CLOTHES it is used by the person for protection of a body against adverse effects of the environment — low and high temperature, a flow of a radiant energy, wind, a rain, snow, fog, soil moisture, mechanical and chemical damages, stings of insects and animals, dust, dirt, bacterial infection. The lake has great esthetic value, appearance of the person depends on it. The basic purpose of clothes — ensuring thermal comfort, at Krom heat production corresponds to a thermolysis without the considerable tension of the device of thermal control of an organism.
The lake — one of the most ancient inventions of the person. As materials for the first O. served skins of animals, bark and leaves of trees, a grass, etc. They were used as loincloths, and also raincoats, capes — prototypes shity by the Lake.
Further, having seized art of weaving, spinning and weaving, people began to create O. from stalks and fibers of plants (flax, cotton, hemp), from wool of wild and domestic animals.
With development of science gradually there was a doctrine about O. as means of social adaptation of the person. Expanded with the lake along with the dwelling an area of dwelling of the person, having provided a possibility of stay and life in all climatic zones of the globe and even in space.
Technical progress and the related development of textile and clothing industry, industrial production of materials from chemical fibers radically changed material resources for designing and O.'s of different function production, a look and a form.
The lake as a class of products is subdivided on the nation-wide qualifier depending on its purpose, consumer qualities and features of production to subclasses, groups, subgroups, types, types, subtypes and options, forming consistently branched system of more specific classification groups. Depending on appointment and external environment distinguish the following subclasses: outerwear (coat, short coat, fur coats, etc.), costume platyevye products (suits, trousers, jackets, dresses, skirts, jackets, etc.), linen (shirts, pajamas, shirts, combinations, etc.), headdresses, special clothes. Each of subclasses, in turn, consists of the groups allocated on the basis of the model and design solution of production of the Lake. Groups of each subclass are divided into subgroups depending on material and fiber, from to-rykh O. is produced (fabrics cotton, linen, silk, from the synthetic and mixed fibers etc.) . In each subgroup on a gender and age sign O.'s types are allocated: products for men, women, children of preschool and school age. Each type of O. is subdivided into types depending on a kind of a product, subtypes — on the basis of appointment (elegant, output, office), options — on the basis of a specific used dressing material (a chintz, sateen, poplin, etc.).
The subclass of the special O. relating to individual protection equipment working, depending on protective properties of clothes is divided into groups and subgroups. Special O. differs in also design features and can be the most various: these are dressing gowns, jackets, vests, trousers, overalls, semi-overalls, raincoats, aprons, mittens, gloves, various headdresses etc. (see. Clothes special ).
Among the various and quite often contradictory requirements of technical, operational, economic and esthetic character shown to O. and materials for its production and caused by specific conditions of use the main are a gigabyte. requirements, to-rykh in many respects depend on observance health and efficiency of the person.
Gigabyte. properties O. depend on physical. - chemical properties of fabrics and materials, from to-rykh it make, from its design (breed), a complete set, compliance to anthropometrical, age, sexual and other indicators.
Lakes make of the materials differing on structure and composition of fibers (natural and artificial), finishing (severe, otbelny, colored, combed) and to purpose (costume, platyevy, lining, linen, etc.). The range them constantly extends. Cotton and linen textile materials of a vlagoyemka, iznosoustoychiva, have small weight, good a gigabyte. properties. Woolen materials have the best heat-protective properties, have the smaller weight and some other advantages. Materials from synfils and O., made of them, have good operational and esthetic properties — the high durability, wear resistance, elasticity at stretching, elegant outward, however nek-ry their physical. - chemical properties do not answer a gigabyte. to requirements.
Such physical are especially important. - chemical property O. and materials for its production as weight, the size of the thermal resistance (heat insulation), porosity, hygroscopicity, hydrophily (the maximum and minimum water-retaining capacity), a capillarity, moisture-yielding ability, a water resistance, a paroprovodnost, moisture pro-water content, air permeability, the general a beam transparency, a luchepogloshcheniye of an integral flow of solar energy, chemical, physical (electric) and mechanical inertness, etc.
