of a method of hyperbaric oxygenation. In All-Union scientific research institute of clinical and experimental surgery M3 of the USSR the center of hyperbaric oxygenation, largest in Europe, is constructed and equipped with the modern domestic equipment, in Krom with high performance issues of treatment of many diseases are resolved. Much attention was paid to development and deployment in production of means of mechanization for simplification of work on patient care of an average and junior medical staff.

According to the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of August 20, 1973. «About further development of inventive matter in the country, improvement of use in the national economy of opening, inventions and improvement suggestions and increase in their role in acceleration of scientific and technical progress» in Min-va organizations of health care of the USSR and Min-va of the medical industry of the USSR effective events for improvement of use of inventions and discoveries, development patent lintsizionnoy works were held.

Work on implementation of computer aids and economic-mathematical methods, creation of automated control systems and processing of medical information was considerably sped up.

For years of the ninth five-years period the network of pharmaceutical institutions considerably extended and their material and technical resources got stronger. By the beginning of 1977 only in the USSR M3 system there was a St. 25 thousand drugstores. The number of the inhabitants serviced by one drugstore in 1965 — 1975 decreased from 12,1 thousand to 10 thousand.

For years of a five-years period the number of specialists with pharm, education considerably increased. In 1975 in pharmaceutical economy of the country 44,7 thousand pharmacists and St. 110 thousand druggists worked with secondary education.

Efforts of medical science in days of the ninth five-years period were concentrated on studying of the fundamental problems which are directly connected with disclosure of bases of life activity of a human body, the thinnest origins and development of disease processes and also development of effective ways of diagnosis, treatment and the prevention of cardiovascular and viral diseases, malignant new growths and other diseases; much attention was paid also to researches of medical and sanitary aspects of a problem of environmental control, improvement of working conditions, health protection of mother and the child.

In the light of the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR of April 19, 1974. «About measures for acceleration of development of molecular biology and molecular genetics and use of their achievements in the national economy» it was paid to a research of origins, development of ways of early detection and the forecast, treatment or correction of the most widespread hereditary diseases of the person much attention.

The Soviet biochemists conducted the researches directed to disclosure of the biochemical mechanisms which are the cornerstone of the vital functions and clarification of character and features of disturbance of these mechanisms at a serious illness of the person. Researches in the field of noninfectious immunology promoted the solution of a number of the practical questions connected with organ transplantation and fabrics and also during the studying of origins of malignant new growths. For basic researches on theoretical, clinical and preventive medicine many scientists were conferred Lenin and State awards of the USSR.

The material and technical resources of the Soviet medical science are considerably strengthened. From 1968 to 1975 12 research in-t of M3 of the USSR and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences and 5 in federal republics are created. Thus, for years of the ninth five-years period the large actions of party promoting further strengthening of health of the Soviet people were carried out.

The XXV congress of the CPSU (on February 24 — on March 5, 1976) which took place in a situation of Lenin moral substance, adherence to principles and efficiency became an important milestone on the way to communism. The congress entirely approved the political line and practical activities of the Central Committee of the CPSU, defined «The main directions of development of the national economy of the USSR for 1976 — 1980 years», suggested «to all party organizations to be guided in the work as the provisions and tasks which are put forward by companion L. I. Brezhnev in the Report of the Central Committee of the CPSU» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, t. 12, page 83). Among delegates of a congress there are heads of bodies of health care, prominent scientists-physicians, practical workers of health care. Among delegates were I. N. Blochina (see), L. A. Vorokhobov, A. K. Melnichenko, V. I. Petrov, B. V. Petrovsky, A. E. Romanenko, V.D. Timakov, V. V. Trofimov, etc.

In decisions of a congress the Program of the world adopted by the XXIV congress of the CPSU as the program of further fight for good reason the world, freedom and independence of the people gained further development. In the Report of L. I. Brezhnev the priority is emphasized: «To try to obtain the termination of a race of arms and transition to reduction, growing, dangerous to the world, of the saved-up arsenal, to disarmament» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 12, page 107).

Physicians are delegates of the XXV congress of the CPSU.

The termination of a race of arms, further deepening of process of a discharge not only promote prevention of danger of new world war, the huge human victims, causing significant damage to welfare of mankind, physical and mental health of millions of people, but also will allow many states to release the considerable material and financial resources spent nowadays for production of tools of destruction and to direct them to satisfaction of social needs about-va, including for public health care.

the Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU L. I. Brezhnev on a tribune of the XXV congress of the CPSU.

«Care of improvement of human health — it is said to participants of the International conference on primary health care in L. I. Brezhnev's greeting in Alma-Ata — it is inseparably linked with the solution of the main problem of the present — preservation and consolidation of peace, further deepening of process of easing of international tension, elimination of threat of nuclear war, achievement of progress in the field of disarmament» («Truth», 7/IX 1978 g). Consecutive implementation of a course of the CPSU towards rise in the material and cultural standard of living of the people on the basis of dynamic and proportional development of social production and increase in its efficiency, acceleration of scientific and technical progress, growth of labor productivity, every possible improvement of quality of work in all links of the national economy was recognized as the main task of the tenth five-years period. «Successfully to solve the diverse economic and social problems facing the country — told in Reporting dokladet. L. I. Brezhnev — is not present other way, except rapid growth of labor productivity, carved increase in efficiency of all social production... And here the big role belongs to a new five-years period — not without reason it was called a five-years period of efficiency and quality, In it one of its key features» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 12, page 126).

