COCKROACHES (Blattoptera) — insects of group of cockroaches with hemimetaboly. Since 70th in inhabited and production rooms of a midland of the USSR the T delivered from Central Asia Turkestan began to meet. and from abroad American and ashy T. Nek-rye types of T. — carriers of a row inf. diseases (e.g., dysentery), eggs of helminths, cysts of protozoa.
In total it is known apprx. 3600 types of T. Osobenno of many T. lives in tropics and subtropics. In the USSR there are 55 types, from to-rykh T are most widespread red., or Prussian (Blattella germanica L.), and black T. (Blatta orientalis L.). In the republics of Central Asia T meet Turkestan. (Shelfordella tar-tara Sauss.) and a turtle (Poliphaga saussurei Dohrn) living as inside, and out of rooms.
Body of T. flat, oval, from 4 mm up to 95 mm long. The head with oral bodies of gnawing type, is directed down, short moustaches long (fig.). Front wings are turned into dense, leathery wing sheaths, back — webby; sometimes wings are underdeveloped. Legs of begatelny type.
Eggs at the majority of species of cockroaches are put into the chitinous capsule — I will swell, to-ruyu a female bears before end of an embryogenesis (nek-ry types of T. carry to hypostasis smaller term) and postpones in secluded warm places. Postembryonal development — with semimetamorphosis (see); on its extent the larva fades several times. Duration of development in different types fluctuates from 2 months to 4 years. In the heated pokhmeshcheniye red and black T. breed all the year round. Larvae and adult individuals are active at night, hide in the shaded, warm shelters, preferential near heating devices in the afternoon. T. are brought to houses, on catering establishments, vessels and with products, a container, baggage, dirty linen or get into airplanes there from the outside on heating network, the ventilating courses, a water supply system. Synanthropic types of T. are omnivorous and inclined to settle in places of storage and processing of food. They eat practically any organic matters, but especially willingly eat the products containing starch and sugar, and also fabrics, products from skin, fresh and dry blood, a phlegm, excrement.
Feeding habits define a role of synanthropic types of T. as mechanical carriers of causative organisms. So, e.g., in intestines American T. tubercular sticks, sticks of leprosy, a cyst of a dysenteric amoeba do not perish; on its short moustaches and pads are found staphylococcus. Larvae of black and red T. can creep in outside acoustical pass, causing strong irritation of a tympanic membrane. Attracted by skin allocations, T. can skusyvat epidermis on lips, centuries, elbows, a neck at the sleeping children and slovenly people. The struck places become covered by a crust and inflame.
For destruction of T. in rooms apply insecticides (hlorofos, karbofos, methylacetophos) or food baits with poisons of intestinal action (hlorofos, borax, boric to - that); the processing by insecticides which is not supported a dignity. actions, gives only temporary success. A basis of success in fight against cockroaches is observance a gigabyte. norms of storage of products and waste.
Bibliography: Bey-Biyenko G. Ya. Fauna of the USSR, Insects cockroaches, M. — L., 1950; it, General entomology, M., 1980; Fight against carriers of diseases and international health care, M., WHO, 1974.
S. N. Zarechnaya.