From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CLOSTRIDIUM — the genus of gram-positive spore-forming anaerobic rhabdoid bacteria including except saprophytes, causative agents of botulism, tetanus, a mephitic gangrene and food toxicoinfection.

Clostridium are eurysynusic in the nature, especially in the soil and went. - kish. path of the person and mammals. Along with Clostridium colibacillus (in the main Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium sporogenes) consider as sanitary and indicative bacteria at assessment of pollution of objects of the environment causative agents of diseases; they are steadier, than the bacteria which are not forming a dispute like colibacillus or an enterokokka.

There are three classifications of Clostridium (Cl.): Berdzhi (Bergey, 1974), Prevo (Prevot, 1967) with soavt, and N. A. Krasilnikova (1949).

Classification of determinant of bacteria of Berdzhi — is most acceptable and standard in medical microbiology.

Clostridium in a vegetative form have an appearance of sticks of rather large sizes: 0,3 — 2,5 microns in the diameter and from 1,3 to 15,4 microns in length, chains usually do not form. Sticks are mobile, have flagellums on all surface of a cell (peritrikha), only single types are not mobile. Education is characteristic of Clostridium dispute (see). Are painted across Gram positively, during the aging of culture pass into gram-negative forms. Disputes are oval, spherical, are located terminalno, subterminalno or is central. At sporogenesis of a stick become similar to a spindle, a lemon or get a form of a drum stick, a tennis racket. In Cl. a large number of a glycogen or the granuleza found by iodine collects.

Clostridium grow on many organic environments. Fiziol, Clostridium properties are very different. Ferment carbohydrates with formation of polyatomic alcohol, to - t, gases, amino acids, purine bases and other connections. Nek-ry types fix molecular nitrogen of air. Most of them strict anaerobe bacterias (see), to-rye do not form a catalase. Nek-ry types are facultative anaerobes (microaerophiles). Most of them saprophytes, nek-ry have pathogenic properties and are activators klostridioz (see).

According to determinant of bacteria of Berdzhi, the Bacillaceae family is divided into 5 childbirth, from to-rykh a sort III — Clostridium includes the anaerobe bacterias who do not have property to recover sulfates in sulfides.

The sort Clostridium combines strains of anaerobe bacterias of 61 look (instead of 93 types, according to the 7th edition of determinant of bacteria of Berdzhi, 1957). For convenience of identification of types the sort Clostridium is divided into 4 groups on the basis of an arrangement a dispute and properties to liquefy to gelatin. The fifth group of this sort includes five types, to-rye demand special growth mediums.

11 types of Cl enter into the first group., disputes to-rykh are located subterminalno; do not liquefy to gelatin. Typical representatives of this group are Cl. butyricum, Cl. pasteurianum.

Cl. butyricum — sticks with the roundish ends, are located on the single or couples. Well grows on an agar with glucose. Colonies on an agar of 1 — 3 mm in the diameter, white or cream color. On the meat environment of growth almost does not give, well grows on the Wednesdays containing carbohydrates. Ferments starch and sugar with education acetic and oil to - t, butyl alcohol. Casein and to gelatin does not decompose. Milk acidifies and coagulates, however the formed clot does not digest. Atmospheric nitrogen fixes poorly.

Does not demand for growth of amino acids or vitamins, except biotin. An optimum of growth at t ° 25 — 37 °. It is found in the soil, went. - kish. a path of animals, in cheese. Not patogenen.

Cl. pasteurianum — slightly curved stick. Colonies on a surface of an agar round with slightly cut up edges, 1 — 3 mm in the diameter, gray with a glossy surface. Moderately grows on meat mediums, it is better on Wednesdays with the fermented carbohydrates. Decomposition products — acetic and ‘oil to - you. Milk will not get change. An optimum of growth at t ° 37 °. Actively fixes atmospheric nitrogen with a growth on the nitrogen-free environment. It is found in the soil. Not patogenen.

Nitrogen-fixing bacteriums of the sort Cl. are of interest to agriculture. In addition to Cl. pasteurianum, is known eleven more types of nitrogen-fixing bacteriums (V. T. Emtsev, 1974). The soils processed and fertilized by organic matters contain a large number of nitrogen-fixing bacteriums of the sort Cl. the roots of plants which are intensively breeding in a zone.

20 types of C1 enter into the second group. (No. 12 — 31), having also subterminal disputes; liquefy to gelatin. Here the bacteria causing in the person heavy inf belong. diseases: Cl. botulinum (see. Botulism ), Cl. perfringens, Cl. septicum, Cl. novyi (synonym of Cl. oedematiens), Cl. histolyticum, Cl. sordellii (see. Mephitic gangrene ). These bacteria form exotoxins, specific to each look, high biol, activities, to the Crimea the person and many animal species is sensitive. Toxicogenic strains of Cl. perfringens can be the cause of food toxicoinfection at considerable planting of foodstuff.