«The main directions of development of the national economy of the USSR for 1976 — 1980 years» it is planned to increase in comparison with the previous fifth anniversary the national income used on consumption and accumulation by 24 — 28%; the volume of industrial output — for 35 — 39%, annual average production of agriculture — for 14 — 17% to provide fuller satisfaction of the increasing material and spiritual needs of the Soviet people. So, the program of social and economic development by 1980 provides to raise the real income per capita for 20 — 22%, the average salary of workers and employees — for 16 — 18% and to bring it not less than to 170 rub a month, the income of collective farmers from public economy of collective farms on average for 24 — 27%, payments and privileges to the population at the expense of public funds of consumption for 28 — 30%. Completion of actions for increase in minimum wage with simultaneous increase in rates and salaries of average paid categories of the workers occupied in the non-productive industries of the national economy is provided in the tenth five-years period; at the expense of funds of consumption it is planned to carry out a number of new social actions: providing to women partially paid issue for care of the child before achievement of age of 1 year by it, increase in the minimum size of pensions for workers, employees and collective farmers, expansion of network of preschool institutions, including increase in number of places in day nursery gardens and kindergartens on 2,5 — 2,8 million places, increase in number of summer camps, sports and recreational and labor bases for teenagers and youth. Further improvement of conditions and labor protection, hl is provided. obr. by improvement of technology and the equipment for providing safe working conditions, transition «... from the accident prevention — to the safe equipment» { L. I. Brezhnev. Lenin course, t. 6, page 329). Even more housing and utility construction will extend. For 1976 — 1980 it is planned to put into operation 545 — 550 million sq.m of living space, to increase security of the inhabited places with the centralized water supply, to continue transfer of housing stock into heating from large sources of heat supply, to expand its gasification.

According to decisions of the XXV congress preparation of «The main directions of development of the national economy of the USSR for 1976 — 1980 years» was conducted along with development of initial installations of development of national economy on perspective till 1990. «Over specific figures, tasks for perspective — comrade L. I. Brezhnev said from a tribune of a congress — still a lot of work is necessary. But follows from calculations which are already prepared: in 1976 — 1990 the country will have approximately twice big material and financial resources, than in the expired fifteenth anniversary. Thereby new opportunities for the solution of the main social and economic objectives set by the Party program, the last congresses are created. It belongs first of all to further increase in welfare of the Soviet people, improvement of conditions of their work and life, significant progress of health care, education, culture — to everything that promotes formation of the new person, all-round development of the personality, improvement of a socialist way of life» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 12, page 122 — 123).

Actions for health protection of the people, for further improvement of the Soviet national health care — an important part of the program of social and economic development planned by a congress. Further expansion and improvement of material and technical resources of health care on the basis of a rational combination of building of multi-profile and specialized medical institutions is provided. It is recognized necessary to implement more widely in medical practice of achievement of modern science, new diagnostic methods and treatments, to strengthen prevention of diseases, more stoutly to satisfy needs of the population and to lay down. - professional, institutions in pharmaceuticals and products of the medical equipment to improve preparation and professional development of doctors, pharmacists, an average medical and pharm, personnel, to bring in 1980 total quantity of hospital beds approximately to 3,3 million, to expand network of out-patient and polyclinic institutions and drugstores, especially in districts of new buildings and rural areas, houses nursing homes for disabled people and aged. Special attention will be paid to improvement and increase in efficiency of the cardiological and oncological help, and also further development dental, ophthalmologic and other types of the specialized help. E.g., for fuller satisfaction of needs of the population in stomatol, for years of a five-years period it is planned to help to construct 460 stomatol, policlinics and to organize 5 thousand stomatol, offices and departments. It is also planned to continue creation of the prosthetic and orthopedic recovery centers for disabled people, to expand production and to increase quality of individual vehicles and prosthetic and orthopedic products, to improve inservice training of disabled people, to increase norms of expenses on food and other needs in houses nursing homes, maternity homes, children's and some specialized-tsakh and departments. At the same time the most important task of bodies and healthcare institutions is upgrading and cultures of medical aid.

«Considerable funds are allocated for development of health care in the tenth five-years period — said comrade in the Report. L. PI. Brezhnev. — They shall be used for designated purpose and completely» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 12, page 124). According to this instruction heads of bodies and healthcare institutions focus attention on rational use of material, personnel and financial resources, aiming to gain the maximum effect with the minimum expenses. Measures for further improvement of management of health care, strengthening of all links of economic and financial activity, implementation of a close check behind respect for financial discipline and an economical expenditure of the budgetary appropriations allocated for health care are for this purpose taken.

Exclusive importance should solve problems in the tenth five-years period to rural physicians. The course towards enlargement and expansion of network of regional, regional, republican and central regional BCs, equipment taken according to decisions of the XXIV congress and the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of health care and development of medical science in the country» (1968) their modern equipment, strengthening by shots completely was repaid. In the tenth five-years period searches of forms and ways of the maximum approach of specialized medical aid to the rural toiler will be continued.

To higher boundaries there will be a medical industry: production of medical products will increase for the fifth anniversary for 44 — 46%, it is necessary to provide creation and development of production of new highly effective medicines, the automated unified electronic devices and devices for mass medical inspections of the population, improvement of diagnosis of diseases and treatment of patients. It is planned to increase considerably production of synthetic hormones, ready dosage forms for children, eyeglass lenses, medical tools, means of mechanization of work in-tsakh. Completion of construction and reconstruction About l Ainu, Irbit, Chimkent, Darnytsia chemical - pharm, the plants, the second turn of the Belgorod vitamin plant of the 50 anniversary of the USSR, the Odessa plant chemical - pharm, drugs and biogenic stimulators, the Rybinsk plant of-point optics, etc. is provided in the tenth five-years period.

The close attention is paid by bodies of health care to the growing-up shift. In the tenth five-years period it is provided to prepare in system of the prof. - tekhn. educations apprx. 11 million skilled workers. Questions of labor protection of pupils of technical training colleges, qualities of medical examinations and improvement of future workers, their food, dignity. and cultural and community conditions in educational plants and hostels are in the center of attention of bodies of health care.