O. from textile materials has ability to reduce a thermal flow from a body surface to the environment and vice versa that depends on porosity of material, on its thickness and a lucheprozrachnost caused physical. - a chemical structure, and also from a ventiliruyemost of O. caused by its design. In the majority of textile materials the amount of air considerably surpasses amount of dense substance in volume, and at the materials possessing the greatest heat insulation, porosity exceeds 99%. O.'s moistening and a filling the grains water sharply reduces its heat-insulating properties since moisture in comparison with air is considerably the best conductor of heat.
Hygroscopicity of materials and O., i.e. ability to absorb water vapors, depends on sorption properties of fabrics and features of their finishing and is positive property of the materials used for production of inner layers of O. since absorption of moisture in this case promotes preservation of a comfortable subclothes microclimate. However use of materials with high hygroscopicity is undesirable for top coats of demi-season and especially winter O. since their moistening leads to increase in heat conductivity.
Hydrophily (wettability, water absorption capacity) — ability of fabrics to absorb water — is positive property for linen fabrics and negative for the fabrics used at production of top coats of the Lake. The greatest hydrophily and the ability connected with it quickly and fully to absorb sweat from the surface of skin materials from cotton, flax and woolen fibers have. However wettability of fabrics from wool is small and it is one of the reasons promoting preservation of heat and in wet woolen O.
Kapillyarnost fabrics are characterized by its ability to absorb and take away moisture from subclothes space and depends on physical. - the chemical nature of fibers, porosity of fabric, a form and pore size. This property to a certain extent compensates insufficient hygroscopicity of the synthetics from a bulky yarn having high porosity.
The drying velocity of materials and O., i.e. ability to give moisture to the environment by evaporation depends on moisture-yielding ability. The lake from linen, cotton and silk fabrics has high moisture-yielding ability. Woolen fabrics, possessing low moisture-yielding ability, create steadier subclothes microclimate.
A water resistance (water permeability) — ability of materials to resist passing of water through them. Decrease in a water resistance of materials leads to O.'s namokaniye and essential increase in its heat conductivity. Silk, linen both cottons and materials from chemical fibers possess the smallest water resistance; skin, proof fabrics and fabrics with special impregnations — the greatest.
The Paroprovodnost of materials and O., i.e. ability to pass water vapors, is positive property and is in most cases connected with air tightness. It is provided with sorption properties of fabrics and a possibility of evaporation of moisture from their surface. So, e.g., leather O., having small air permeability, has a good paroprovodnost that provides constant removal of moisture from pododezhno-go spaces and prevents its condensation, a cut in the conditions of low temperatures can significantly reduce heat-protective properties O.
Air permeability of textile and other materials is characterized by ability to pass a certain amount of air in unit of time. Air permeability provides natural ventilation of subclothes space, promotes removal from it water vapors and light-end products of exchange, it decreases at a filling the grains water and swelling of fibers. Air permeability depends on density, thickness, the volume mass of material, quantity of layers and existence of air gaps between them, on O.'s breed, and also on the speed of the movement of air and temperature difference of subclothes and fresh air. Fur, skin differ in the smallest air permeability; easily pronitsayema for air cotton, linen and silk fabrics. In the conditions of high temperatures O. shall possess the maximum ventiliruye-most (big air permeability), in the conditions of low temperatures — minimum since strengthening of convective flows of air in O. and subclothes space under these conditions leads to falloff of heat-protective properties.
O.'s ability and materials for its production to pass, absorb and reflect solar radiation considerably influences balance of heat exchange of the person. Fabrics of white color, and also dense and smooth materials of light tones reflect a considerable part of a radiant energy and absorb it less, significantly reducing at the same time heat exchange and protecting an organism from excess insolation and influence of ultraviolet rays in the summer in hot districts. Black and rough (fleecy) materials have the greatest absorbing power concerning a radiant energy. In districts with temperate and severe climate property of fabrics to pass and absorb sunshine is positive about a gigabyte. the points of view since promotes preservation of heat. Nek-ry materials from synfils pass also ultraviolet rays.
Textile materials and O. from them are characterized by chemical, electric and mechanical inertness — lack of their interaction with the substances which are contained in allocations of skin and subclothes air, lack of release of chemical substances, not indifferent for an organism, educations, accumulation and deduction of electric charges, and also mechanical impacts on skin (friction, pressure, irritations).
