CLIMATOLOGY MEDICAL — the industry of biometeorology studying influence of physical environmental factors on the person and developing methods of their assessment in the treatment-and-prophylactic purposes. A subject of biometeorology is studying of a direct and indirect impact gelio-, geophysical, and geochemical, factors on everything biol, objects (vegetation, animals, the person). In foreign literature at interpretation of questions K. m mostly use the terms «bioclimatology» and «biometeorology».
To. the m studies properties of solar activity, the geomagnetic field, weather and climate factors. The heat balance of solar radiation, character of the spreading land surface (i.e. a relief, a vegetable cover, existence of the water basin, etc.) and system of movements (circulation) of free air, exerting impact on a human body concerns to the last. Development To. m it is inseparably linked with the general climatology, and also with researches on climatophysiologies (see), klimatopatologiya (see), climatotherapy (see) which are its sections, and it is based on their achievements. To. the m uses also data and methods of geophysics, astronomy, aero chemistry and other natural sciences.
To. the m applies methods of the general climatology (a method of determination of average long-term sizes separate meteorol, elements); a complex method of definition of structure of climate in various classes of weather of E. E. Fedorova, improved by L. A. Chubukov, and also develops own methods of assessment of weather and climate which are used at medico-climatic studying of the territory, in system to lay down. - the prof. of actions (climatotherapy) and during the forecasting of meteopatichesky reactions (see. Klimatopatologiya ). Methods K. m are based on development of the special medikoklimatichesky parameters considering influence on a human body of one or several meteorol. factors, napr, degrees of closeness, the oxygen content in free air, etc. Researches in the area K. m are carried out in natural or laboratory conditions.
Ideas of ancient scientists of influence of climate and weather on the course of various diseases found reflection 6 written monuments of the Chinese, Tibetan medicine, Hippocrates's works. The first generalizing works about influences of weather on an organism of the healthy and sick person belonging to Casper (J. Casper, 1846), to Fuassak (P. Foossaque, 1867), Lome bar (N. of Lombard, 1877), appear only in 19 century when achievements in the field of natural sciences allowed to reveal closer interrelation of processes in the nature.
History K. the m in Russia begins with A. I. Voyeykov's works for the first time investigating climate for treatment and hygiene (1893). At the end of 19 century outstanding Russian doctors N. I. Pirogov, S. P. Botkin, G. A. Zakharyin, etc. show great interest to lay down. to use of climatic factors. But only after the Great October revolution when the network gidrometeorol was created. the stations and research establishments studying influence of climatic conditions on a human body To. m received base for the development. Close connection of the general biology and medicine with astronomical, geophysical, and meteorol, the phenomena was for the first time noted in works of A. L. Chizhevsky (1927) who showed existence of diverse bonds of the biosphere with changes of the course physical. processes in the Sun (it concerns a number of patterns of distribution of many epid, diseases» mortality and so forth).
Bases of the Soviet school K. m are put by P. G. Mezernitsky who for the first time developed the scheme reflecting the main ways of influence of climatic factors on an organism (1937). In the 30th 20 century a number of methodical grants and textbooks on is published To. m — N. A. Remizov (1934), V. A. Klimovitsky (1937), etc. In 30 — the 50th there are 20 century a big role in formation To. m played A. N. Boyko's researches, H. N. Kalitin, E. A. Chernyavsky in the field of actinometry, V. A. Alexandrov, G. M. Danishevsky, G. A. Nevrayev — on resort climatology, H. M. Voronina, A. D. Slonim — on a climatophysiology, and also foreign authors of de Roudder, Reuters, Tromp (V. of de Rudder, R. Reiter, S. Tromp) — in the field of a bioclimatology. Importance for formation To. m had achievements of synoptic meteorology — the doctrine about emergence, development and movement of areas with lowered (a cyclone, etc.) and raised (an anti-cyclone, etc.) pressure of air. Not less noticeable role was played also by the ideas of dynamic climatology, edges investigates the weather climatic conditions corresponding to various types of synoptic processes (i.e. the atmospheric processes which are the reason of formation of the mode of weather in certain geographical regions).