Not less And billion rubles will be spent for environmental control in the tenth five-years period. Construction of new treatment facilities, and also change of technology of separate productions is carried out to prevent emission of harmful substances in the atmosphere and reservoirs. Many pry. the enterprises will be converted so that the water necessary for production was not dumped in reservoirs, and was repeatedly used. E.g., as it was noted at a congress, the chemical industry, despite rapid development, will keep water discharges at the level of 1975, considerably having reduced at the same time dumping of drain waters into reservoirs. Developments of new methods and means of fight against harmful emissions of substances in the atmosphere, are carried out by production, transport and other noise, vibration, influences of electric and magnetic fields and radiations. Large allocations are spent for these purposes in the majority of industries. Will be organized profile a dignity. - a gigabyte. laboratories on new industries and agriculture.

Further development was gained by system a dignity. - hens. the help and institutions for rest of workers. In decisions of the XXV congress expansion of network of sanatoria, rest houses, boarding houses, and also hotels in the resort centers, zones of mass rest is planned. The increased rates excursion business and tourism develops.

Feature of development of resort matter in the tenth five-years period is construction and expansion of local resort areas, especially in vost. districts of the country with use opened recently in Siberia and in the Far East of curative mineral sources. So, e.g., only in the Urals, in Siberia and in the Far East is planned to put into operation a dignity. - hens. institutions and institutions of rest on 15 thousand places, i.e. are twice more, than in the ninth five-years period. The recent trend is connected with rapid development of productive forces in the east of the country.

Other feature of development dignity. - hens. affairs in the tenth five-years period preferential construction of sanatoria is. Besides, in Kislovodsk, Zheleznovodsk, Alushta, Yevpatoria, Saky and in other resorts construction of resort hotels is carried out. Also creation in large pry is planned. cities of water mud baths. It will give the chance to workers directly at the place of residence to receive a full course of balneofizioterapevtichesky treatment. For treatment of parents with children health resorts in Kislovodsk, the Bayram Alya, by Obolsunovo in the Ivanovo region, in Khabarovsk Krai, etc. are constructed.

Further development in the tenth five-years period is gained by physical culture and sport which in our country became important means of communistic education, strengthening of health of millions of people, their preparation for work, protection of the Homeland. Every year the material and technical resources of sport develop. Construction of stadiums, pools, game halls, platforms continues. In a greeting to members of the International Olympic Committee, to Organizing committee and participants of the XXI summer Olympic Games the Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU L. I. Brezhnev wrote: «Physical culture and sport make huge impact on formation of the harmonious person, promote preservation for many years of health and creative activity of people. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the government of the USSR show continuous care of development of the sports movement in the country, about implementation of physical culture in everyday life of the Soviet people» (L. I. Brezhnev. Lenin course, t. 6, page 70).

The Communist Party and the Soviet government pay exclusive attention to development of science. As the main objectives of the Soviet science the XXV congress of the CPSU defined further expansion and deepening of researches of patterns of the nature and society, increase in a contribution of scientists to the solution of urgent problems of construction of material and technical resources of communism, acceleration of scientific and technical progress and growth of production efficiency, increase in welfare and culture of the people, formation of communistic outlook of workers.

The big tasks are set for scientists-physicians in the tenth five-years period. The main attention is paid to fundamental, theoretical problems, to strengthening of researches in the field of molecular biology, physiology, biochemistry and immunology. The program of the main researches, along with cardiovascular and oncological diseases, for the first time included endocrine, nervous and occupational diseases, researches in the field of improvement of working conditions and a balanced diet, and also a research on studying of working conditions and the state of health of workers on construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline. At the ceremonial meeting devoted to 250-year anniversary of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU comrade L. I. Brezhnev spoke: «... the party waits from scientists of more and more in-depth and courageous study of new processes and the phenomena, an active contribution to business of scientific and technical progress, the thoughtful analysis of the arising problems, responsible recommendations of the best ways of their decision for the benefit of strengthening of power of the country, improvement of the life of people, for the benefit of creation of communism» (L. I. Brezhnev. Lenin course, t. 5, page 366). The Soviet scientists, including figures of the Soviet medical science, apprehended these words as an appreciation party of achievements of science, recognition of its huge role in construction of communistic society. The Soviet scientists-physicians with big optimism look into the future of medical science. As premises to it serves growth of scientific shots, expansion of network of scientific institutions in various districts of our country, including in violently developing economic Regions of Siberia and the Far East, the getting stronger union of science and work, use of the new equipment in scientific research, implementation in it of automatic equipment, electronics, and also bystry development of all industries of domestic natural sciences. Firmness of Marxist-Leninist ideology in the field of domestic natural sciences, development of the latest industries of the equipment, its implementation in medical science, increase in number of research medical institutions and improvement of their activity, development and improvement of scientific work in numerous highest medical educational institutions of the country, daily attention of the Communist Party and Soviet government to development of medical science — all this combined also creates premises to progressive development of the Soviet medicine and health care.

the Model of sanatorium under construction Alma-Arasan on 300 places, Alma-Ata.

The October (1976) Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU which developed the specific program of increase in efficiency of social production became an important stage on the way of implementation of decisions of the XXV congress. In a complex of the actions directed to comprehensive increase in efficiency, one of leaders recognized effective use of a manpower of society. «Current situation — comrade L. I. Brezhnev noted in the report on the Plenum — with all sharpness sets a task of economy, more rational use of a manpower» (L. I. Brezhnev, the Lenin course, t. 6, page 155). Decisions of a plenum put forward new tasks before the Soviet health care, activity to-rogo way of strengthening and preservation of health of citizens promotes preservation and reproduction of a manpower of society. Decisions October (1976) Plenums of the Central Committee of the CPSU set for toilers of the Soviet health care specific objectives on increase in efficiency and quality of work of bodies and healthcare institutions, improvement of planning and management of their activity, the best use of personnel resources, especially specialists. In the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU «About further improvement of an economic mechanism and tasks of party and public authorities» (1979) and in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About improvement of planning and strengthening of impact of an economic mechanism on increase in production efficiency and quality of work» the priority is set — to raise the level of planning and managing, to achieve substantial increase of efficiency of social production, acceleration of scientific and technical progress and growth of labor productivity, improvement of quality of products and on this basis to provide appropriate economic recovery of the country and welfare of the Soviet people.

