COFFEE — the tonic received from the ground seeds of a coffee tree (grains of coffee). For giving to coffee grains of specific organoleptic properties they are subjected to frying, in process to-rogo the new flavoring and aromatic substances having complex chemical structure are formed. Main components K., defining its properties, are caffeine (see) and chlorogenic to - that. Content of caffeine in grains K. makes 0,6 — 2,7%, chlorogenic acid apprx. 7,0%. V K. contains also kofdubilny to - that (4 — 8%), fats (12 — 15%), nitrogenous substances (13 — 14%), sugar (2 — 3%), cellulose (St. 20%), mineral substances (3,9%).
In medical practice of grain of a coffee tree are applied to receiving caffeine. Contained in To. caffeine at receipt in an organism has exciting effect on c. the N of page, stimulates working capacity, increases frequency and increases energy of cordial reductions. At persons with diseases of cardiovascular system under influence To. there can be heartbeat and pain. In this regard the industry the grade is issued To., which partially or is completely free from caffeine. Such To. concedes in the flavoring relation to usual grades a little.
Gained distribution soluble To., the representing powder from a soluble part of coffee grain. In it To. smaller content of caffeine also is weaker aroma.
Along with natural To. the industry also kofezamenitel or substitutes are issued To., received from the most various vegetable raw materials (barley, acorns, etc.), add to some of them natural To., and also chicory. All kofezamenitel are issued with the corresponding instructions and a compounding on packaging.
Bibliography: Hygiene of food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 2, page 291, M., 1971.
V. A. Kudasheva.