COLOSSAL CELLS - the one-nuclear or multinuclear protoplasma educations surpassing the usual sizes of cells of an organism. The concept «colossal cells» is not certain since borders of the sizes are not established, on the Crimea cells should be carried to huge. Mean multinucleate cells more often, but can mean and one-nuclear (as is normal, and in pathology), napr, cytomegalic cells at infection with a virus of sialadens, Hodzhkin's cells at a lymphogranulomatosis, cells of bark of a cerebellum — neurocytus piriformis (Purkinye's cell).
To. are quite often formed at productive inflammation (see), being characteristic structural feature of many specific granulomas, at regenerations (see), infectious processes of a virus etiology, in tumors, in particular — bone (osteoblastoclastoma), at modern methods of treatment by cytostatic drugs, X-ray. At a number of diseases (e.g., at anemias of various origin, at reactive eritroblastoza, an osteomyelosclerosis) in the centers of an extramedullary hemopoiesis megacaryocytes meet. At an inflammation, regeneration, disturbances of exchange, napr, at osteomyelites, rickets, a system fibrous osteodystrophy, bone changes, osteoclasts meet. At patol. processes two meet preferential morfol, type G. to.: foreign bodys — Podvysotsky's necrophages (1889) and G. to. like Pirogov — Langkhansa (Th. Langhans, 1868).
In G. to. foreign bodys of a kernel are scattered by groups or are located in the center of a cell; the quantity them can fluctuate ranging from 3 — 5 to 100 and more; they are light, oval, can be and hyperchromic. Cytoplasm of a cell homogeneous. To. foreign bodys are formed at hit in an organism of almost insoluble foreign bodys, napr, pieces of a tree, glass, scraps of operational silk, fibers of cotton wool, insoluble gases (e.g., at a pneumatosis intestinalis). Sometimes they are formed in response to accumulation of the almost insoluble products appearing as a result of any patol. processes in the organism, napr, particles of ectopic or excess horn substance (tsvetn. fig. 7), a cartilage, crystals of fatty acids, products of a necrosis of a fatty tissue, in atheromatous plaques at atherosclerosis, at a rassasyvaniye of amyloid, at disintegration of elastic tissue of arteries etc.
To. like Pirogov — Langkhansa are characterized by a peripheral arrangement of oval kernels; their cytoplasm shares on endo-and an ectoplasm. Existence of the cellular center with numerous centrioles which are connected among themselves by the tsentrodesmoza forming a peculiar network in a cell is considered characteristic; in these G. to. also a large number of mitochondrions (fig.) is found, tubules of an endoplasmic reticulum are sometimes filled with fatty vacuoles. In a kernel increase in the sizes or quantity of kernels is noted. To. like Pirogov — Langkhansa 300 microns can have a diameter, quantity of kernels in them apprx. 200. G.'s presence to. like Pirogov — Langkhansa is characteristic of a tubercular productive inflammation; in their cytoplasm it is possible to see the fagotsitirovanny acid resisting tubercular mycobacteria which are well painted on Tsilya — Nelsena to a method (see). Existence of mycobacteria has crucial importance for the diagnosis since G. to. like Pirogov — Langkhansa can be formed also at other infectious and noninfectious inflammatory processes, napr, at a brucellosis, syphilis, leprosy (Virkhov's cell), mycoses, a scleroma (Mikulich's cell), a sympathetic ophthalmia, a disease of cat's scratch, a sarcoidosis, a lipogranulomatosis, etc.
At viral infections, in addition to G. to. like Pirogov Langkhans and G. to. foreign bodys, find G. to. an epithelial origin that depends on tropism of many viruses to epithelial cells. Formation of a large number of G. to. at viral infections it is observed preferential at children's age.
