From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CLOTHES SPECIAL (synonym overalls, ustar. — clothes protective) — the clothes applied to individual protection of the dangerous and harmful production factors working from influence and the working capacity providing them. Any clothes, including and production, it is necessary to consider rational if the combination of its layers provides for an organism optimum conditions in the certain environment surrounding it. These conditions are created owing to education around a body of an artificial optimum microclimate.

Lakes of page subdivide into the clothes intended for one specific profession (e.g., for vyrubshchik on fire cleaning of metal, welders on manual electric arc welding in the environment of carbon dioxide gas etc.), and the clothes intended for persons of the identical professions working in various industries, napr for protection against bruises, waters, acids of various concentration, the lowered temperatures etc.

the page in the form of jackets, trousers, overalls, semi-overalls, suits, dressing gowns, short fur coats, sheepskin coats, raincoats, aprons, vests, oversleeves etc. can be applied by O. as separately, and in a combination with each other, and also to be supplemented with special footwear (see. Footwear ), means of protection of hands (mitten, glove) and heads (caps, berets, hats), safeguards (kneecaps, elbow pieces, shoulder straps).

According to GOST 12.4.015 — the 76th special clothes depending on protective properties are classified on 16 groups and 36 subgroups recommended for providing safe working conditions. Protective potency of such clothes is defined by properties of its materials and designs. At the same time specific requirements according to the operating factors are imposed to each group of clothes.

For overalls protecting from bruises fabrics with the best mechanical indicators (tearing strength, attrition) are chosen. For such clothes fabrics, e.g., like serge, a canvas, linen with mylar fiber, a kirsa and t are recommended. and. The design of clothes of this type provides special elements (e.g., slips) for increase in terms of its operation.

Similar requirements are imposed to overalls protecting from the general production pollution, but at the same time materials with a little smaller indicators of durability, napr, fabric like diagonal, moleskin, etc. can be used.

The choice of materials for O. of page intended for protection against influence of elevated temperatures depends on the nature of thermal influence (high convective air temperature, a caloradiance, sparks and splashes of molten metal etc.). The clothes intended, e.g., for protection against a caloradiance are made of the materials having low heat conductivity (material from asbestos, wool, etc.) and the high reflecting properties (the metallized materials); at production of clothes for protection against high convective air temperature materials with high air permeability and moisture pro-vodnostyo are used. The design of clothes provides elements for improvement of ventilation of subclothes space, at the same time the admission on freedom of fitting shall be not less than 8 cm. For separate cases (at especially high temperatures) the clothes with artificial cooling are recommended.

In overalls for protection against the lowered temperatures use the materials and designs keeping thermal comfort generally at the expense of multilayer heaters.

Overalls protecting from electric fields shall have the necessary shielding effect and electroconductive properties (e.g., the shielding fabric). Its design provides conductivity of all details and products which are included in the package with the grounding corresponding in case of need. As a rule, the clothes protecting from electric fields are applied in a set with means of protection of the head and hands, and also with special footwear.

Overalls for protection against non-toxic substances (dust) are made of materials of the dense structure interfering penetration of dust particles into subclothes space (materials like moleskin). The design of overalls of this type provides the elements providing isolation of subclothes space (couplings, wristlets, valves on lines of fasteners, helmets with pelerines, etc.).

Overalls for protection from highly toxic (e.g., a hydrazine, chlorinated hydrocarbons) and aggressive (acids, alkalis) substances are made, as a rule, of film materials or fabrics, impregnirovanny by special impregnations. Depending on what part of a body surface of the person is exposed to immediate effect of a harmful factor, suits, aprons, dressing gowns, oversleeves, boot covers, headdresses, mittens etc., as a rule, from polymeric film materials and chemical fibers, resistant to aggressive environments, can be recommended. Their design excludes the elements detaining on a surface toxicants and provides sealing of seams. There are special recommendations about operation of these products at an elevated temperature of air. Character of overalls protecting from solutions of acids and alkalis is defined preferential by properties of materials. The choice of materials depends on the concentration and character influencing to - t. According to a contacting surface of a body use such types of clothes as suits, an apron, a dressing gown, a suit with slips from protection material, etc.

