From Big Medical Encyclopedia

COLLECTIVE MEANS OF PROTECTION — the constructions intended for protection of groups of people against influence of means of mass defeat. Use To. page z. prevents or considerably reduces possible defeats and losses of staff of troops and the population.

Historical development of means of protection always followed development of means of armed struggle. To the first To. page z. eras of a primitive-communal formation it is possible to carry natural shelters — the caves and the elementary constructions used for protection against attack of the armed enemies. The subsequent improvement of means of armed struggle, napr, resulted emergence of obsidional and throwing tools, and also incendiary means in need of creation of fortifications and strengthenings.

Qualitatively new stage in development To. page z. it is connected with emergence and improvement of explosive substances, creation of firearms, artillery and aircraft, use as weapons of destruction of the toxic agents (TA). During World War I (1914 — 1918) in quality To. page z. for troops trenches, entrenchments, blindages and shelters were used. The first attempts of collective protection of staff of troops against OV belong to the same period. In the beginning, to prevent penetration of OV into defensive works, entrances to them were equipped with platforms. In the subsequent tightness began to increase To. page z. in combination with giving in them a cleaned air and creation of excessive pressure (subtime). During World War II (1939 — 1945) along with field constructions the powerful long-term constructions providing protection against direct hit of artillery shells, aviation bombs and counted on long stay of staff in them were used. Use for the first time in wide scales of air-raid shelters for protection of the population against bombings of enemy aircraft belongs to the same period.

The subsequent development To. page z. it is connected with emergence nuclear weapon (see), possessing in comparison with conventional ammunition several striking factors: a shockwave, a penetrating radiation, light radiation and influence of the products of nuclear explosion (PNE), and also with improvement by the imperialistic states chemical and the biological weapons (BW). Therefore To. page z. for staff of troops and the population shall provide protection not only against conventional weapons, but also from nuclear, chemical and biol, weapon.

To. page z. for troops happen the opened and closed type. Trenches, entrenchments and cracks belong to constructions of open type. For construction and the equipment K. page z. improvised construction materials are usually used. These constructions reduce the radius of a zone of defeat of staff a shockwave and ionizing radiation. Overlapping of these constructions with soil sprinkling provides protection against defeats with the light radiation of nuclear explosion, incendiary mixes, protects from direct hit on people of PYaV, drop and liquid OV. They protect also from oruzheynopulemetny fire, splinters of min., artillery shells and air bombs.

Blindages and shelters belong to constructions of the closed type. They are built from prefabricated steel concrete and wooden elements or improvised construction materials. Blindages, unlike trenches, entrenchments and cracks, are equipped with doors and have higher protective properties at the expense of a strong skeleton and soil sprinkling. In a shelter tightness is provided, air delivery is carried out via the filtroventilyatsionny unit (FVA). In a shelter it has to be created necessary a subtime of air to provide finding of people in it without individual means of protection (see) in the conditions of use of weapons of mass defeat In such shelters control centers, first-aid posts and hospital can be placed.

The greatest degree of protection against weapons of mass destruction is provided by the special fortification constructions built beforehand. They are counted on long stay and functioning in them of personnel, are under construction of steel concrete and are equipped with necessary life support systems: ventilation, water supply, heating, sewerage, power supply and communication.

As means of collective protection also practically all types of military equipment, first of all armored can serve.

For protection of people it is necessary to use also a land relief: hills, hills, ravines, forests and other natural educations which can shield light radiation, reduce the striking action of a shockwave and penetrating radiation. In settlements in quality To. page z. it is reasonable to use the adapted basements, underground transport tunnels, stations of the subway, etc.

To. page z. for objects of GO and the population specially built shelters and antiradiation shelters, and also the elementary shelters serve (cracks, trenches, etc.). Shelters are, as a rule, buried to the earth, and their walls and overlappings are made usually of steel concrete.

In cellars of houses, institutions, production and public buildings the so-called built-in shelters are located. Unlike them separate shelters are placed on nek-rum removal from buildings, out of zones of possible blockages. Such shelters are in whole or in part buried, the designs acting above the ground are sprinkled with soil.

The main and auxiliary rooms are provided in shelters.

Rooms for accommodation of people, control centers and platforms locks, and in shelters where medical institutions are located — also operational and dressing concern to the main.

Rooms for FVA, bathrooms, the protected diesel power plants belong to auxiliary.

Rooms for people can be divided into compartments. In compartments establish two - or three-storied plank beds, tanks with drinking water, allocate the place for storage of food stuffs and medical property.

Shelters shall be tight and provide protection of people against influence of all striking factors of nuclear explosion, and also against OV and BO. Shelters shall provide continuous stay of people in them within several days. They are equipped with the protected entrances (not less than two, located from the opposite sides) and emergency exits on a case of blockages. Entrances are equipped with the platforms having protective and hermetic doors from the outer side.

At supply of fresh air in a shelter through FVA its cleaning of OV, BO and PYaV is provided. At the same time it is necessary to give 2 m 3 / hour of air on one person at rest and 5 m 3 / hour on one working.

Regeneration of internal air is provided in the shelters located in areas where the mass fires or a strong gas contamination of the territory harmful substances are possible. Water supply of shelters is usually carried out from a water supply system. On a case of failure of a water supply system the emergency reserve of drinking water is provided. Power supply can be carried out from the external power supply network or an autonomous source.

For emergency lighting accumulator lamps are usually used. Kerosene lamps or candles are allowed to be lit for a short time only in urgent cases (during the carrying out emergency works, assistance to victims).

For protection of the population on a trace of a radioactive cloud in a country zone and rural areas antiradiation shelters are created.

As such shelters first of all the cellars of buildings, cellars, vegetable storehouses, underground excavations, rooms of residential and production buildings which are specially adapted and equipped for accommodation of people are used.

If necessary the elementary shelters can be under construction. They are located whenever possible closer to the place of work or to the residence of the population, but on the area remote from zones of possible blockages. Such shelters by forces of the population are under construction of improvised and construction materials of industrial production.

Filling with people of shelters and shelters is made on a signal «air-raid warning».

The people who are in shelters and shelters shall have individual means of protection (a gas mask, a respirator), a stock of food stuffs, accessories of a toilet, necessary personal belongings and documents.

Escaping of shelters and shelters is made after a signal «release» or in case of their critical condition.

See also Protection against means of war of defeat .

Bibliography: Dorofeyev Yu. P. and Shamshurov V. K. Engineering actions of protection against modern weapons of destruction, M., 1974; E of about r about in P. T., Sh l I - x about in I. A. and And l and and N. I N. Civil protection, M., 1977; Margulies U. Ya. Radiation and protection, M., 1974; Chekalin V. S. Is also boiled yshev B. V. Fortification equipment of the area, M., 1974.

G. I. Volkov, V. N. Zhizhin, V. N. Morozov.