Materials and O. from synthetic polyamide (capron, nylon), polyester (lavsan, a Dacron), polyacrylonitrile (Nitron, an orlon), polyvinyl chloride (chlorine) and artificial cellulose (viscose, acetate, triacetate) fibers have insufficient chemical inertness, high electrifying ability, low hygroscopicity and the expressed rigidity. Emergence of static electric field of considerable tension at O.'s carrying from the electrified synthetics in combination with footwear on not electrowire sole can cause unpleasant tactile and pain owing to spark categories at approach to the grounded objects. Ability to attract dust from the environment increases O.'s dirt adherence from synthetics. Owing to chemical instability of nek-ry synthetic (polymeric) materials in subclothes space the initial products of chemical synthesis (monomers), intermediate and end products of destruction of polymers which are formed under the influence of the elevated temperature of air, sunshine, allocations of skin can be allocated and also various chemical substances used for ready O.'s processing (impregnations, detergents, anti-electrostatic drugs) to-rye can have the local irritating or all-resorptive toxic action (irritation, maceration of skin, allergic diseases, eczema, etc.).
Unsatisfactory gigabyte. indicators of chemically homogeneous synthetics and O. from them to a certain extent are compensated or improve by production of fabrics and fabrics from mix natural, artificial and synfils. Sorption and antistatic properties of natural fibers, and also use of special manufacturing techniques and O.'s processing provide chemical stability and low electrifying ability of O. from such materials. It allows to use more stoutly good operational properties O. from synthetics, and also to make materials with predetermined properties.
Modern O. is, as a rule, multilayer (linen, shirts, dresses, suits, overalls, a coat), and appointment and functions of separate layers and a gigabyte. requirements to them are not identical and depend on external environment.
Linen (see) directly adjoins to a body surface of the person, protects it from cooling and performs cleaning function — absorbs allocations of skin. The moisture wire-nostyyu, a moisture capacity and air permeability is made of easy and soft tissues with high hygroscopicity, hydrophily. The best gigabyte. properties linen from natural cotton fibers and from thin woolen jersey has. Linen from synthetics does not answer a gigabyte. to requirements (small hygroscopicity and moisture capacity, bystry dirt adherence, high electrifying ability).
Interlayers of O. (dresses, trousers, blouses, upper shirts) provide additional heat insulation, absorb allocations of skin in places of contact of O. with skin and the moisture which passed through linen. In the summer they shall not complicate a thermolysis, to a certain extent promote it by absorption, removal and evaporation of sweat for what use cotton, linen and silk fabrics with good hygroscopicity, vozdukho-an i_paropro-nitsayemost and moisture-yielding ability; shall reduce a thermolysis in the winter what apply the dense and porous fabrics having good heat-insulating properties to (woolen, half-woolen both cottons with a pile and knitted products).
Upper O. (suits, coat) serves for providing necessary heat insulation and is made of materials of considerable thickness and porosity. For winter upper O. use usually a thick woolen cloth, cloth, for a lining — cotton or silk fabric. Necessary protection against wind can be provided by means of laying from materials with low air permeability.
Design features of O. are not identical and depend on its appointment and external environment in various climatic conditions. At air temperature lower than +25 ° O. having heat-insulating properties is necessary for the person who is at rest. At the air temperature equal or close to surface temperature of a body of the person, need for such O. disappears, and at high temperature of air (40 ° above) O. shall provide protection against action of radiant heat and promote return of the increased amount of metabolic heat, in particular at physical. loadings. The design (breed) of O. shall provide the maximum freedom of movement, not constrain breath, krovo-and lymphokineses. O.'s design expected low air temperature, especially in combination with wind differs in isolation of subclothes space that is reached by use of the closed collar, dense fasteners or cuffs on sleeves, a belt.
In process socks O. becomes soiled and loses a gigabyte. properties. The most widespread types of pollution of O. are sweat, skin fat, the exfoliated epithelium, and also the dust which is contained in air. Mixing up with dust, allocations of skin close a time of fabrics, reduce them vlago-and air permeability, serve as a medium for development of microorganisms. The more for a long time O. rushes, the more deeply pollution get into fabrics and stronger settle on the surfaces of fibers, at the same time mechanical ways of cleaning (a vytryakhivaniye, beating, cleaning by a brush) are insufficiently effective therefore washing or a dry-cleaner is necessary. Systematic washing with detergents (soap, alkaline salts, synthetic detergents) and at high temperature needs to subject linen, shirts, dresses, the low-contaminated special O. Verkhnyaya O., as a rule, is exposed to a dry-cleaner.
