COCOA — the foodstuff received from beans of a tropical tree of Theobroma Cacao L. by industrial processing. Is issued in the form of powder for preparation of food drink; besides, it is used in the confectionery industry for preparation of chocolate products.
After collecting beans To. subject fermentations during 2 — 7 days for improvement of taste, a smell and color, then dry up. At factories beans To. clear of foreign impurity, exempt from a cover, fry at a temperature of 130 — 140 °. By crushing and grind receive a krupka To., from a cut produce grated To., used for preparation of cocoa oil and chocolate. Powder is received from the shredded and carefully crushed cake which remained after an extraction of fat a press.
In 100 g of powder K. 24,2 g of protein, 17,4 g of fat, 27,9 g of carbohydrates, celluloses of 17,5 g contain. Caloric content — 374 kcal. From mineral substances in To. 2403 mg of % of potassium, 18 mg of % of calcium, 90 mg of % of magnesium, 771 mg of % of phosphorus, 11,7 mg of % of iron contain. In structure To. glucose, fructose, tanning agents, organic to - you enter.
Drink from To. prepare usually on milk with sugar. It has good tastes and high nutritious properties, the stimulating and tonic action on an organism thanks to contents in To. caffeine (0,4 — 0,8%) and theobromine (1,5 — 2%). To. treats vigorous activators of gastric secretion.
At a research of powder K. define color, a smell, taste, firmness of suspension. A suspension To. in drink shall not settle within 2 min. Quantity ferroprimesy in powder K. no more than 3 mg/kg at the particle size, in the greatest linear measurement which is not exceeding 0,3 mm are allowed.
Rooms for storage To a .dolzhna to be dry, well ventilated. Relative humidity of air shall not exceed 75%, temperature no more than 20 °. Storage and transportation together with silnopakhnushchy products is not allowed.
Cocoa oil (Oleum Cacao, Butyrum Cacao) — homogeneous dense brittle yellowish mass with a slight smell To. and pleasant oily taste. Melts at t ° 30 — 34 °, turning into a transparent yellowish oily liquid; it is dissolved in 10 parts of hot anhydrous alcohol and in 2 parts of ether; acid number no more than 2,25; iodine number 32 — 38. Cocoa oil consists of mix of simple and mixed triglycerides palmitic, stearin, lauric, arachidonic and olein to - t. Temperature of melting and plastic properties allow to use it as a basis for production of suppositories and as a basis for ointments. In the USSR the bases replacing cocoa oil received by a hydrogenation of vegetable oils are offered (cotton, peanut, palm). Store cocoa oil wrapped in parchment or wax paper in densely closed tanks in the cool place. At the wrong and long-term storage owing to oxidation it loses the color and a smell.
Bibliography: Hygiene of food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 2, page 248, M., 1971; Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value of foodstuff, under the editorship of F. E. Budagyan, M., 1961.
V. A. Kudasheva; V. P. Kalashnikov (Pharm.).