From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CLIMATOPHYSIOLOGY (climate + physiology) — the section of medical climatology studying the nature of formation of adaptive reactions and functions of various bodies and systems of a human body under the influence of climatic and related other natural factors. To. it is closely connected with the general biology, physiology and ecology.

Natural (klimatogeografichesky) factors, to the Crimea belong solar radiation, the atmosphere, space radiation, physical. and chemical properties of air, electromagnetic and gravitational fields of Earth and others, form the habitat and provide a possibility of life activity.

Periodic changes of weather and climatic conditions, and also moving of people to various climatic zones cause temporary or permanent reactions of adaptation which concern all organism and its separate functional systems to cellular and molecular level; they are expressed in biochemical, morfol, and in the general fiziol, processes of adaptation (see. Adaptation , Acclimatization ).

Fiziol, reactions to action of factors of weather and climate (see) are considered as favorable, or adequate if the deviation in reactions funkts, systems from usual level serves as an incentive to expansion of the processes of self-control returning these systems to the optimum mode of functioning. In case of extremeness of climatic conditions and at various diseases disturbance of processes of self-control, at the same time fiziol is possible, reactions pass in patofiziol, (see. Klimatopatologiya ).

Influence of separate natural factors on a human body has the characteristic features. Space radiation and the related flows of the elementary particles reaching the Earth's surface create a certain background of ionizing radiation, a cut is natural medium for the person, and render biol, influence on the metabolic and mutagen processes proceeding in an organism.

UV rays, getting into skin on depth of 0,5 — 1 mm, cause bactericidal effect; under their influence in skin D3 vitamin is formed of provitamin D. Besides, UV rays increase excitability of nerve terminations and function of sebaceous glands, promote formation of a histamine and other biologically active agents, UV rays can also change character of the air environment, causing the photo-electric and ionizing effects exerting secondary impact on an organism.

Repeated moderate radiations stimulate activity of nervous and endocrine systems, improve immunobiol, reactivity, exchange processes, promote an angenesis (see. Ultraviolet radiation ).

A visible part of radiation of the Sun, except providing visions, increases the level of life activity of an organism. Change of illumination, change of day and night gains uslovnoreflektorny alarm value for manifestation daily and seasonal biological rhythms (see). This frequency of vital manifestations is inherent to cells of an organism and has a genetic basis. The day-night rhythm of change of day and night and the periods of a dream and wakefulness dated for them exert impact on all vital signs of an organism. At the person processes of a metabolism, change of body temperature, nervous irritability, blood circulation, the ABP, digestion, working capacity etc. have a day-night rhythm. Disturbance of work and rest, a serious disease can affect rhythmics of vital processes; the daily periodical press is temporarily violated during the moving to other belt of time — so-called desynchronoses (see. Klimatopatologiya ). Seasonal changes fiziol, functions are sharply outlined at animals, at the person seasonality is expressed to a lesser extent. In the spring activation of activity of hemadens, a metabolism, increase in the general reactivity is observed nek-paradise. In the summer the thermolysis amplifies, standard metabolism decreases with the subsequent small increase in the fall and slow falling a little by winter.

In warm season of the ABP decreases a little, and the minute volume of heart increases. Seasonal reorganization of endocrine regulation, heliogeophysical. and weather periodic changes affect in a current of some hron. diseases.

Infrared radiation of the Sun provides the temperature schedule of the environment necessary for life, exerting impact on physical. and chemical systems thermal controls (see). High temperature of air causes considerable expansion of peripheral blood vessels, increase of pulse, increase in minute volume of heart about a nek-eye with decrease in the ABP. The blood stream in internals and in muscular tissue is a little slowed down. Excitability of a nervous system and secretion of digestive glands temporarily decreases, perhaps small decrease in a metabolism. Low air temperature leads to narrowing of peripheral vessels, especially extremities; the amount of the circulating blood decreases, the thermolysis is slowed down. Excitability of a nervous system and allocation of adrenal hormones considerably increase. Heat generation, a metabolism increase if there is no overcooling. In process of adaptation the specified reactions smooth out. Moderate air humidity increases moistening of skin and mucous membranes of respiratory tracts; in case of low temperatures it promotes cooling, and in case of high, weakening evaporation of sweat, complicates a thermolysis.