The program of social development and further rise in the standard of living of the people developed by the XXV congress the CPSU is successfully realized. On December 24, 1976 the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Council of ministers of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions «About increase in minimum wage of workers and the rates serving with simultaneous increase and salaries of average paid categories of the workers occupied in the non-productive industries of the national economy» was accepted. Salary increase to workers of the non-productive sphere — the largest social and economic action of the tenth five-years period. The salary increases 31 million workers and employees on average by 18%. Among them there is St. 2,5 million averages and 1,3 million junior medics. First of all the salary raised to the paramedics of the production fleet of fishing industry working at sea and river crafts, to paramedics and midwifes of medical and obstetrical centers, the senior paramedics and paramedics of stations of fast and acute medical aid, departments of the emergency and planned advisory help. Official salaries are raised by much of them for 35 — 45%. Salaries to scrub nurses, nurses-anesthetists and massage nurses are raised more than for 30%. It is recognized reasonable to enter a position of the chief nurse to lay down. - professional, institutions with a high level of payment. It will promote more rational use of an average and junior medical staff, upgrading of medical aid. In group of junior medical staff junior patient care nurses are allocated. Their salaries raise on average to 30%, as well as salaries of nurses and other junior medical staff.

New terms of payment provide further increase in material security for the most effective and highly skilled work of doctors, druggists and paramedical staff. To the operating doctors of all specialties, napr, to surgeons, traumatologists-orthopedists, obstetricians-gynecologists, etc., the oversize of a salary according to qualification categories. Nurses, laboratory assistants and averages pharm, to workers were granted the right for increase in official salaries according to qualification category the same as it was provided for dentists, paramedics and midwifes earlier.

Compensation pharm, workers is considerably changed. Salaries of pharmacists are provided at the level of salaries of some categories of doctors. Salaries to the workers having a rank «Honored Pharmacist» are raised. Salaries of averages pharm, workers are established within the average level of salaries of nurses and paramedics. Much more accurate differentiation is carried out in compensation of executives of pharmaceutical institutions, including shops and bases of the medical equipment. In the device of Boards of Pharmacy and interdistrict offices the position of the inspector-pharmacist with compensation depending on length of service, existence of qualification category and a rank «Honored Pharmacist of the Republic» is entered.

In March, 1977 the XVI congress of labor unions of the USSR took place, on Krom the big speech was made by comrade of JI. I. Brezhnev. At a congress it was paid to care of the person, of improvement of life of the Soviet people, about their health and rest, about the attentive and sensitive attitude towards the person much attention. «How to brighten up an old age to aged? — spoke to comrade of JI. I. Brezhnev. — How to facilitate a fate to the disabled person? How to heal the valid or seeming offense? Life continually raises similar questions. And it is possible to solve them, only constantly improving high art of careful attitude to the person» (L. I. Brezhnev, the Lenin course, t. 6, page 330). In the speech L. I. Brezhnev spoke about paramount value of continuous care of improvement of working conditions of the Soviet people, about minimizing of manual, low-skill, physically hard work, about creation of the situation excluding occupational diseases and operational injuries.

The concentrated result of all sixty years' development of the Soviet state L. I. Brezhnev called the new Constitution of the USSR adopted on October 7, 1977 by the extraordinary VII session of the Supreme Council of the USSR of the 9th convocation. Adoption of the Constitution of the USSR was preceded by extensive national discussion of its project, a cut nearly four months proceeded. The St. 140 million people, i.e. more than 4/5 adult populations of our country took part in it, came to the Constitutional commission apprx. 400 thousand offers on amendments and additions to separate articles. «We with confidence and pride can tell — - said to comrade. L. I. Brezhnev at the extraordinary VII session of the Supreme Council of the USSR of the 9th convocation — all Soviet people became the creator of the Fundamental Law of the state» (L. I. Brezhnev, the Lenin course, t. 6, page 519). National discussion of the Constitution was not only the certificate of a big political maturity of the Soviet people, their high feeling of civic consciousness, but also showed that the principles of socialism, policy of the CPSU and the Soviet government certainly and are completely divided and supported by all Soviet people.

The new Constitution of the USSR — legislative fixing of a historical boundary in our movement To communism — constructions of the developed socialist society. It comprehensively characterizes political system of the USSR, a kernel the cut is the CPSU, opens the leading and directing role of the CPSU in the Soviet society. The CPSU directs great creative activity of the Soviet people, gives systematic, evidence-based character to its fight for a victory of communism. Basic value has disclosure in the Constitution of a social basis of the USSR, the cut is the indestructible union of workers, peasants and the intellectuals.

Distinctive feature of the state of the developed socialism — complex problem solving of social development. Steady raising of material well-being of the people, development of spiritual culture, communistic education of members of society, etc. is first of all about such tasks as creation of material and technical resources of communism, strengthening of social uniformity of society, rapprochement of living conditions in the city and the village. All these problems of the state are reflected in the Preamble and a number of articles of the Constitution, especially in its first section.

Increase in creative activity of masses is inseparably linked with development of socialist democracy. In the new Constitution guarantees of a number of the rights and freedoms of citizens are significantly expanded. E.g., article about equality of women with men establishes its such important guarantees as providing equal opportunities in education and vocational training, in work, remuneration for it, advance on work, and also carrying out special safety arrangements and health of women. The purpose of the socialist state — to provide not only legal, but also actual equality of women. To it serves guarantees of creation of the conditions allowing the woman to combine work with motherhood, gradual reduction of the working day for the women having juvenile children.