The headdress is intended for protection of the head and a part of the face against cooling or overheating, impact of an atmospheric precipitation, dust and is used for carrying out of rooms. The rational summer headdress shall provide protection of the head against overheating, and a face and eyes from excess insolation. For districts with hot climate headdresses from light light materials with a good vozdukho-and vapor permeability are most reasonable (hats with wide fields and a kepi with a visor). The winter headdress shall close a considerable part of the head, neck, ears and to have good heat-insulating properties, for strengthening to-rykh additional elements — hoods and collars of various designs can be used.
Gloves and mittens are intended for protection of brushes against cold.
the Kidswear has the same appointment, as at adults.
Gigabyte. requirements to O. of the child are higher and are dictated by imperfection of thermoregulatory mechanisms of children. Children's O. shall be easy, convenient, not constrain movements since heavy O. promotes emergence in the child of various curvatures and the wrong bearing that is caused by imperfection its muscular and a musculoskeletal system. In heavy and inconvenient O. the child quickly gets tired, becomes sluggish or irritable. Narrow O. squeezes gentle vessels of the child, breaks blood circulation, breath.
During children's O.'s creation also education of labor and esthetic skills is considered. The child shall participate in process of clothing and an undressing, and later independently to put on and undress. All types of O. shall have convenient, simple and more available fastener in front. Imperfection of protective functions of a children's organism, especially at early age, demands the most strict purity therefore all O. of the child shall be erased and cleaned easily.
The choice of materials for O.'s production shall be subordinated to an optimum combination of the properties answering a gigabyte. to requirements imposed to O. of children of different age. The summer dress and linen shall be produced from the most air-permeable moisture capacious fabrics, upper O. — from fabrics with low air permeability. For O. of the smallest use fine elastic fabrics (a chintz, lawn, to volt, a bike, a flannel) a loose structure from natural fibers of plant and animal origin (flax, cotton, wool, silk). For children of advanced age artificial fabrics are admissible (viscose, shtapel, lavsan). For children of any age of O. from capron and similar to it fabrics it is not admissible.
For O.'s production babies are used by fabrics nonfading, soft gentle tones. The drawing on fabrics gentle, small idle time with a geometrical ornament, children's plots or flower motives. The same fabrics are used at O.'s production for children of two-three years. Elegant dresses can be sewed from silk of light and colourful tones.
In a form and a silhouette the clothes of children are divided into five groups: for yaselny (up to 3 years), preschool (3 — 7 years), younger school (7 — 12 years), the senior school (12 — 15 years) and for teenage (16 — 18 years) age. From the first group O. children of the first year — newborn and chest is allocated. At this age for boys and girls it has no distinctions. O.'s elegance is given by finishing, the edge shall not be bulky and make heavier it. Main types of finishing — narrow thin laces, a vyyunchik, a band. To upper O. the smallest for walk and a dream on air in cold season serves warm blankets, down or woolen scarfs and sleeping bags with a hood.
With age O. of the child is replenished and changes. At the age of two-three years the figure of children is disproportionate: the person of the small sizes, a neck short, the stomach is stuck out, the waist is not expressed, at rather long trunk of an extremity short. The main silhouette O. — expanded from top to bottom — hides a convex stomach and visually reduces the size of the head, does a figure more proportional. In the same purposes very short dresses and sundresses for girls, panties for boys are sewed that visually extends short legs. At this age in O. house, elegant, output dresses, dressing gowns, sundresses, the combined suits, jackets with shorts, blouses for girls, shirts and panties for boys, aprons appear. The lake keeps on a shoulder girdle: fastening for panties on shoulder straps with front levels and decussation behind. For walks at the lowered air temperatures children of this group need a coat, a fur coat.
In O. of children of preschool group taking into account changes in proportions of a body (the neck and extremities are longer, the person is more, the tummy is less evaginated) two silhouettes are recommended to girls: expanded from top to bottom from a shoulder or chest girdle and free with a straight line, for boys the same silhouette, as in nursery. For walk in cool time of children dress in light coats or sports type of a jacket with trousers. In the winter — fur coats, warm coats.
