COLOSTRUM (colostrum) — the secret of mammary glands of the woman which is allocated in the first 2 — 3 days of a lactation after the birth of the child. The secret of mammary glands which is allocated on 3 — the 4th day lactations (see), is called transitional milk, a cut gradually turns into mature breast milk (see). The m in a small amount can be allocated also in the second half of pregnancy.
The newborn in the small volume of M. receives nutrients of high value that promotes process of optimum adaptation to extra uterine living conditions. The colostric period of feeding is of great importance for the subsequent development of the child.
M — more dense secret, than mature milk, a little sticky consistence, yellow color. Color M. depends on coloring of the fat rich which is its part carotinoids (see). M.'s 4,433 viscosity, ud. weight 1,034; reaction, as well as blood plasma — neutral; the dense substances making 12,8% form unequigranular system with water, in a cut fat is in the emulsified state.
Morfol, M.'s structure is characterized by the maintenance of colostric little bodies, leukocytes and milk balls. The colostric little bodies for the first time described in 1837 to A. Donne — big, round, sometimes not absolutely correct form of a cell with the indistinct and faintly painted kernel and numerous small fatty inclusions. The question of an origin of colostric little bodies cannot be considered as finally solved. Segmentoyaderny leukocytes and lymphocytes occur among leukocytes; the last, especially T - and V-lymphocytes (see. Immunocompetent cells ), play a large role in formation of local immunity. According to nek-ry researchers, dominance of segmentoyaderny leukocytes demonstrates about good, and lymphocytes — bad lactic function. Milk balls — uniform elements of irregular shape (a so-called semilunum and a cell with caps). The m is richer than some mature breast milk with proteins, fats and mineral substances; in it it is slightly less carbohydrates, than in breast milk. M.'s caloric content is very high: in the 1st day of a lactation — 150 kcal / 100 ml, in the 2nd — 110 kcal / 100 ml, in the 3rd — 80 kcal / 100 ml.
It is established that M. on the structure is closer to body tissues of the child, than mature breast milk.
Proteins M. on amino-acid structure take the intermediate place between protein fractions of breast milk and blood serum that, apparently, facilitates adaptation of an organism of the newborn during transition from placental food to food breast milk. Proteins M. can partially pass through a wall of intestines in not changed state, coming directly to a humoral bed of an organism of the newborn. In 1 — the 2nd days after the delivery amount of crude protein in M., by data Ying-that food of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, makes 7,38 ± 1,6%, including caseins of 2,06%; beta lactoglobulin of 3,54%; on 3 — 4 days the content of crude protein gradually decreases to 2,5 ±0,57%. To high content of protein in M. there corresponds also high concentration of inhibitors of proteinases in it. There is an opinion that inhibitors protect antibodies, to-rymi rich M., from digestion in a stomach proteinases. According to E. P. Abramova, etc. (1971), the largest content of inhibitor of trypsin is observed in M. for the 1st and 2nd day of a lactation (from 42,5 to 62 mkg/ml), to 6 — to the 7th day of a lactation it gradually decreases to 18,0 — 8,5 mkg/ml. In m it is richer, than mature breast milk, with the protein connecting iron — lactoferrin, concentration to-rogo reaches 0,5% of total quantity of proteins. Lactoferrin is necessary for formation of a hemopoiesis of the newborn, besides, it has bactericidal properties. M. contains more, than in mature breast milk, amino acids, especially arginine, valine, a histidine, a leucine, a lysine, threonine (tab. 1).
The general contents in M. immunoglobulins (see), being generally antibodies, the classes IgA, IgG, IgM and IgD, makes 1,5 g on 100 ml. Strengthening of immunoglobulins of all classes in the first days of a lactation and gradual decrease in their contents on 4 days of a lactation is noted. Especially it concerns the most biologically active class IgA, to-rye are synthesized in cells of a mammary gland. The IgA level in M. in comparison with the content of immunoglobulins of other classes is highest. So, in the first days of a lactation concentration of IgA makes from 12 to 17 mg/ml, and for the 4th day of a lactation — 1 mg/ml, concentration of IgG — respectively 0,4 and 0,04 mg/ml. The class IgA contains antibodies of all types, the important part in protection of an organism of the newborn against the diseases caused by pathogenic enterobakteriya and viruses is assigned to it. The class IgG, also Rh-agglyu-tininy (hemolysins) are a part to-rogo, contains antibodies to viruses of a number of infectious diseases, to bacterial toxins. The class IgM contains antibodies on the AB0 system and antibodies to activators of a number of infectious diseases. Protective properties M. are caused by existence in its structure not only antibodies, but also other substances of yet not studied nature, such, e.g., as a thermostable «anti-staphylococcal factor».
Natural feeding of children (see) from the first days of life provides local passive immunological protection went. - kish. a path of the child, an indicator of what is the high content of IgA in a koprofiltrata. The obtained data confirm participation of separate components M. in formation of immune responsiveness at early stages of ontogenesis and underline importance of use of M. in food of newborns. However at discrepancy between blood of mother of N of the newborn on a Rhesus factor, on the AB0 system and other antigens it is necessary to resolve an issue of applying of the child to a breast of mother carefully as M. is richer than some mature breast milk with antibodies and in it more isohemagglutinins that can aggravate the available Rhesus factor conflict.
