CLOMIFENE-CITRATE — the hormonal drug stimulating allocation of a gonadotrophin («Clomifencitratum» — the recommended international name). Represents synthetic oestrogenic drug of the nonsteroid nature: With 26 H 28 ClNO-C 6 H 8 O 7 .
To. - c. has oestrogenic (uterotropny action) and anti-oestrogenic properties (blocks receptors in fabrics-misheniyakh in relation to exogenous and endogenous estrogen). The mechanism of action To. - c. finally it is not found out; it is supposed that drug stimulates development gonadotropic hormone (see), influencing a hypothalamus or a hypophysis; are available also this that To. - c. directly influences a steroidogenesis, activating enzymatic systems in an ovary that leads to increase in synthesis of estrogen. Pharmakol, effect of drug depends on a dose: small doses stimulate an exit of gonadotropic hormone, high doses — cause opposite effect.
For the first time drug was used by Grinblatt (R. Century of Greenblatt) in 1961 for treatment of anovulatory infertility also gained positive effect. Further it is established that To. - c. causes increase in secretion and an exit of gonadotropic hormones, increase in excretion of estrogen in women and testosterone at men; at an anovulatory cycle — emergence of an ovulation, at an oligozoospermia — stimulation of a spermatogenesis.
To. - c. it can be recommended at a pituitary amenorrhea, an anovulatory cycle, a syndrome of Matte — Leventalya, Kiari's syndrome — Frommelya, and also at an oligozoospermia.
During treatment it is necessary to carry out tests funkts, diagnoses.
By-effects: vascular dystonia, pains in the bottom of a stomach, nausea, dizzinesses, a headache. The hyper stimulations of ovaries given about a possible so-called syndrome are published, at Krom there can be a rupture of an ovary to massive bleeding.
Contraindications: diseases of a liver, ovarian cysts, sharply increased ovaries, individual intolerance of drug.
To. - c. under the name «Klomid» is issued in the USA and England; under the name «Klostilbegit» — in Hungary.
See also Estrogen synthetic nonsteroid .
Bibliography: Gynecologic endocrinology, under the editorship of K. N. Zhmakin, page 258, M., 1976; I Write ying A. A. l., etc. About efficiency of treatment by clomifene at anovulatory states, Probl, endo-crinins., t. 22, No. 6. page 42, 1976; Starkova H. T. and Merabishvili M. L. Influence of Clomifencitratum on excretion with urine of the hormone stimulating intersticial cells at patients with testicular insufficiency, in the same place, t. 18, No. 4, page 19, 1972, bibliogr.; Greenblatt R. Century of Chemical induction of ovulation, Fertil. and Steril., v. 12, p. 402, 1961; M i 1 with u S t. - M of u Danila-M u s t e r A. Endocrinologie ginecologica, Bucure§ti, 1977; Palti Z. Clomiphene therapy in defective spermatogenesis, Fertil. and Steril., v. 21, p. 838, 1970.
And. B. Golubeva, A. A. Pishchulin.