CODEINE (Codeinum; synonym Methylmorphinum; GFH, joint venture. B) — antibechic; alkaloid of opium of a phenanthrene row. Methyl ether of morphine, C 18 H 21 NO 3 - H 2 O:
Contains in opium (depending on a grade) in number of 0,2 — 1,5%. To. receive hl. obr. in the semi-synthetic way, in the way of methylation of morphine by various methylating agents (salts methyl-sulphuric to - you, dimethyl sulfate, etc.).
To. — white crystal powder or inodorous colourless crystals, bitter taste. Slowly and a little we will dissolve in a cold water, we will dissolve in hot water, it is easily alcohol-soluble, chloroform and divorced acids; t ° pl dehydrated To. 154 — 157 °.
To. it is well soaked up through mucous membranes. In an organism part K. is exposed to demethylation and turns in morphine (see) and norkodein. These transmutation products, and also remained not changed part K. hl are allocated. obr. kidneys both in free, and in the connected look.
On pharmakol, to properties K. it is close to morphine, however on force of the oppressing action on c. the N of page considerably concedes to the last. Euphoria at action To. it is expressed rather poorly and arises at its introduction in high doses; despite it, development of accustoming and addiction to is possible To., and the phenomena of abstinence after the termination of administration of drug in cases of addiction to To. can be not less heavy, than at addiction to morphine (see. Codeinism ).
Like morphine, To. narrows a pupil and raises a tone of smooth muscles. However at administration of drug in therapeutic doses these effects are expressed slightly. In comparison with morphine K. to a lesser extent the respiratory center oppresses. At the same time at To. ability to suppress a tussive reflex is strongly expressed.
To. apply hl. obr. as an antibechic at treatment of respiratory diseases. At the same time To. often combine with expectorants.
Due to the danger of emergence of addiction to To. its use is limited and demands big care. Preference should be given to non-narcotic antibechics, napr, to a glautsin (see), to libexinum.
Appoint To. inside the adult on 0,01 — 0,02 g on reception; to children (2 years are only more senior) on 0,001 — 0,0075 g on reception depending on age. To children up to 2 years To. do not appoint. The highest doses for adults inside: one-time 0,05 g, daily 0,2 g.
Form of release: powder and tablets on 0,015 g (with hydrosodium carbonate).
To. is a part of the combined tablets «Codterpinum» (Tabulettae «Codterpinum») containing To. 0,015 g, hydrosodium carbonate and terpin hydrate on 0,25 g, and also in structure of the tablets for cough containing To. 0,02 g, herbs of a thermopsis in powder of 0,01 g, hydrosodium carbonate and a root of a glycyrrhiza in powder on 0,2 g.
Along with To. (basis) in medical practice use also phosphate of Codeine (Codeini phosphas; synonym of Codeinum phosphoricum; GFH, joint venture. B), which is similar To. (basis) on pharmakol. to properties and use, but is a little less toxic and we will well dissolve in water. The adult drug is appointed in the same doses, as To. (basis), and to children (6 months are more senior) on 0,002 — 0,01 g on reception depending on age. The highest doses for adults inside: one-time 0,1 g, daily 0,3 g.
Forms of release: powder and tablets on 0,015 g. Both drugs keep in well corked container protecting from effect of light, a tablet — in the place protected from light.
Bibliography: Eddy N., etc. Codeine and its substitutes as antibechic and analgetic means, Bulletin of WHO, t. 38, No. 5, page 677, 1968, bibliogr.; The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, ed. by L. S. Goodman a. A. Gilman, L., 1975.
H. A. Kruglov.