Further strengthening of attention to health protection and all-round development of the identity of the Soviet person was shown in change of the text of a number of articles, providing the new rights to citizens, establishment of new duties. So, the right to health protection, the dwelling, education, use of achievements of culture is guaranteed to citizens of the USSR; guarantees of the right for work, rest, social security and social insurance are considerably concretized and expanded; the duty of children to care for parents and to give them help, to make thrifty use of national good, etc. is entered. The new Constitution of the USSR — the remarkable document of creative Marxism, expression of socialist humanity and democratism, a striking example of care of party of steady satisfaction of needs and expectations of the people. «We created the Constitution not for scenery — comrade L. I. Brezhnev told at the session of the Supreme Council. — It shall be carried out and will be carried out in all its parts. It shall become and it will become a powerful tool of further development and deepening of socialist democracy» (L. I. Brezhnev, the Lenin course, t. 6, page 544).

The Soviet people, communists of all countries, all progressive people on the earth widely and solemnly celebrated a significant holiday — the 60 anniversary of Great October socialist revolution. The celebration of nice anniversary was an impressive review of achievements of the Soviet people, the new graphic evidence of invincible power of the ideas of Marxism-Leninism, proletarian internationalism, force and vitality of a socialist system.

Article 41 — 43 Constitutions of the USSR, accepted in 1977, legislatively affirming rights of citizens of the USSR for rest, health protection and social insurance.

For the short historical period the first-ever socialist state achieved outstanding progress. «In spite of the fact that from 60 years of existence of the Soviet state about two decades it dropped out for years of the wars imposed to our people and the subsequent recovery of economy — it was said in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU of January 31, 1977. „About the 60th anniversary of Great October socialist revolution" — in 1976 the national income of the country increased in comparison with the pre-revolutionary level of 65 times. Nowadays in two and a half days the industry makes as much products how many it was made for all 1913» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 12, page 428).

The deepest transformations are carried out also in the village. Large-scale socialist agriculture is created: the total amount of agricultural products increased for years of the Soviet power by 4,4 times. In the Soviet Union social ulcers inherent in capitalism — hunger, poverty, unemployment, social and national oppression are forever destroyed. The real income of workers of the industry and construction increased in comparison with 1913 in 10, and peasants by 14 times. The huge program of housing and cultural and community construction is carried out. In the country each two years more housing is entered, than was in city housing stock of Russia before revolution. Socialism opened for workers the broadest access to knowledge. In pre-revolutionary Russia about three quarters of adult population were illiterate. In the 70th 20 century more than three quarters of the persons occupied in the national economy have the higher or secondary education. The number of scientists increased in comparison with 1913 by 108 times.

In our country, it is emphasized in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU «About the 60th anniversary of Great October socialist revolution», fair social security is guaranteed to each Soviet person, free medical aid is provided and conditions for treatment are created. So, e.g., the number of hospital beds increased for years of the Soviet power by 14,7 times, number of medical out-patient and polyclinic institutions — almost by 6 times. The person changed to lay down. - professional, institutions: instead of low-power hospitals on 10 — 20 beds the powerful multi-profile and specialized hospitals equipped by the last word of science and technology instead of small out-patient clinics — the powerful policlinics provided with specialists doctors, equipped with the necessary diagnostic and medical equipment are created. The number of doctors for years of the Soviet power increased almost by 30 times, honor average medics by 56 times. The USSR is liquidated such dangerous inf. diseases as natural smallpox, plague, typhinia; only isolated cases of a sapropyra, poliomyelitis are registered; diphtheria, a tularemia, etc. approach elimination. Incidence of a typhoid and paratyphus decreased almost by 40 times, a malignant anthrax by 30 times, whooping cough — more than by 50 times etc. The results of the heroic sixtieth anniversary generalized in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU devoted to this date caused in the Soviet people, our numerous friends abroad deep feelings of revolutionary pride and optimism.

New manifestation of care of party and Soviet state of the benefit and health of the Soviet people became the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of national health care» (1977). It is symbolical that this resolution which is the evidence-based comprehensive program of measures of further improvement of service of national health is published on the eve of the celebration of the 60 anniversary of Great October socialist revolution. In the resolution it is emphasized that as a result of the deep social and economic transformations which happened in 60 years of the Soviet power, outstanding successes were achieved by national health care, necessary conditions for receiving by citizens of the USSR of the free public qualified medical aid are created. The right to health protection in the USSR is provided with the state health system, implementation of the actions directed to prevention of diseases, extension of active life of the Soviet people (The Main objectives stated in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of national health care» are described in various sections of the article Health care).

Outlines of party are realized. The State development plan for the national economy of the USSR in 1977 is successfully implemented. Annual plan of implementation pry. products and release of the majority of the major types of products it is exceeded. The gain of production in comparison with 1976 made 5,7%. The material and cultural standard of living of the people increased. The real income per capita increased for 3,5%. The payments and privileges received by the population from public funds of consumption made 99,5 billion rubles and increased in a year by 4,5 billion rubles. Side benefits on provision of pensions of separate categories of workers of some industries of the national economy, on further improvement of material living conditions of participants of the Great Patriotic War are entered. At the expense of all sources of financing it is constructed housing by total area apprx. 110 million sq.m, or 2,2 million well-planned apartments. It allowed to improve living conditions of nearly 11 million Soviet citizens. Comprehensive schools almost on 1,5 million student places, preschool institutions are put into operation — almost on 590 thousand places,-tsy — on 65,7 thousand beds, policlinics — on 122 thousand visits per shift, it is a lot of other subjects to cultural and community appointment. The number of places in sanatoria, boarding houses, houses and recreation facilities, on 6 thousand places — in tourist centers increased by 70 thousand.

On April 22, 1978 the All-Union communistic community work day devoted to the 108th anniversary since the birth of V. I. Lenin took place. The St. 147 million people participated in a community work day, it is produced industrial output for the sum of 794 million rubles. The all-Union communistic community work day was bright demonstration of high consciousness and patriotism of the Soviet people. The means received as a result of holding a community work day are again directed to construction of healthcare institutions, rural schools and preschool institutions, and also to construction of the first stage of All-Union labor recreation camp of pupils of vocational training.