Apply the clothes from the bleached cotton and mylar fabrics which are completely closing integuments and its providing ease to protection against radioactive materials deactivations (see).

For protection against organic solvents, oil, oil products and oils overalls reinforced by cotton and synthetic grids from the materials resistant to the corresponding organic compounds are applied.

For protection against harmful biol, factors (microorganisms, insects) use the cotton overalls which are completely closing integuments (see. Plague , viral tick-borne Encephalitises, protective antitick-borne clothes ). If necessary the face is protected an anti-mosquito grid (see. Protecting screens ).

O.'s creation by the village is a complex challenge since at the same time it is necessary to provide the complex meeting the protective, operational and esthetic requirements. These requirements sometimes contradict each other. Often it is necessary to face contradictions between protective and a gigabyte. requirements. In this case insufficient gigabyte. indicators of materials can be compensated, e.g., by a rational design of overalls, use of systems of artificial cooling, restriction of time of continuous operation of these overalls.

Requirements to O. of page in many respects depend on the combined action of harmful and dangerous production factors, topography of impact of harmful factors on a surface of overalls, conditions and weight of performance of work, characteristic professional movements, weather conditions (temperature and speed of the movement of air, humidity), work-rest schedules.

The choice of materials the page and its design are made for O. taking into account protective and operational indicators of materials, and also taking into account harmful and dangerous production factors and the nature of labor movements. For this purpose in a lab. conditions protective properties of materials and such indicators as durability, rigidity, air permeability, a moisture wire-nost, weight etc. are defined. Special methods of assessment of materials and normative requirements to them are in case of need created.

During creation of overalls, in the greatest measure meeting requirements imposed to it reasonable introduction of the structural elements allowing to satisfy as much as possible requests of working is very important.

For ensuring protection of an organism according to specific conditions of production in hot workshops, e.g., in a design of a suit exclude such details, on to-rykh splashes of molten metal or slag can be late.

One of requirements imposed to overalls for protection against the lowered temperatures is regulation of its thermal resistance according to possible changes of weather conditions and intensity of physical activity. To structural elements of the clothes intended for operation in the conditions of the heating microclimate (e.g., hot workshops), can be carried: the special ventilating devices located in places of the greatest potovydeleniye; the increased admission on free fitting improving air circulation in under - clothes space; the combination of materials of small air permeability with materials of high air permeability that is possible in cases when only local sites are affected by aggressive chemical substances, protection to-rykh is reached by use of film materials (other sites of clothes at the same time can be made of the materials having big air permeability).

The specified structural elements improve moisture exchange of the person with the environment and, as a result of it, a thermal condition of an organism and its working capacity.

Various slips or coverings polymer - - ny materials in places, Nye * more subjected to wear belong to the structural elements providing operational requirements.

Need of full isolation of the harmful production factors working from influence increases at repair and cleaning of the equipment contaminated by high toxic substances, the survey of vent systems, performance of emergency works increased and the lowered barometric pressure, etc. For these purposes the special type of protection — the isolating suits (I K) of different function finds application, to-rye provide high degree of protection of a respiratory organs, integuments and a digestive tract of the person. The design of the isolating suits provides a possibility of carrying out in them repair and emergency work at the minimum loss of working capacity, removal of excess of heat, their serviceability and ease of cleaning. Obligatory performance specification and standards to creation of the isolating suits are stated in GOST 12.4.064 — 79. Depending on appointment the isolating suits are divided into hose (pneumosuits) and autonomous. Pneumosuits in the majority are not universal, and are adapted for these or those cases of stay in them and are used in the industry in the presence of the fixed network of air-supply.

Fig. 1. A suit for works in the conditions of radiocontaminations.

The autonomous isolating suits having own system of Eozdukhosnabzheniya are intended for short-term repair and emergency work in the absence of stationary airsupply. In fig. 1 one of designs of pneumosuits (LG-V) for works in the conditions of radiocontamination is shown.