The lake of school students is a school uniform. In clothes of the school student the pioneer form, O. for work, rest, sport are also had. The figure at children at this age becomes more harmonious (legs are extended, the waist is planned, camber of a stomach smoothes out). Therefore for girls of 7 — 8 years are offered expanded from top to bottom and free with a straight line silhouettes, and at the age of 9 — 11 years — semi-adjacent, expanded from top to bottom; for boys — free direct and free semi-adjoining with short and long panties.
All types of O. (a jacket, a coat, etc.) are sewed with belts, hlyastika, tucks, tucks, various options of partitioning are used, finishing and O.'s details are very different (at younger school age wearing belts and belts still is undesirable).
The clothes of children of the advanced school age extend even more, generally due to a bigger variety of upper O. and objects of a special purpose for work, sport and leisure.
The figure of the teenager on the proportions approaches a figure of the adult therefore O. it more various also approaches O. of adults, though shall not copy it. The clothes of the teenager are replenished with a large number of different types of O. for sport and work. For teenage boys suits of a jacket form, for girls — trouser couples are recommended.
For children of the advanced school age and teenagers the great value gets marching the Lake. It shall be the most convenient, easy, from the fabrics which are well absorbing and giving moisture (cotton, flax). Jeans trouser suits are good for this purpose. Considering heat drops within a day, and also rainy days, for campaigns are necessary jackets with a covering from water-repellent materials (capron, rep), woolen, half-woolen sweaters.
Hands of children of yaselny and preschool age in cold season are warmed by mittens woolen and cotton with a double pile. They are rather warm and elastic, do not limit movements of fingers. Gloves are recommended to the senior school students and teenagers.
Sportswear — special clothes for occupations different types of sport. It shall meet all stated great demands placed on usual O. and is designed according to character and conditions of occupations different types of sport.
Sports O. shall be easier, not complicate movements, correspond to conditions of sports occupations (e.g., O. of skaters can be more facilitated, than at skiers). In fencing and ice hockey of O. performs also protective functions, protecting the athlete from injuries during the falling, collisions with the opponent, blows by a washer or weapon. In fencing apply, besides, jackets from the special conducting materials providing electric fixing of a prick. Existence of rough seams and narrowings is not allowed, to-rye can cause attritions of skin at trainings and competitions.
Danger of overcooling of an organism of the athlete in winter time demands the careful choice of O. according to weather conditions. E.g., if at air temperature to — 15 ° in windless weather it is possible to train in usual ski suits, then at lower temperature and strong wind it is necessary to put on warmer, and also wind-shelter clothes: hosiery, woolen sweater and trousers; at strong wind — a wind-shelter jacket from dense matter, a flannel triangle for protection of generative organs against freezing injury, to women — warm body stockings and a bra. Depending on sport and character of occupations various combinations of separate parts of a suit providing necessary protection against cooling and the greatest conveniences to trainings are possible. The obligatory requirement to the materials used for sports O.'s production is their elasticity.
In connection with considerable pollution of sports O. as a result of strong sweating during the occupations, care of it shall be especially careful. After the occupations or competitions O., adjacent to a body, needs to be replaced another — dry and pure. Pants, an undershirt, a t-shirt are recommended to be washed after each training; swimwears of a tsra occupations in artificial swimming pools, suits of fighters and boxers shall be washed surely after each training and competitions.
Except above-mentioned general requirements, O. intended for nek-ry sports has the features.
The gymnastic suit consists of knitted cotton or woolen breeches, an undershirt or a polurukavka and swimming trunks at men, a bathing suit at women. Existence in a suit of any metal buckles, fasteners, etc., and also pockets is not allowed.
The track and field athletics suit for trainings in warm season in the open air or is indoors very simple — an undershirt, pants. It is necessary that pants were rather free, did not constrain movements in a step, did not pull together in the bottom of a hip. On competitions it is not necessary to put new pants and an undershirt since at the slightest defects in breed they can cause unpleasant feelings and attritions. It is especially important to consider it to runners on super and long distances (a marathon, sports walking). The undershirt at them shall have wider cut, than usually that protects from attritions and facilitates a thermolysis. For marathoners the woolen undershirt is recommended, edges are well absorbed by sweat, helping in the summer a thermolysis protecting in cool weather from cooling better.