In 1976 — 1978 the actions directed to further increase in efficiency and quality of medical aid are carried out. The USSR provided by the State plan of social and economic development for 1977 a task on expansion of network to lay down. - professional, institutions it is executed for 102%. To construction, reconstruction and equipping of MSCh, BC and policlinics became wider to be attracted the capital investments allocated for construction of facilities of production appointment, and also means from fund of welfare actions.

For upgrading and culture of the medical aid rendered in extra medical institutions in federal republics long-term plans of development and rational placement of out-patient and polyclinic institutions are developed; indicators of their development for inclusion in the statistical report and in the State plan of social and economic development of the USSR are specified. Preparatory work on introduction of separate planning and financing of out-patient and polyclinic and stationary institutions comes to an end. Disaggregation of therapeutic and pediatric sites is carried out. For 1977 — 1978 the number of therapeutic sites increased almost by 4,5 thousand, pediatric — more than by 2,5 thousand. Defects of work of registries of policlinics, receptions of BC are eliminated, progressive forms of the organization of work of medical staff, rational use of the equipment and a dignity are implemented. transport.

Purposeful research on improvement of medical examination, implementation of new forms and methods of carrying out mass profilaktich is carried out. medical examinations of the population.

Further development was gained by service of emergency medical service. For 1977 the number of stations increased on 80, and number of persons, the Crimea help is given — almost on 3 million persons. The network of BC of emergency medical service extends: in 1978 their number reached 74.

Effective actions for improvement of specialized medical aid are carried out. The program of fight against cardiovascular diseases is developed. Further development was gained by recovery treatment of the patients who had a myocardial infarction. Only in 1978 recovery treatment in sanatorium conditions was received by 15 thousand patients who had a myocardial infarction. Measures for improvement oncological, stomatol, and ophthalmology are at the same time carried out. help. The system of mass professional surveys of the population for identification of early forms of malignant new growths is developed and implemented. Events for strengthening stomatol, the help are held: in 1977 it is open 41 stomatol, policlinic, including 8 nurseries; in 1977 — 1978 it is organized 6 new stomatol, f-tov by medical in-comrade. For further improvement of treatment of patients with diseases of an organ of sight in 1977 6 centers for microsurgery of an eye are created.

Forms and methods of rendering preferential medical aid by the worker of the industry, construction, transport and agriculture, prevention of professional incidence, decrease in temporary disability and disability are improved. Construction of MSCh and policlinics extended. Understanding importance of activity of sanatoria dispensaries for health protection of workers, bodies of health care and labor unions not only develop their network, but also use the existing sanatoria dispensaries more rationally. The organization at them ambulatory groups (without night dream) allows to increase by 30% their capacity approximately. Transfer of sanatoria dispensaries into the continuous working schedule is also one of ways of increase in efficiency of their use. The plan of joint actions of M3 of the USSR and the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions for 1978 — 1980 on further improvement of medical providing workers and members of their families is approved. Constantly quality of medical aid to country people increases. Central regional would turn into the centers of specialized medical assistance more and more, their power constantly increases. By 1978 the power of the central regional BCs located in the city on average reached 246 beds, in rural areas — 152 beds.

Publications in «Truth» of the materials devoted to health protection of the Soviet people.

Is improved to lay down. - professional, the help to women and children: volume extends and quality of work of child care out-patient and polyclinic facilities and clinics for women increases, the network of teenage offices extends. At policlinics departments for pupils of technical training colleges and young workers are created. The attention of bodies and healthcare institutions is concentrated on further decrease in incidence of children and teenagers, expansion of network and strengthening of material and technical resources of obstetrical and child care facilities, development of specialized types of the help to newborns and the pediatric resuscitation help.

Measures for improvement of the medicinal help to the population are carried out. For the purpose of timely information of doctors on new pharmaceuticals at large medical institutions of a number of the areas of RSFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, Belarusian SSR and other federal republics offices pharm, information are organized.

Bodies and institution dignity. - protivoepid. services strengthened state. dignity. supervision of performance by the enterprises, institutions and organizations dignity. - a gigabyte. and dignity. - protivoepid, norms and rules for the purpose of the prevention of environmental pollution, behind respect for standards of intensity of noise on production and in life, implementation of actions for further decrease in incidence of acute intestinal infections, and also on a dignity. to improvement of the cities and the rural inhabited places. Control for a dignity is strengthened. condition of medical institutions.

Big perspectives of further improvement of environmental control are planned in the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About additional measures for strengthening of nature protection and improvement of use of natural resources», accepted in December, 1978, in Krom expressly that nature protection and rational use of natural resources in the conditions of bystry development of the national economy and involvement in operation of an increasing number of natural resources is one of the most important economic and social problems of the Soviet state.

In the resolution measures for further strengthening of the state control of carrying out are provided in life of actions for nature protection, it is specified that mines-va and department of the USSR, councils of ministers of federal republics, associations, the enterprises, institutions and the organizations bear full responsibility for nature protection, rational use and reproduction of natural resources and timely performance of the relevant nature protection activities.

Specific objectives on prevention of negative impact on the nature of various works are set for a number of mines - in and departments.

Problems of strengthening of control over the implementation by economic organizations, the enterprises, institutions and the organizations of solutions of party and the government, laws of the USSR concerning nature protection and to rational use of natural resources are assigned to the Central Committee of the Communist Parties of federal republics, regional committees, regional committees, city town committees and district committees of party.

The Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR recognized reasonable that during the summing up a socialist competition of the enterprises and organizations it is obligatory to consider implementation by them of plans and actions for nature protection, respect for norms and rules of use of natural resources, cleanings and processings of production waste.

Before a number of the state committees, Min-vom of culture of the USSR, All-Union about-vom «Knowledge» and republican about - you nature protection set the tasks of strengthening of work on distribution among the population of knowledge of nature protection.

So the Communist Party and its Central Committee realize outlines of article 18 of the Constitution of the USSR about nature protection and improvement of the environment surrounding the person.

