COLOMBIA, the Republic of Colombia — the state in the northwest of South America, is washed by waters of the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The area is 1138,9 thousand km 2 . Population of 25 890 thousand people (1976). The capital — Bogota (3,1 million people with suburbs, 1976). Administrative division — 22 departments, 5 intendensiya, 4 komissariya which are divided into municipal districts. Ofits. language — Spanish.
To. — republic. The head of state and the governments — the president. The legislature belongs to the congress which consists of the senate and the House of Representatives. On B. and S. the territory To. it is covered with the woods or the savanna, on 3. Andes ridges. Climate equatorial. To. preferential agrarian country, 40% of able-bodied population are engaged in agriculture. The largest specific weight in the industry borrows the food, chemical and oil processing, textile, metalworking and mining industries. Economy To. the hl depends on the foreign capital. obr. USA. The main population — Colombians. Aboriginals — Indians — 300 — 400 thousand persons. The natural movement of the population in 1970 — 1975, according to official figures, provided in editions of WHO, was characterized by the following indicators (on 1000 people): birth rate 40,6, general mortality 8,8, natural increase 32,3. Child mortality (on 1000 live-born) 67,9 (1971). V K. are most widespread inf. diseases: measles, tuberculosis, malaria, whooping cough, typhoid and paratyphus. Often the diseases connected with insufficiency of food meet; suffers from them apprx. 66% of children under 7 years (1971). Incidence of veins is high. and parasitic diseases. In the 70th among causes of death diseases of a respiratory organs and digestion, cardiovascular and onkol, diseases, traumatism are most often noted.
Performs the general management of rendering medical aid to the population mines - in health care, a cut is engaged in planning of public health care, control of activity of medical institutions and coordination of programs of health care. In departments control of work of healthcare institutions and its coordination are provided by public health departments of departments. In districts also the centers of health care would function. Hospital help in 1974 would be given in 795 on 44 928 beds (18,8 beds on 10 000 zhit.), including 38 182 beds in public institutions (apprx. 85%). Among medical institutions of 535 BCs of the general type, 152 medical centers (906 beds), 25 maternity hospitals, 23 pediatric-tsy, 13 tubercular BCs, 31 psychiatric-tsa (6601 beds), 3 leper colonies and 13 other specialized BCs. Extra hospital help in 1972 was given in 482 polyclinic departments of BC, 303 policlinics, 450 centers of health care, and also in 27 clinics, 877 points of medical aid, 253 consultations, 19 women's and children's consultations and 28 psychiatric clinics. (The name and content of work of healthcare institutions To. not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR — see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad.) Insignificant part of the population (apprx. 5%) is captured by social insurance (1970), a cut carries out special body — Ying t of social insurance having in the maintaining several BC and policlinics. 50% of outpatient appointments and 90% of hospitalization are the share of a share of the public and public medical institutions. Territorial placement of healthcare institutions very unevenly — 2/3 they are in the cities.
Sanitary protivoepid. the service is decentralized. Dignity. the condition of the majority of districts of the country does not conform to modern requirements. According to WHO data, 84% of city and 28% of country people use system of a water supply system, 59% of city and 32% of country people — system of removal of sewage, including the sewerage separate the building.
In 1973 in To. there were 10 625 doctors (1 doctor for 2184 zhit.), and also 3150 dentists, 1200 druggists, St. 12 thousand nurses and assistants to nurses. Training of doctors and druggists is made on 9 medical, 4 stomatol, and 4 pharm, f-takh.
Bibliography: The fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 111, Geneva, WHO, 1977; World Health Statistics Annual 1972, v. 1, p. 678, v. 3, p. 18, Geneva, 1975.
I. I. Sluchevsky.