Multinuclear G. to. with a fancy arrangement of kernels (is more often than hyperchromic) find at measles in a conjunctiva of an eye, in an epithelium of bronchial tubes, bronchioles, among alveolar cells; they form so-called giant-cell pneumonia (tsvetn. fig. 8). To. a macrophagic origin find in almonds, in limf, the device of a worm-shaped shoot in a prodromal stage of measles. At chicken pox of G. to. are formed in an epithelium of skin at early stages of formation of a varicellous vesicle. At a viral hepatitis among a hepatic epithelium multi-core G.' education to. confirms the beginning processes of regeneration.
Detection of so-called cytomegalic cells of 20 in size — 30 microns is of diagnostic interest at virus defeat of sialadens (tsvetn. fig. 9). These are one-nuclear G. to., characterized by large intranuclear inclusion, a cut connect with existence of the virus. At a generalized cytomegaly of G. to. are observed in an epithelium of sialadens, in lungs, a liver, kidneys, a pancreas, adrenal glands etc.; there are they preferential from epithelial cells. However they can be observed also among cells of nervous and mesenchymal tissue (a brain, a thymus gland, limf. nodes).
At a lymphogranulomatosis one-nuclear and multinuclear G.' education is observed to. from macrophages. G.'s education to. a connective tissue, epithelial, neurogenic and muscular origin it is often observed in tumors. These G.' morphology to. it is various, the histogenesis is connected with a histogenesis of tumors.
To. were found in cultures of fabrics. So, A. D. Timofeevsky in 1914 in culture of leukemic blood observed G.'s education to. from hematogenous macrophages around accidentally got foreign bodys.
At introduction to this culture of fabrics of tubercular bacilli typical G. were received to. like Pirogov — Langkhansa.
Peculiar myogenetic G.' education is in rare instances observed to. in a myocardium at patol, the processes which are followed by death of muscle fibers (dystrophy, a circulatory disturbance, inflammatory processes).
Histogenesis. To. most often arise from gistio-and hematogenous macrophages (see) and from an epithelium;
much less often they are formed of muscular and nervous tissue. To. an epithelial origin normal sometimes meet in an epithelium of a bladder. They are two-nuclear or multinuclear, and in certain cases from a transitional epithelium of a bladder (at development of cancer) a large number of atipichesky G. appears to. At diseases of accumulation (enzymopathies) G. are formed to. a neurogenic histogenesis (see. Nimanna — Peak a disease ). Special type of globoidal multinuclear to. patognomonichna for a disease of Krabbe who is characterized by insufficiency of enzyme of a galaktotserebrozidaza (see. Leukodystrophy ); their origin is possible from histiocytes since these to. are located preferential around small vessels.
Conditionally to G. to. a neurogenic origin soles of motive plaques which represent the cytoplasma educations containing several kernels of two types the kernels of muscle fibers which — were more extended, reminding, and the roundish, reminding kernels of cells of a schwannian cover can be carried.
To. a mesenchymal origin occur normal at the person in marrow; carry megacaryocytes and osteoclasts to them. Osteoclasts arise from cambial elements of a periosteum; their education is regulated by hormone of a parathyroid. They in a large number are found in the growing bones.
To. like Pirogov — Langkhansa and G. to. like foreign bodys are formed of epithelial cells (gistiogenny macrophages).
The reasons of education of G. to. like Pirogov — Langkhansa and G. to. foreign bodys are still found insufficiently out. There are observations that some chemical fractions of tubercular sticks (A3 phosphatide, phosphoric to - that), especially in a combination to mix of fatty acids, educate in an experiment of especially large number of G. to. The point of view expresses that G.'s education to. like Pirogov — Langkhansa in inverse proportion to virulence of the activator: at introduction of low-virulent culture at experimental animals a large number of G. is formed to. and small number G. to. at introduction of virulent culture.
At treatment antibiotics when virulence of a tubercular stick falls, note the increased G.'s education to. like Pirogov — Langkhansa. These cells with very high enzymatic activity and high content of functional groups of protein. However localization and intensity of reactions to proteins and enzymes depends on degree of a maturity of G. to. Pirogova — Langkhansa. Increase in volume of kernels in these cells is the evidence of slow synthesis of RNA, increase in number of mitochondrions testifies to a high level of oxidizing processes. It is known that G. to. foreign bodys and G. to. like Pirogov — Langkhans does not arise in the conditions of an acute inflammation. Their emergence is connected with proliferative is long the current inflammatory processes.
