From Big Medical Encyclopedia


occupational health. At. the item —

the industry fuel promyshlen

to Nosta, including production and processing (enrichment and briquetting) of fossil (stone) coal.

The share of coal in world fuel and energy balance makes 30 — 35%. In the USSR the most part of the extracted coal is used for the power purposes and a small part goes for coking with the subsequent use in metallurgical industry.

The variety and complexity of geological conditions, a depth and gas content of coal layers define the choice of technology of coal mining — an underground way in mines or an open way in cuts.

The mine — the mountain enterprise conducting underground coal mining consists of land buildings and constructions and underground excavations. Each mine has not less than two trunks that is necessary for airing of underground developments and safety of works. The main trunk serves for rise on the surface of coal, dead rock, movement of people, ventilation. The auxiliary trunk is intended for a water outflow, ventilation, movement of people, descent and raising of materials and the equipment. After a driving of a trunk construct the underground preparatory and transport developments which do not have a direct egress (the miner yard, cross-cuts, shtrek). Clearing developments (faces) are called lavas. Their extent and the scheme of an arrangement depend on system of development. In the majority of mines of miners in a face on underground developments deliver by special trains or on the ropeway with suspended seats.

The main works in mines are the preparation of the field and directly clearing dredging of coal including separation of coal from an array, its delivery to places of loading in vehicles, fastening of the developed site. Coal layers destroy mechanically (the combines, planes mechanized by complexes) or by means of drilling-and-blasting works, sometimes in the hydraulic way; at abrupt falling of layer — is more often jackhammers. From lavas coal is transported conveyors or electric locomotives to a trunk for rise on a surface. Breed from a trunk is transported in dumps — waste heaps or left in the mine, filling the developed spaces.

The open way of development (cuts) is more progressive, it has technical and economic and a gigiyenicha sky advantages in comparison with an underground way. Opening of layers and dredging of coal from cuts are made by excavators after a preliminary loosening of breeds and coal by means of explosive substances; coal is loaded in motor transport or. - cars.

The main production harm at coal mining: dust content of air (see Dust) and release of harmful gases (methane, carbonic acid, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide gas, nitric oxides), noise (see), vibration (see), unfavorable weather conditions, danger of traumatism, on hollow the falling thin layers — forced position of a body, in mines — lack of daylight, difficulty with water supply.

Enrichment of coal is made at enrichment factories; the major harmful production factors are noise and dust which concentration can be especially big in uglepriyemny and crushing and sorting departments.

Briquetting of coal (processing of a coal trifle) is carried out at briquette factories; the leading profvrednost are dust, an adverse microclimate (especially in drying rooms) and the poliarokhmatichesky hydrocarbons (3,4 benzpyrene, etc.) which are emitted in air at use as binding component of coal-tar pitch.

At a high level of dust content of air at working in At. the item development of a pneumoconiosis (see) and in particular its versions — an anthracosis or a coal-miners disease is possible. At the same time the structure and physical matters. - chemical properties of dust, contents in it free silicon dioxide and a stage of a metamorphism of coal (see Aerosols; Ore mining industry; Dust, industrial).

Noise and vibration can be the reason of neuritis of an acoustical nerve { see Relative deafness) and a vibration disease (see). Overcooling, physical tension and work in a forced pose can lead to developing of such diseases as a bursitis (see), a miositis (see), neuritis (see), neuralgia (see), radiculitis (see). Microtraumas (see), pollution of skin and overalls dust and oils promote development of piogenic diseases.

Preventive actions in At. items shall be directed first of all to fight against dust, noise, vibration and an adverse microclimate. The prevention of dust formation is reached by implementation of the progressive technology which is excluding or reducing stay of the worker in a zone of an intensive pylevydeleniye to a minimum. In mines and cuts complex dedusting is applied (forcing of liquid in coal layer, irrigation of places of the greatest dust formation, pyleotsos with a pyleulavlivaniye in places of an otboyka of coal). Miners are provided with overalls (see Clothes special), special footwear (see Footwear, production), antidust respirators (see), helmets and other individual protection equipment. In mines airing is widely applied, decontamination of coal layers is conducted; high-gas-plentiful mines equip with systems of automatic gas protection, and in deep mines use conditioners or refrigeration units for normalization of a microclimate.


For decrease in a shukhm and vibration it is necessary to consider a gigabyte at design and operation of mining machines and mechanisms. requirements to them. In operating time it is necessary to use anti-vibration devices, individual means of protection of acoustic organs — antinoise inserts (see Proti-voshuma). The device and the correct contents wardrobe and shower, timely washing, a dry-cleaner and disinfecting of overalls, sanitation of microtraumas are of great importance.

The important role belongs to the correct organization of supply with drinking water and a balanced diet, a work-rest schedule of working. The essential place in a complex of preventive measures is taken by obligatory medical examinations (see. Medical examination), medical examination (see), the organization of dispensaries (see Sanatorium dispensary), acquaintance of workers with rules of labor protection (see) and production sanitation.

The worker At. the item, working in harmful working conditions, is established a number of privileges: the shortened working hours, additional issue, the state pension on favorable terms, the right for free receiving to lay down. - the prof. of food, vitamin drugs, etc.

Bibliography: Fight against a silicosis, under the editorship of E. I. Vorontsova, etc., t. 10 — 11, M., 1977 — 1982; Vorontsova E. II. Occupational diseases and their prevention in the coal industry, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 1, page 50, 1981; In a shouting about N of c about in and E. I. also Change l about N. I. Precautionary sanitary inspection at the enterprises of the coal industry, the Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 3, page 1, 1979; And l to and N and K. A. and d river. Supramolecular organization of coals and feature of pathogenic effect of coal dust, in the same place, No. 8, page 9, 1981; The Pathogeny of a pneumoconiosis, under the editorship of B. E. Al-tynbekov, page 18, Karaganda, 1978; The reference book on fight against dust in the mining industry, under the editorship of A.S. Kuzmich, M., 1982; X at x r both N and E. V. and Tkachyov V. V. Pneumoconiosis and their prevention, page 175, M., 1968.

E. I. Vorontsova, K. A. Galkin.