Measures for improvement a dignity are taken. - a gigabyte. education of the population. Special attention is paid on upgrading of promotion of a healthy lifestyle, an explanation of value of physical culture for preservation and promotion of health, strengthening of scheduled maintenance in preschool institutions and schools, development a gigabyte. skills at children and teenagers. Serves these high purposes prepared by the Main editorial office BME USSR Academy of Medical Sciences and published in 1979. Popular medical encyclopedia (see).

Work but preparation of medical shots is continued. By 1978 the number of doctors increased up to 896,4 thousand, average medics — up to 2625 thousand. Enrollment of students in «Pediatrics» increased by 2 thousand people and made St. 14 thousand in 1979.

Increase in preparation of medical shots for the Regions of Siberia and the Far East is provided.

Measures for development and strengthening of material resources of in-t and f-tov improvements of doctors are carried out to provide frequency of professional development of doctors and pharmacists of 1 times in 5 years. In 1977 Ying t of improvement of doctors in Penza was created, in 1979 opened in-t in Irkutsk, 4 f-that improvements and specializations of doctors and pharmacists, and also 4 schools for professional development of workers with an average medical and pharm, education. Events for providing the preferential direction of young specialists for work in primary links of health care are held. According to the plan of distribution of young specialists in 1978 it is sent to rural districts of 34,4% of doctors — graduates of medical in-comrade. Further actions for improvement of distribution of young specialists, and also development of the higher school are provided by the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU «About further development of the higher school and upgrading of training of specialists» (1979).

Strengthening of ideological and educational work among toilers of bodies and healthcare institutions, students medical and pharm, the highest and average educational institutions in many respects was promoted by issue of works of comrade L. I. Brezhnev «The small earth», «Renaissance» and «Virgin soil» and their creative discussion.

New stage in improvement of ideological work, including in bodies and healthcare institutions, was the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU «About further improvement of ideological, political-education work», published in «Truth» 6.V.1979 of g. The resolution concentrated attention of the party organizations, propaganda shots and an asset on the most urgent tasks of political-education work: providing high on

the uchny level of propaganda and promotion, strengthening of her efficiency and concreteness, communication with life, with the solution of economic and political tasks, further development of offensive nature of promotion and propaganda.

«Practical implementation of new scientific ideas — comrade L. I. Brezhnev emphasized in the report at the XXV congress of the CPSU, is not less important task, than their development today» (L. I. Brezhnev, the Lenin course, t. 5, page 502). The m3 of the USSR and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences together with councils of ministers of federal republics and Academy of Sciences of the USSR are developed programs of scientific research in the field of fundamental and applied a wedge, and a gigabyte. problems of medicine till 1985. Preparation of long-term programs of scientific research in the field of cardiology and health protection of mother and the child is complete. In the main directions of medical science forecasts of its development for the next 15 — 20 years are developed. Being guided by the instructions of the Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Chairman of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR of t L. I. Brezhnev stated during his trip around the Regions of Siberia and the Far East, the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences at the field meeting which took place in Novosibirsk in June, 1978 defined the urgent directions of development of medical science for Siberia and the Far East. The Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR in the resolution «About Further Development of Medical Science in the Areas of Siberia and the Far East» (1979) planned specific measures for further development of medical science and increase in level of national health care in the Regions of Siberia and the Far East, transformed the Siberian branch USSR Academy of Medical Sciences to the Siberian department of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (see. Research institutes ).

The state annually increases allocations from the state budget by needs of health care. In 1977 they made apprx. 12,3 billion rubles, in 1978 13,2 billion rubles, and for 1979 are approved in the sum of 13,5 billion rubles. Since 1/1 1978 consumption rates are increased by food and acquisition of medicines and dressing funds for 1 patient in day in nurseries-tsakh (departments), children's clinical-tsakh and clinics of scientific research institute and higher education institutions, oncological-tsakh and clinics (departments), therapeutic, cardiorheumatological, pulmonary, allergological, surgical and neurosurgical departments city, central and others regional-tsakh and cardiological departments and departments for treatment of patients with a myocardial infarction, stations of fast and acute medical aid and in maternity homes (departments). Growth of allocations for health care allows to improve also systematically providing to lay down. - professional, institutions by the modern medical and diagnostic equipment.

Decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR on establishment of an honorary title «The national doctor of the USSR».

The Soviet physicians with big enthusiasm responded to the Letter of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Council of ministers of the USSR, the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions and the Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League to all workers of the Soviet Union «About expansion of a socialist competition for performance and an overfulfillment of the plan of 1978 and strengthening of fight for increase in production efficiency and quality of work». In 1978 the St. 4,4 million medics participated in the movement for the communistic relation to work.

For achievement in 1977 of the best results in the All-Union socialist competition of 13 institutions, enterprises and Scientific Research Institute M3 SSSR and Min-va of the medical industry of the USSR are awarded by the passing red banners of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Council of ministers of the USSR, the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions and the Central Committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League. Five of them are brought on the All-Union honor roll at ENEA of the USSR; 20 staff of medical institutions are awarded by the passing red banners of M3 of the USSR and the Central Committee of labor union of medics.

Peace-loving policy of the Soviet Union, implementation of the Program of the world adopted by the XXIV congress of the CPSU exerted and exert a great influence on development of the international cooperation in medical science and health care. Constantly extending system of the international cooperation in health care includes active participation of the Soviet specialists in work of the international medical organizations, the international and national congresses, symposiums and conferences, exchange of scientists and workers of practical health care etc. With many countries agreements and intergovernmental agreements on the basis of which exchange of information and joint researches of the urgent problems of medical science which are of mutual interest is carried out are signed.