The correct operation, cleaning and repair of overalls is important for safety of working. For many types of overalls contaminated by high toxic substances the special laundries providing the correct washing on defined tekhnol, to the modes are created. Services of individual protection work at large enterprises, to-rye exercise control of the correct operation of overalls and other means of protection, timely cleaning and repair. It considerably extends terms her socks and provides more reliable protection of working.

Military protective clothes

Military protective clothes — the clothes intended for individual protection of the military personnel from the striking factors of nek-ry types of weapon, and also from adverse physical and chemical factors, possible in the conditions of military work.

All types of protective clothes shall provide a necessary range and level of protection and a condition of life activity at running in to it the military personnel of the established prof. of functions. The protective clothes shall be combined with eye protections, a respiratory organs, hearing, with organic clothes and footwear, equipment and the operated equipment.

By the principle of protective action the military protective clothes are subdivided on isolating, filtering, shielding and camouflage. The main options of antigas suits belong to the isolating and filtering clothes.

Fig. 2. Light protective suit: I \a shirt with a hood; II \cap comforter; III \gloves; IV \bag; V \trousers stockings;;;;;;;;; 1 — the cervical valve; 2 — the rubber loops holding sleeves; 3 — the tapes fixing stockings; 4 — humeral straps; 5 — hlyastik, pressing a shirt to trousers.
Fig. 3. Protective overalls: I \habit view; II \cap comforter; III \gumboots; IV \gloves; 1 — upper hlyastik a hood; 2 — a hood; 3 — the breast valve with five fasteners; 4 — throat hlyastik; 5 — the cuff of a sleeve closing a glove; 6 — the tops of trousers closing boots from above; 7 — a belt; 8 — the throat protective valve.

The isolating clothes are produced from textile fabrics with coverings on the basis of rubber, by rubbers, synthetic resins, and also from polymeric film materials. On a design it can be tight (a light protective suit, protective overalls) and untight (a general protective set, a protective apron). The light L-1 protective suit (fig. 2) is produced from the facilitated gasproof material, protective overalls (fig. 3) from the dense proof fabric providing higher than a L-I suit, protective efficiency. They intend for staff of the divisions of chemical service for work connected with danger of defeat in couples and aerosols of OV, the bacterial means (BM) and the products of nuclear explosion (PNE).

Fig. 4. A general protective set with a gas mask: And — the raincoat is used in the form of a cape; The B — a raincoat is put on in sleeves; In — the raincoat is used in the form of overalls; 1 — a protective raincoat; 2 — protective gloves; 3 — protective stockings.

The general protective set is produced from gas-water-proof fabric. The structure of a set and options of its use are presented in fig. 4. For reliable protection against OV vapors it is used in combination with the filtering protective clothes.

The protective apron from proof fabric complete with protective stockings, gloves belongs to general individual protection equipment during the carrying out by staff decontamination, disinfection and deactivation of arms and transport, special processing of water and food, at reception of the wounded and patients contaminated by OV, B of S, PYaV. This set is also recommended to be used in combination with the filtering protective clothes.

The isolating clothes, limiting the closed space around a body of the person, effectively protects it from many harmful and dangerous external effects. However it interferes with assignment to the environment of metabolic heat that significantly influences on fiziol, systems of providing a heat balance, especially at low and high temperatures of the habitat. At low air temperatures the isolating clothes strengthen protection against cooling. The cooperative effect of a heat-shielding depends on all ensemble of clothes and equipment. Satisfactory conditions of heat exchange are created if to put on the isolating clothes (a L-I suit and protective overalls) at an external temperature from 15 to 0 ° summer linen and regimentals, at a temperature to — 10 ° on warm linen and winter regimentals, at lower temperatures — on warm linen, winter regimentals and the warmed clothes on cotton wool. Moistening of clothes reduces then its heat-insulating properties, increases heat flux density from a body surface. In this case the risk of the general overcooling and local cold injuries increases. Therefore in safe zones of conducting works it is reasonable to develop points of heating, providing them with replaceable fund of underwear, regimentals, footcloths and footwear, and also hot food and tea.