The reasons of education of G. to. at viral infections are also studied insufficiently. Frequency of their detection at children's age is connected, apparently, with high proliferative ability of fabrics in this age period. On the other hand, on G.'s emergence to., obviously, viruses exert impact, and the majority of viral infections arises at children's age.
The mechanism of education of G. to. it is interpreted by various authors in different ways. There is an opinion that they are formed in the syncytial way, i.e. as a result of merge of one-nuclear cellular forms; some authors consider that they are formed in the proliferative way, i.e. thanks to nuclear fission with the simultaneous growth of cytoplasm. A number of authors acknowledges the possibility of education of G. to. and that, and in a different way.
It is established that both ways of education of G. to. take place both in a live organism, and in culture of fabrics. So, e.g., G.'s education to. in culture of fabrics from macrophages G.'s education goes way of merge, to. from an epithelium and an endothelium of vessels — by the amitotichesky division of kernels and growth of cytoplasm which is not followed by a plasmotome. In an organism, e.g., G. to. like Pirogov — Langkhansa at tuberculosis are formed by amitotichesky nuclear fission with the subsequent growth of cytoplasm; from a hepatic epithelium at a viral hepatitis of G. to. are formed by merge of cellular bodies.
Functional value. Value and G.'s role to. as active phagocytes it was for the first time revealed by I. I. Mechnikov. All subsequent observations confirmed phagocytal ability of many G. to. G.'s presence to. at infectious diseases it is regarded as manifestation of an immune response of cellular type; their education depends on the high need of an organism for phagocytal activity. At the same time phagocytosis (see) in G. to. often has incomplete character (endotsitobioz), from to-rogo the immunitas non sterilisans, napr depends, at tuberculosis. Obviously, the same character G.'s role to. at viral infections, especially when in G. to. virus inclusions (e.g. are found, at chicken pox, a cytomegaly). It must be assumed that here a peculiar form of intracellular existence of a virus takes place.
G.'s education to. in leukemic infiltrates at treatment by cytostatic means and X-ray, in particular at a myelosis, has no still due explanation, assume that here manifestation of a cellular immune response plays a role.
To. can englobe not only microbes, but various decomposition products and exchange (proteinaceous, lipoid, mineral, pigmental) in an organism. A. V. Nemilov found G. to. at animals and the person in a spleen and in limf, nodes where they arose at senile age in response to emergence of decomposition products. Therefore, G. to. play in an organism a role not only active phagocytes at any infectious processes, but take active part in exchange processes.
G.'s education to. matters at an angenesis what emergence them testifies at regeneration of skeletal muscles, hepatic fabric, at manifestations of regenerator processes from muscle fibers of a myocardium to.
See also Macrophages .
Bibliography: Van Fyurt R., etc. System of mononuclear phagocytes, new classification of macrophages, monocytes and their cells of predecessors, Bulletin WHO, t. 46, No. 6, page 814, 1973, bibliogr.; Histology, under the editorship of V. G. Yeliseyev, etc., M., 1972; P about d in y with the lake of c to and y V. V. O corrosion of devitalized sites of hepatic fabric colossal cells of a gepatofa-gama, the Doctor, No. 3, page 1,1889; With t r at-to about in A. I. Pathological anatomy, M., 1971; Shroyt I. G. Experimental measles, patomorfologiya and pathogeny, Chisinau, 1961, bibliogr.; F and 1 1 i s B. D. Textbook of pathology, N. Y., 1964; L a n-g h a n s T. t)ber Riesenzellen mit wand-standigen Kernen in Tuberkeln und die fibrose Form des Tuberkels, Virchows Arch. path. Anat., Bd 42, S. 382, 1868.
T. E. Ivanovskaya.