From Big Medical Encyclopedia


occupational health. Highway of the item — the industry of light industry providing the population with clothes, linen and other garments. Technological process includes the following main operations: cutting of fabrics and other

materials, production of separate parts of clothes, filar or glue connection (assembly) of details, refinishing of clothes and giving of a required form to it. Processes of production of different types of clothes are carried out by a line and conveyor method.

Work in stock-preparation and raskroyny shops is connected with long stay standing in halfbent situation with an inclination of a trunk forward or sideways and a considerable exercise stress. Cutting of fur fabric is followed by formation of the dust consisting of fine particles of chemical fiber. Sewing machine operators, hand finishers work sitting in forced situation with an inclination of a trunk forward, their work is monotonous with the uniform often repeating movements in brushes and forearms. Work of sewing and other machines is followed by noise (see), local and general vibration (see). Broad use in production of synthetic fabrics of various impregnations, glues, and also high-temperature processing of polymeric raw materials by means of irons or press serve as the reason of air pollution of a working zone as products of thermodestruction of polymers (hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide gas), monomers (formaldehyde, a nitrile acrylic to - you), plasticizers. Wet thermal treatment of products is carried out in a forced pose, demands physical tension, is connected with influence of a caloradiance and the increased humidity, and during the use for heating of fabrics of currents of high frequency — electromagnetic fields of radio frequencies (see. Electromagnetic field). The majority of works at garment factories (sorting of fabrics, cutting, processes of sewing, irons, rejection) is characterized by the considerable tension of sight.

The listed factors promote development of increased fatigue, decrease in working capacity. The long overstrain of muscles of upper extremities is the reason of such diseases of the neuromuscular device as a tendovaginitis (see), the epicondylitis (see), miofastsikulit. The considerable exercise stress in a standing position promotes development of flat-footedness (see) and a varicosity of the lower extremities (see the Varicosity), the wrong forced position of a body can lead to change of a bearing, a rachiocampsis (especially at young workers). Performance of operations in a forced pose sitting causes developments of stagnation in bodies of a small pelvis and quite often promotes an aggravation hron. diseases of a female genital. Performance of the operations demanding the big tension of sight at irrational lighting stimulates development of short-sightedness (see). Work on the conveyor with a forced rhythm is characterized by monotony, is connected with considerable nervous tension, a cut is aggravated with impact of noise and the heating microclimate. The contact with chemical materials (the imitation leather, fabrics covered with filming agents) can lead to emergence of a professional dermatosis (see).

Preventive actions are directed to implementation of the high-performance equipment developed taking into account a gigabyte. and ergonomic requirements; the rational organization of the jobs answering to standards of standards of safety of work (see Standardization), the maximum elimination of manual operations. Weakening of noise and vibration is reached by installation of the equipment taking into account rules of vibroclearing and timely repair of the equipment. For elimination a heat - and gas-allocations the device of the local suctions as close as possible to sources of their education, implementation of process of pasting of fabrics without excessive heating is obligatory. Sources of considerable heat releases (press, dryer, otparivatel, etc.) shall have heat insulation and be established whenever possible in the certain room.

Reduction of monotony of work on a sewing flow is reached by implementation of conveyors with the changing speed, the corresponding dynamics of a functional condition of an organism, establishment in optimal running cycles on duration of micropauses, alternation of operations of different degree of monotony with change of jobs during change, introduction of additional breaks in work lasting 5 — 10 min., use of music. Carrying out production gymnastics which shall be directed not only to elimination of the phenomena of a monotonia, but also to prevention of diseases of the neuromuscular device of hands, flat-footedness, a varicosity is important.

Performing preliminary and periodic medical examinations according to the existing order of the Minister of Health of the USSR is obligatory (see. Medical examination). Employment of pregnant women needs to be carried out taking into account «Recommendations about use of work of pregnant women at the easy and less condensed work at the enterprises of light industry».

Bibliography: B at r and and e in and A. A., etc. Bacterial and dust impurity

of air at garment factory, Zdravookhr. Tajikistan, No. 5, page 85, 1980; Box-m I am N and N and A. E. Questions of occupational health and a condition of neurologic incidence at garment factory, the Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 11, page 31, 1974; To l and-menkog. I. and Sh and e l with to and I am M. T. Gynecologic incidence of workers of sewing production, in book: Aktu-aln. vopr. akush. and ginek. under the editorship of V. P. Kozachenko, page 9, Voronezh, 1976' L about p at x about in and K. A. and In about l to about in and 3. A. O the dermatosis arising at production contact with imitation leather, the Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 3, page 113, 1973; R about-rokin V. P., etc. About a functional condition of an organism of female ra-botnits of garment factory, in book: Vopr. gigabyte. work and professional having got sick., under the editorship of B. E. Altynbekov, page 169, Karaganda. 3. A. Volkova.