From not pathogenic representatives of the second group Cl are typical. acetobutylicum and Cl. sporogenes. Cl. acetobutylicum — direct sticks, quite often contain a granuleza. Colonies are the round, 3 — 5 mm in the diameter raised, deckle-edged and a glossy surface. Badly grows on mediums. Well grows on the Wednesdays containing the fermented carbohydrates. Hydrolysates are acetic and oil to - you and butyl alcohol, and also acetone. To gelatin liquefies, milk coagulates and ferments. Fixes atmospheric nitrogen. An optimum of growth at t ° 37 °. It is found on the soil.

Cl. sporogenes — the sticks which are plentifully forming disputes. Disputes are oval, subterminal. Colonies on firm environments 2 — 6 mm in the diameter with the raised yellowish center, with the cut-up edges («the head of a jellyfish»).

Produces a large number oil, isobutyric, isovalerianic to - t and propyl, isobutyl and isoamyl alcohols. Digests milk. It is found in the soil, foodstuff, contents of intestines. On the cultural, biochemical, and antigenic properties of the Microbic cell it is similar to Clostridium botulinum of types A and B, but does not produce toksinony

types of Cl enter Into the third and fourth Groups., at to-rykh disputes are located terminalno, and 19 types (the third group, No. 32 — 60) do not liquefy to gelatin, and 6 types (the fourth group) liquefy it. The causative agent of tetanus — Cl concerns to the fourth group. tetani (see. Tetanus ). This microbe forms strong exotoxin, the person and many mammals is very sensitive to Krom.

Five types of C1 concern to the fifth group., to-rye do not grow on usual mediums. Cl. acidiurici grows on the agar containing uric to - that. Meets in the soil. Cl. kluyveri grows on Wednesdays with big concentration of a yeastrel, ferments ethanol to kapron to - you. It is allocated from sweet water. Clostridium malacosomae and Clostridium brevifaciens grow in alkaline condition (pH 8,5 — 10,2), demand for growth of big ion concentrations To and Na and a growth factor from leaves of an apple-tree. Are allocated from went. - kish. path. Clostridium thermocellum demands for growth of cellulose, xylose, a hemitsellyuloza, cellobiose. Meets in the soil, sea silt, excrements.

Prevo's classification with coauthors is more difficult and A little common. According to this classification, the Class Sporulales is divided into two orders: I \Clostridiales, II — Plectridiales. The order of I — Clostridiales is divided into two families: I \Endosporaceae, II — Clostridiaceae. The Clostridiaceae family is divided into three sorts: I \Inflabilis, II — Welchia, III — Clostridium. The sort Clostridium is divided into eight subgenus: I \Clostridium butyricuth, II — Clostridium naviculum, III — Clostridium aurantibutyricum, IV — Clostridium septicum, V — Clostridium novyi, VI — Cl. histolyticum, VII A-Clostridium botulinum, VIII — Clostridium fallax. The main activators of a mephitic gangrene and botulism, on Prevo's classification, enter the sort Clostridium. The most widespread activator of a mephitic gangrene Clostridium perfringens of types A, B, C, D, E, unlike Berdzhi's classification, enters a sort II — Welchia of the Clostridiaceae family therefore its full name Welchia perfringens. The causative agent of tetanus Clostridium tetani (across Berdzhi) on Prevo's classification with soavt, enters as well as the sort Clostridium, a class II — Sporulales, but an order of Plectridiales of the Plectridiaceae family, the sort Plectridium therefore its full name Plectridium tetani. However this name of a tetanic stick, as well as Welchia perfringens for the activator of a mephitic gangrene, in literature meets very seldom.

Krasilnikov's classification is counted on the microbiologists working in the field of the general, page - x. and industrial microbiology.

Bibliography: Emtsev V. T. Soil anaerobic nitrogen fixers of the sort Clostridium, in book: Usp. mikrobiol., under the editorship of A. A. Imshenetsky, century 9, page 153, M., 1974; Krasilnikov N. A. Determinant of bacteria and actinomycetes, M. — L., 1949, bibliogr.; Prescot With, and D e N of Page. Industrial microbiology, the lane with English, M., 1952; Soboleva. K. P. Volkova D. A. and T and r to about in M. I. Reproduction of pathogenic clostridiums in the soil, Chisinau, 1977, bibliogr.; Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, ed. by R. E. Buchartan a. N. E. Gibbons, Baltimore, 1975, bibliogr.; With o-w a n S. T... Steel K. J. Manual for the identification of medical bacteria, Cambridge, 1974, bibliogr.; Microbial toxins, Z. by S. J. Ajl a. o., v. 2-A, p. 1, N. Y. — L., 1971; P r e v o t A.R., Turpin A. et Kaiser P. Les of bact£ries ana^robies; p. 569 e. a., 1967; S m i t h L. Introduction to the pathogenic anaerobes, Chicago, 1955.

T. I. Bulatova.