At high temperature of the environment time of continuous stay in the isolating clothes is limited in view of increase of the phenomena of overheating of an organism. So, moderately severe continuous operation at intensive insolation (or influence of other sources of radiant heat) and air temperature higher than 30 ° is safe within 20 min., at t ° 25 — 29 ° — up to 35 min., at t ° 20 — 24 ° — from 40 to 60 min., at t ° 15 — 19 ° — to 2 hours and only at a positive temperature less than 15 ° — more long time.

Continuous stay in the isolating clothes can be prolonged if timely to provide performance of system of the actions directed to increase in thermal stability of the person (the general physical training, a special training in the isolating clothes at the increased high external temperatures; correction of water and electrolytic exchange rational drinking and food the modes, etc.), rationalization of work (reduction of exercise stresses by mechanization of works, use of transport for movement of staff, simplification of equipment, the correct calculation of volume of urgent works and priority of their performance, the organization of vacation spots, etc.), normalization of a microclimate of subcostume space. Besides, it is recommended not to allow its heatings at storage and transportation of the isolating clothes and to put on just before work; at intensive insolation to use any possibility of shading of jobs and vacation spots. Works in the isolating clothes at high external temperature shall be carried out under observation of a health service.

The Filtering Protective Clothes (FPC) on a design are unified with usual field clothes or have nek-ry additional elements (a cap comforter, the pressurizing valves, etc.). The necessary range and level of protective properties is reached by processing of textile materials by the special structures capable to occlude or neutralize OV, to increase resistance of fabrics to ignition, burning and decay, to give them antimicrobic, insecticidal, hydrophobic and other properties. Separate processing of elements of a set of clothes (linen, regimentals) various chemical compositions allows to give to ensemble of clothes a necessary complex of properties.

The general complex protective suit for protection of the military personnel against the light radiation of nuclear explosion, PYaV, vapors and aerosols of OV, and also B S belongs to FZO. It consists of a jacket, trousers and the headdress of a special design processed by fireproof structure and also linen and a cap comforter, impregnirovanny chemical substances for protection against vapors and aerosols of OV. The suit is operated complete with organic footwear and equipment. For protection against drops of OV in addition use a general protective set.

The shielding overalls are intended for long work in the isolating clothes in hot weather. It is produced from white cotton moisture capacious fabric, put on the isolating clothes and immediately becomes impregnated with water.

The camouflage clothes are produced two types: the set (a jacket with an attached hood and trousers of direct breed) from otbelny fabric which is put on usual field winter clothes is intended for masking against the background of snow cover; for summertime — overalls with an attached hood from the camouflage fabric decked by green, gray and brown spots.

Depending on specifics of working conditions separate categories of persons are provided with fireproof, mas-lobenzostoyky, anti-acid, ognekislotozashchitny, microwave protective suits.

See also Clothes .

Bibliography: Afanasyeva R. F. Hygienic bases of design of clothes for protection against cold, M., 1977; Gorodinsky S. M. Individual protection equipment for works with radioactive materials, M., 1979, bibliogr.; Gorodinsky S. M., Glushko A. A. and Nuts B. B. A calorimetry in antitack agents of protection of the person, M., 1976, bibliogr.; Gorodinsky S. M., Dai and with e of the Tax Code about G. F. and Romanov I. G. To creation of evidence-based requirements and standards to the isolating suits of industrial function, the Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 6, page 22, 1980; R. A., Afanasyev R. F. Del. and Chubarovaz.S. Hygiene of clothes, M., 1979; To and r and to - h and e in N. I. Toksikologiya OV and protection against nuclear and chemical weapon, Tashkent, 1978; Sergeyev N. V. and their M and y l about in M. I. Individual means of protection, Zhurn. Vsesoyuz, chemical about-va of Mendeleyev, t. 13, No. 6, page 675, 1968, bibliogr.

S. M. Gorodinsky; V. P. Mikhaylov (soldier.).