Cooperation in medical science and health care is an important part of foreign policy, economic, scientific and technical and cultural ties of the USSR with foreign countries, is of great importance for preservation and promotion of health of mankind. It is convincingly told about it in a greeting of the Secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Chairman of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR of the companion of JI. I. Brezhneva to participants of the International conference on primary health care in Alma-Ata: «The Soviet Union shares expectations of all people, especially developing countries aiming at elimination in the world of mass diseases, hunger and poverty. We actively participate in the international actions directed to the solution of problems of delivery of health care to the population of the countries of the world and it answers the main objective proclaimed the charter of World Health Organization — to achievement of health by all people of the highest level» («Truth», 7/IX 1978 g).

Breastplate «The national doctor of the USSR».

The closest bonds of cooperation and friendship connect the Soviet health care with health care of the socialist countries. The solidarity of purpose of social and economic development of the countries of the socialist commonwealth caused a community of the scientific and organizational principles of national health systems of the socialist countries that, despite a variety of specific forms of the organization of medical aid and a dignity. - protivoepid. providing, the caused historical, geographical and national peculiarities of each of them, creates favorable conditions for development of the general ways of permission of the largest and complex problems of the organization and development of health services. The important role in development of cooperation in health care between the socialist countries and in collective development of ways of development of socialist health care is played by the annual meetings of Ministers of Health of the socialist countries which are regularly held since 1956. For practical implementation of various agreements and decisions of meetings of Ministers of Health specific plans of cooperation are developed and signed. Directly interinstitute cooperation of scientific research institute and educational in-t which develop similar subject is carried out. By 1976 76 research establishments of the USSR cooperated with 200 research centers of the socialist countries. Cooperation of the socialist countries within the Council of Economic Mutual Assistance (CEMA) is very effective. In 1973 within SEV the cooperation agreement on problems of oncology was signed and the Coordination oncological center is created. Big collaboration is carried out on hygiene of the environment, food, and also researches of space on the Intercosmos line which result, in particular, was work of the joint crews (with citizens of ChSSR, the Party of Russian Taxpayers, GDR, NRB) which made a powerful contribution to implementation of the uniform program of works of astronauts of the countries of the socialist commonwealth. In 1975 SEV are created the Constant commission on cooperation in health care and Public health department of the Secretariat of SEV. Acceptance by the 17th meeting of Ministers of Health of the socialist countries of «The main directions and perspectives of development of socialist health care» became new and essentially important development stage of the theory and the organization of socialist health care. See also Health care, international cooperation in health care .

Considerable development was gained by cooperation with the capitalist countries. On the basis of the signed intergovernmental agreements and the M3 protocols of the USSR carries out systematic exchange of information by results of scientific research and practical activities of health services with France, Finland, the USA, Great Britain, Sweden, Italy, Canada and other capitalist countries.

The experience of cooperation in medicine between the USSR and the capitalist countries demonstrates that distinctions of a social system and systems of the organization of health care are not an insuperable barrier to implementation of joint efforts in struggle for life and health of the person.

More and more broad cooperation with developing countries is carried out in many directions: sending of the Soviet

specialists for work to these countries, design and construction to lay down. and scientific institutions, delivery of the medical equipment, pharmaceuticals etc. For the 60th — the 70th the St. 3 thousand Soviet medics was sent to developing countries, and the direction of specialists doctors, organizers of health care, and also teachers for work in the highest and average medical educational institutions considerably increased. National shots for developing countries are also prepared in medical educational institutions of the USSR.

The most important form of the international cooperation of the Soviet health care is vigorous activity of the USSR in World Health Organization (see). The USSR — one of founders of WHO and the initiator of its many major programs and resolutions.

Outstanding achievements of the Soviet health care caused growth of his international authority. The XXIII World assembly of health care (1970) in the special resolution «About philosophy of development of national health care» in essence recognized the principles of socialist health care the most effective and checked on experience of a number of the countries and recommended them to all states.

In September, 1978 in Alma-Ata at the initiative of WHO, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the government of the USSR the international conference on a problem primary took place medical and sanitary help (see), delegations of 140 countries and representatives of many international organizations took part in work a cut. Delegates and guests on the example of the Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Uzbek federal republics were acquainted with a condition of medical aid to the population, were personally convinced of a high level of development of health care of territories which population was almost deprived of medical aid only 60 years ago and is doomed to extinction. During the discussions conferees developed the Declaration, in a cut philosophy of socialist health care are stated as the most important condition of achievement of a high level of primary health care worldwide, providing «health for all by 2000». The Almaty conference once again before the whole world showed advantages of socialist health care, wisdom and high humanity of policy of the CPSU in the field of health protection of the Soviet people.

The scales are wider and it is more difficult than a problem of our creative activity, the organizing force and wisdom of the Communist Party reveal more stoutly. Armed with the all-conquering doctrine of Marxism-Leninism, it surely conducts the Soviet people on the way to the great purpose, defining at each new historical boundary of this way of perspective of development of society, the line of domestic and foreign policy of the USSR that gives to fight for communism systematic, evidence-based character

. The Program of communistic construction at the present stage developed by the XXV congress of the CPSU differs in such deep and comprehensive scientific justification.

Gains of October, the growing forces of socialism — reliable guarantee of further progress of mankind. Noting it at a ceremonial meeting on November 2, 1977, comrade. L. I. Brezhnev told: «We move towards an era when socialism in this or that its specific, historically caused form becomes the prevailing public rule on the earth, bearing with ourselves the world, freedom, equality and welfare to all labor mankind. And it is not a utopia, not a beautiful dream. It is real perspective. It is daily brought closer the work and fight by us, companions, bring closer the work and fight millions of our contemporaries. It is also continuation of the business begun with the October revolution» (L. I. Brezhnev, the Lenin course, t. 6, page 598).




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See also bibliogr, to St. Legislation on health care , Health care , Meditsina , Environmental control , Labor protection , Social security , Social insurance , Union of Soviet Socialist Republics .


B. V. Petrovsky, O. P. Shchepin, S. P. Burenkov, I. P. Leads, B. M. Potulov, A. M. Grindings.

Яндекс.Метрика