The movement of air provides normal heat exchange, wind increases heat exchange of an organism by convection and evaporation of sweat, and also works as a mechanical irritant. Moderate wind, causing a nek-swarm irritation of receptors of skin, promotes stimulation of a metabolism, strong wind lowers it, and at a speed of 10 m/s it causes also difficulty of breath. Wind in combination with low air temperature strengthens effect of cooling, raising a thermolysis, at a temperature of air body temperatures are higher — complicates it.

Atmospheric pressure and its fluctuations exert impact on an organism by change of oxygenation of an arterial blood and mechanically — action of pressure upon receptors of the closed perigastriums (a pleura, a peritoneum), and also vessels. At increase in atmospheric pressure within usual fluctuations systolic and diastolic the ABP decreases a little, pulse rate increases, at pressure decline these reactions have an opposite focus. The chemical composition of air provides function gas exchange (see). Deviations in quantitative composition and partial pressure of oxygen of air are regulated to a certain degree by system of external respiration, blood circulation and tissue respiration. Aeroions of a negative and positive sign of a charge in a small amount reside in the free atmosphere (see. Aeroionization ). Easy negative ions, probably, activating molecules of oxygen, exert beneficial effect on function of breath, cardiovascular system, exchange processes. Positive ions, especially heavy, in some cases exert the oppressing impact on these systems and functions of an organism.

Gravitational field of Earth promotes development of a musculoskeletal system. Force of muscles and blood circulation are substantially connected with force of terrestrial gravitation and korrigirutsya by anti-gravitational reflexes. Electric and magnetic fields in the terrestrial atmosphere exert impact on bioelectric processes and funkts, a condition of an organism. The sharp magnetic indignations connected with the increased solar activity are capable to have a nek-swarm the oppressing effect for century of N of.

Influence of weather conditions consists of the combined action of the listed above meteorol, elements and other natural phenomena. At the same time, depending on character of weather and climate, the role of separate meteofactors can be more or less expressed.

Influence of klimatogeografichesky zones on a human body is caused by character of local weather conditions. Use of a number of technical devices, devices, clothes and housing, and also improvement fiziol, adaptations in the way hardenings (see) the person provides for itself an opportunity to live in all climatic zones of Earth (see. Climate ).

At the people who are constantly living in conditions of climate of the tundra, a taiga and polar districts or acclimatized to these conditions adaptive reactions of an organism to considerable cooling develop; insufficiency of ultra-violet and light radiation is to some extent compensated in a solar part of year. The climate of the woods and steppes of a moderate zone promotes versatile adaptation to moderately cold and moderately hot weather, to sharply expressed seasonal changes of year. The climate of a hot zone leads to the strengthened processes of a thermolysis, some decrease in heat generation of an organism and to strengthening of a water salt metabolism. Intensive insolation is compensated by the raised xanthopathy. The sea climate through aerosols of air enriches an organism with salts of sea water, weakens influence of hot and cold weather. The mountain climate causes mainly adaptive reactions to the lowered atmospheric pressure, strengthens function of external respiration, blood circulation and a hemopoiesis; gradually utilization of oxygen fabrics increases, glycolysis amplifies.

Features of various geographical zones, change of weather and seasons of year, moving of people to unusual climatic conditions, the nature of work and life are capable to result in insufficiency or in redundancy of action of the separate climatic factors complicating reactions of adaptation. In any climate at insufficient adaptation are possible klimatopatol. reactions.

The age also has essential value in formation of adaptive reactions to action of climatic factors. So, children are very sensitive to a shortcoming and surplus of ultra-violet radiation, at small children thermoregulatory systems are still poorly developed. At early children's, teenage and youthful age high reactivity on action of unusual climatic factors is noted. At advanced age reactivity is reduced, but at the same time the range of adaptive opportunities of an organism is narrowed (see. Klimatopatologiya ). Ability of an organism in initial stages adaptations (see) to increase endurance, the general resistance allows to use the stimulating role of natural factors as means of strengthening of health, a hardening, and also for more effective rest, treatment and medical rehabilitation.

See also Climatology medical , Climatotherapy .

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H. M. Voronin, B. O. Albert.