A suit of the boxer — the ordinary cowards reaching the middle of hips and a knitted undershirt. For protection of generative organs from accidental blows put on under pants a firm bandage sink (plastic, aluminum) on a rubber belt. At the trainings which are not connected with fight it is possible to apply a soft bandage or swimming trunks.
The suit of the fighter consists of the woolen body stockings representing high pants with straps through a shoulder and cuts on a breast, a back and sides without any metal objects able to serve as the reason of injuries.
The suit of the weight-lifter shall consist of special, it is desirable woolen, body stockings, a zone belt (10 cm are not wider), a bandage and wristlets. The zone belt protecting a waist and muscles of a prelum abdominale from damages shall be strong and elastic. It is produced from skin or tarpaulin with a small plug-in piece of bandage rubber, edges stretches only at a strong tension. The bandages intended for protection of abdominal rings from stretching are made of dense wide rubber and close in front the bottom of a stomach. The wristlets applied to protection of hands from a strong excess and stretching of a radiocarpal joint are produced from strong soft skin. They are tightened not too hardly not to break blood circulation in superficial vessels. It is desirable to put on them previously bandaged hands.
The suit of the fencer consists of a jacket, trousers, gaiters or stockings. Nek-ry additional accessories are applied to more reliable protection of athletes from damages: nabochnik, elbow piece, gloves, etc. At trainings use a bib. The jacket is produced from the dense matter (gunny, a canvas) having good air permeability and hygroscopicity. It shall have a safety lining from several layers of a thick canvas or tarpaulin, polyfoam or other synthetic material on a breast, sides and especially from the armed hand, on shoulders, under mice and on hands to an elbow. The collar shall be high (to protect all neck).
By the lake of the skier it has to be adapted for the available weather conditions, to be easy, free, not to constrain movements, it is enough to protect from cold, but not to be too warm, pe to detain evaporation of sweat and to correspond to character of the carried-out loading (walk, a sports training, etc.). Apply the fabrics having small heat conductivity, good vozdu-ho-and vapor permeability, a small namokayemost to upper O. (from the thawing snow) and the ability to dry quickly sufficient perishedbone and in necessary cases — wind-shelter properties. The suit for skiers-racers shall provide good conditions of a thermolysis and reliable protection against cold in the greatest measure. It is necessary that linen had high hygroscopicity, well absorbed sweat from a body surface, provided gradation of water in periblasts of O., did not stick to the surface of skin and was elastic. Generally woolen suit (a sweater and trousers) and linen from a shtapelny cloth or a cotton and linen crêpe (meets all these requirements at air temperature below — 15 ° — woolen linen).
Military clothes — the uniform of the military personnel made on the samples established by the order.
Military O. differs from civil on a design (I will cover), I blossom, existence a shoulder strap, buttonholes, color edgings, uniform buttons, emblems, etc. It allows to distinguish the military personnel on military ranks, belonging to types of Armed Forces, types of military forces and services.
Distinguish the following of a military uniform of O.: ceremonial, ceremonial and output, daily and field — for marshals, generals, admirals, officers, ensigns, warrant officers and the military personnel of extra urgent service; ceremonial and output, povse - day and field (in the Navy — daily) — for the military personnel of conscription service, cadets and pupils of military colleges; the worker — for the military personnel of conscription service. Each of these forms O. is subdivided on summer and winter, and in the Navy forms O., besides, have numbering. Military O. rushes strictly according to the established rules. The list and quantity of the objects which are released on one serviceman on norms of supply with ware property an order of carrying and transition to summer and winter forms O. are established by the relevant orders of command.
Military O. consists of linen and upper O., and in cold and moderate climatic districts includes special objects of warm clothes. The structure of sets of O. changes hl. obr. at the expense of the objects intended for increase in heat-insulating properties O. in general.
A component of O. is linen (next-to-skin shirts and underpants, undershirts, pants, and also undercollars, footcloths and socks). Linen is made of cottons and jersey, the easy and soft tissues having high hydrophily, hygroscopicity and a moisture capacity, and also air permeability and a paroprovodnost. For giving to linen of insecticidal and fire-resistant properties it is impregnated special impregnations — solutions or emulsions (impre-gnirovanny linen).