Fat M. has high iodine number — to 68 (see. Fats ), what pulls together it with fat of tissues of the newborn. Vizener's researches (H. Wiesener, 1961) showed that in M. it is more olein and linoleic to - t, than in mature breast milk. According to R. Taryan with sotr. (1964), the content of phospholipids in M. is higher, than in mature breast milk (respectively 31 — 40 mg of % and 27 mg of %) that, apparently, promotes process of a resorption of fat in intestines of the newborn. Content of cholesterol in M. makes 28 mg of %, in mature breast milk — 14 mg of %. The best digestion of fat is promoted also by dominance in fat M. of triglycerides with a low molecular weight, to-rye rezorbirutsya in an organism of the child completely; at the same time a part of triglycerides can be acquired without preliminary hydrolysis.
A row fat to - the t (e.g., linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic) which are a part of ethers of cholesterol, phospholipids, lipoproteids are necessary structural elements of cellular membranes, microsomes and mitochondrions; besides, they take part in processes of myelination of nerve fibrils. Content of these substances in process of maturing of milk decreases a little, however at increase in a lactation the child receives them in enough.
Carbohydrates in M. contain less, than in mature breast milk (respectively 4,09 and 7,0 — 7,5 mg of %). A number of researchers considers this phenomenon as reaction of adaptation: at smaller quantity in M. carbohydrates in blood of the newborn are formed less milk to - you that promotes less expressed manifestation of a metabolic acidosis inherent to the newborn (see), especially in the first days of life.
The range of carbohydrates M is studied. In addition to monosugars (glucose), disaccharides in the form of sucrose, maltoses and lactoses are a part of carbohydrates M.; are found also oligo-aminosugar. The greatest number of lactose is noted for the 2nd day of a lactation. beta Lactose stimulates growth bifidobacteria (see), interfering reproduction of putrefactive flora in intestines, and also synthesis by microbes of intestines of vitamins of group B; besides, it influences structure of lipids, reducing the content of neutral fats and increasing concentration of lecithin. Olitoaminosakhara also stimulate growth of bifidobacteria.
Mineral composition of M. is various (tab. 2); it contains more, than in breast milk, iodine, potassium, calcium, sulfur, chlorine, zinc.
Content of polyneuramins M. considerably depends on feeding habits of the woman during pregnancy and a lactation. The average reading about the content of polyneuramins M. is presented in table 3. Apparently from the table, M. is richer than some mature breast milk with vitamin A, carotinoids, ascorbic to - that, a tokoferolama. According to Brock (J. Brock), vitamin D M. contains on average 0,05%, and in mature breast milk — 0,1% of all amount of polyneuramins of blood.
From enzymes M. contains amylase (116 ± 13,8 pieces/ml), a lipase (7,06 ± 0,87 pieces/ml), and also peptidase, a catalase, a karbogidraza, a tributiraza, invertase, esterase, a monobutiraza. The enzyme which is contained in M. in big concentration (0,2 mg/ml) a lysozyme (muramidaza) lyses bacteria, damaging peptidoglikana of a wall of a bacterial cell.
In m it is rich with hormones, especially corticosteroids that is important in the first days of life of the newborn since functions of a number of bodies and systems of its organism are still unripe and active immunity is in a stage of formation. Are also present at M. prostaglandins (see) — biologically active agents taking active part in metabolism of lipids.
Table 1. COMPARATIVE CONTENT of AMINO ACIDS IN COLOSTRUM AND MATURE BREAST MILK [according to J. Janicki, 1975]
Table 2. CONTENT of MINERAL SUBSTANCES IN COLOSTRUM ( according to J. Janicki, 1975)
Table 3. COMPARATIVE CONTENT of POLYNEURAMINS COLOSTRUM AND BREAST MILK (according to N. V. Semenov, 1971)
Bibliography: Abramova E. I., etc. Immunobiological role of colostrum of women, Vopr, food, No. 3, page 18, 1971; Vasilyeva L. P. and of v r in and D. B's h. Quantitative protein content, fat, salts of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus in women's milk in the first week of a lactation, Vopr. okhr. mat. also it is put., t. 12, No. 6, page 65, 1967; r and and to and S. G's N. Breastfeeding and secretory immunoglobulin A, in the same place, t. 23, No. 8, page 67, 1978; Philosophy of food of children and teenagers, under the editorship of E. M. Fateeva and T. S. Nevska, M., 1974; Ott V. D. and Bratus of E. M. Rol of vitamin E in food of children of early age, Pediatrics, No. 11, page 84, 1975; Prozorovskaya K. N., Stefani D. V. and Sh and r about to and N with to and I am O. N. Immunoglobulins of women's milk, in the same place, No. 11, page * 17, 1973; Semenova. Century components and contacts of fluid mediums and tissues of the person, page 87, M., 1971; Shaykhiyev A. A. Amino-acid structure of breast milk in the first month of a lactation, Vopr. okhr. mat. also it is put., t. 25, No. 1, page 12, 1980; HambraeusL. Proprietary milk versus human breast milk in infant feeding, Pediat. Clin. N. Amer., v. 24, p. 17, 1977; G at o r g at P. Biochemical aspects, Amer. J. clin. Nutr., v. 24, p. 970, 1971; Lindquist B. Standards and indications for industrially produced infant formulas, Acta paediat. scand., v. 64, p. 677, 1975.
E. M. Fateeva.