Interlayers of O. (single-breasted coats, uniforms, upper shirts, trousers, etc.) are applied to increase in heat-protective properties O. They are made of cotton and woolen fabrics.
Good heat-insulating properties of top coats of O. (overcoats, coat, raincoats, quilted jackets, etc.) are provided with their considerable thickness in combination with big porosity of materials. For protection against wind and moisture use raincoats (nlashchi-capes) made of materials with low air permeability. In addition to uniform O. the military personnel in winter time are given the warm clothes which are inventory property of a part. Short fur coats, fur vests, wadded padded jackets and wide trousers, fur mittens, valenoks, the rubber warmed boots, etc. concern to them.
Military O.'s designing at its mass tailoring, and also selection and O.'s adjustment by the serviceman is made on the so-called growth and ro-stovo-half-musical breakdowns determined by hl. obr. height of growth (unlike civil O.) and completeness (size of a grasp of a breast). Depending on O.'s appointment in breakdown the bigger or smaller number Rostov and polnot, O. providing a possibility of rather good adjustment according to anthropometrical indicators of the military personnel is determined. Three-growth one-half-musical breakdown provides division of the military personnel into 3 groups (growth) and is used during the tailoring, the figure which is not demanding dense fitting (e.g., linen). Three-growth vosmipolnot-ny breakdown is intended for tailoring of upper shirts of 19 sizes. Six-growth dvukhpolnot-ny breakdown with smaller ro-stovo-half-musical groups is used during the tailoring of O. which is accurately fitting a figure (overcoats, single-breasted coats, uniforms and so forth). At production of a field form O. use the simplified breakdowns — six-growth one-half-musical or six-growth two-half-musical.
The basic purpose of military O., as well as any other, consists in maintenance of thermal balance of a human body with the environment. Rational O. creates around a body the optimum artificial (subclothes) microclimate which is characterized by rather constant temperature (28 — 32 °), humidity (30 — 40%) and the weak movement of air.
To modern military O. a row technical and economic, operational, taktikotekhnichesky and a gigabyte is shown. requirements. Its design, complete set and the rosto-vochny range shall correspond to standard anthropometrical indicators of the military contingents; not to complicate freedom of movement, breath, krovo-and lymphokineses at performance by the military personnel of the prof. of duties; to provide appropriate heat exchange with the environment, convenience and speed of putting on and dropping in extreme situations; it is convenient and good to be combined with individual means of protection, the operated military equipment, equipment and individual weapon; to provide masking on the area; to be, whenever possible, easy, long-wearing, fire-resistant, technological in production and maintainable; it is easy to be released and be cleared of dust and dirt, to maintain disinfection, decontamination and deactivation; to have low cost value; to conform to esthetic requirements. Special military O., besides, shall prevent or weaken action of various prof. of vrednost and to serve for protection against aggressive and toxic fluids, toxic fumes and gases, etc.
The variety of requirements excludes a possibility of creation of universal military O. and dictates need of the differentiated approach to its development depending on purpose and specific conditions of use.
Military O. for summertime and performance of big exercise stresses when the organism needs perhaps bigger and free return of metabolic heat by the strengthened sweating and evaporation of sweat from the surface of skin and O., consists of the minimum quantity of the layers having good vozdukho-both moisture permeability and a ventiliruyemost, easily absorbing sweat and not detaining its evaporation. The protective painting of military O. meets the requirements of masking, but will not be coordinated about a gigabyte. requirements since reflects less solar energy in comparison with clothes of light coloring. Winter military O. covers big (not less than 97 — 98%) a body surface, consists of 6 — 8 thick coats of the porous fabrics containing a large amount of slow-moving air in a time and between layers and providing high heat insulation, and a wind-shelter layer from materials with low air permeability.
Clothes in the medicolegal relation
the Main occasion to court. - to a medical research O. existence on it of the damages, various imposings or pollution which arose in connection with an injury is. Damages of materials O. by the pricking, cutting, kolyushche-cutting, cutting, blunt objects, including and parts of vehicles, and also the damages caused by shots from firearms can be characteristic. During the drawing of a body on O., and also on belts, buttons etc. there are traces in the form of the stertost of material, parallel gaps and scratches merging in strips. Peculiar damages happen on O. at influence of a flame, caustic liquids (to - t, alkalis). At defeat by atmospheric and technical electricity on O. it is possible to observe traces of mechanical, thermal and electrolytic action of current — gaps, sites of subsidence and burning out. Electrolysis of metal parts (buttons, buckles, hooks, etc.) can cause characteristic coloring of adjacent sites O., napr, green — from copper.
The great value is attached to traces imposings. So, on O. there can be an adjournment of metals from the surface of the tool, the Crimea the injury, small pieces of glass, paint from the car or other transport, lubricating oils, road and coal dust etc. is done. At transport incidents traces imposings on O. can have a characteristic appearance of prints of details of transport. During the moving, and sometimes and at arrivals as a result of a sharp prelum of a body the adjacent layers of O. and objects which were in pockets leave traces prints on integuments of the victim. At fire damages on O. signs of a close shot can come to light: traces of a flame, gases, soot, particles of powder grains, lubricant, zones of metallization. At an electric trauma in places of contact with the current-carrying conductor the metals which are its part are found. On O. of suspects of crimes, as well as the victims, there can be spots of blood and allocations of the person, hair, particles and separate cells of the damaged tissues of a body and other traces biol, origins.
Court. - the medical research of damages and traces imposings on O. is made as at the initiative of the expert at examination of the victim or a corpse, and according to the offer of bodies of inquiry, investigation and court as independent examination. Spots of blood and other traces biol, origins are investigated only under resolutions of sudebnosledstvenny bodies.
At a research of damages and traces imposings on O. questions of their character, an origin in connection with specific incident, about origins are resolved. Compliance of damages of integuments to damages of other tissues of body, simultaneity of their emergence is defined. Along with visual survey are used a lab. methods.
During the studying of damages and traces imposings on O. valuable information on the tool can be obtained, the Crimea the injury, and the mechanism of its action is done. In chopped and chipped and cut damages of dense materials (rubber, nek-ry kinds of leather, synthetic fabrics, etc.) sometimes the traces of a relief of an edge suitable for an identification of the tool come to light. Traces of a close shot can be postponed for O. completely, and in appropriate cases without its research the solution of a question of a distance of a shot is impossible. The trace of a protector of an automobile wheel on O. indicates moving by the car, a characteristic strip of pressure with imposing of lubricating oils, road dust, rust — moving by rail transport, longwise directed begin to flow blood can confirm vertical position of a body of the victim at the time of an injury etc. Damages on O. can be the main source of information on the nature of the injury done to the person (in cases when damages on a body began to live or underwent surgical treatment, and entries in medical documentation are insufficiently full, and also at a research of the decayed, skeletirovanny, dismembered corpses). At examination of corpses of unknown persons clothes and documents found in pockets are used for the purpose of an identification. In cases of violent death clothes and contents of pockets (including tickets, notes, letters, etc.) can be material evidences on business therefore the issue of delivery to their relatives of the dead is resolved by the investigator.
Bibliography: Afanasyeva R. F. Hygienic bases of design of clothes for protection against cold, M., 1977, bibliogr. P. E Kalmyks. Methods of a hygienic research of clothes, L., 1960; To at with t and N about in and the p C. D. Research of damages of clothes to medicolegal practice, M., 1965, bibliogr.; Laboratory Pi special methods of a research in forensic medicine, under the editorship of V. I. Pashkova and V. V. Tomilin, M., 1975; Minkh A. A. Sketches on hygiene of physical exercises and sport, page 235, M., 1976; Minkh A. A. and Malysheva I. N. Bases of the general and sports hygiene, M., 1972; The General and military hygiene, under the editorship of N. F. Koshelev, L., 1978; Pereladova O. L. Hygiene of a kidswear, Kiev, 1977; P at-sinova A. M., Dotsenko G. I. and at r about in and the p K. A. Production clothes, M., 1974; Modern methods of a research of clothes, under the editorship of N. F. Koshelev, L., 1973; Encyclopaedic dictionary of military medicine, t. 3, Art. 1418, M., 1948.
N. F. Koshelev, L. P. Terentyev; A. P. Za-gryadskaya (court.), V. P. Illarionov (sport, clothes), O. L. Pereladova (it is put. clothes).