Development To. the m goes in two main directions: the first studies only those meteorol, conditions which influence thermoregulatory systems of a human body — medical thermoclimatology; the second investigates influence of all weather and climatic complex — complex To. m.
Medical thermoclimatology is engaged in definition of a heat balance of a human body in various methods: by method of integral indicators, by an analytical method and so-called instrument. The greatest recognition and in a climatotherapy the method of integral indicators — the equivalent and effective temperatures (EET) and the radiation and equivalent and effective temperatures (REET) was widely used. The indicator of EET is developed by Yaglu (G. P. Jaglou, 1925) and implemented in the USSR In V. A. Yakovenko's practice (1927). EET characterize impact on heatfeeling of the person of air temperature, relative humidity and speed of wind. Definition of EET is carried out on special formulas, nomograms and tables. As an integral indicator of influence of the same meteorol. elements, but also, also tension of solar radiation REET is used. This indicator defines heatfeeling of the person in the sun and is calculated according to the special nomogram (see. Climatotherapy ). However all integral indicators do not consider the nature of response, i.e. changes fiziol, functions of an organism on influence meteorol, factors (the size of heat production, a heat input on evaporation, change of average temperature of skin, etc.).
A number of authors develops analytical methods of definition of a heat balance of a human body depending on a complex meteorol, factors: radiation balance of a body surface with the atmosphere, a heat input on evaporation, on heating of inhaled air and on saturation by its water vapors, etc.
The concept developed by V. Marinov (from 1961 to 1978) in NRB is of interest. On its representation natural (daily, seasonal) thermal rhythmics of an organism, i.e. the fluctuations of intensity of processes of thermal control defining dynamics of kliniko-physiological and biochemical indicators is connected with processes of evaporation and change of steam pressure on a body surface. Proceeding from the fact that rhythms fiziol, functions are connected with the thermal conditions of an organism caused meteorol, parameters and other environmental factors (temperature and air humidity, speed of wind, tension of solar radiation, clothes, degree physical. loadings, etc.), Marinov created the mathematical model «organism — the meteorological environment» that allows to define optimum for functioning of all fiziol, systems a thermal conditions of the environment which shall include certain periodic vibrations. Long or constant stay of the person in the conditions of thermal comfort of the room can lead, according to Marinov's theory, to considerable disturbances in activity of various bodies and systems.
The so-called instrument method which consists in modeling of some physiological functions in the conditions of influence of these or those meteorol, factors by means of the devices (frigorimetr, katatermometr) based on the principle of cooling of a heated black sphere is abroad used. However these devices cannot be considered analogs of a body of the person with his difficult mechanisms physical. and chemical thermal controls therefore the method did not gain distribution to the USSR.
Thus, it is necessary to recognize that the direction of medical thermoclimatology not fully opens impact of climate on the person, being limited to studying only of the thermal or cooling influence and allocating only some meteorol, factors (solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity of air, speed of wind); influence of others weather meteorol. conditions (cloudiness, atmospheric pressure, the oxygen content in free air, etc.) are not considered.
Complex To. m — leading and the most widespread in the USSR and in many foreign countries the direction K. m. In it system, complex methods of assessment are used climate (see) and other physical. factors. Complex To. the m recognizes situation that the organism is influenced by weather in general, a cut was stated still by A. I. Voyeykov (1898) and Item G. Mezernitsky (1937). Separate meteorol, a component — the atmospheric pressure, air temperature, humidity or wind — in the general complex of weather can become the leader in impact on an organism (especially in extreme weather climatic conditions — highlands, a hot or frigid climate), however at the same time all others meteorol, factors also exert impact on an organism, creating a specific weather background. Beginning to development of the complex direction K. 20 century L. A. Chubukov using complex morfol, classification of weather of E were necessary to m in the 50th. E. Fedorova (1925), the opening structure (morphology) of climate in various classes of weather.
At the heart of Fedorov's classification — Chubukov and lies the principle of reference of weather of days to 16 classes having defined klimatofiziol. and klimatoterapevtichesky value. Classes of weather were given strictly established characteristics which such signs as cloudiness, temperature and air humidity — for group of frost-free weather, cloudiness and air temperature — for frosty weather and weather with transition of air temperature through zero enter. This classification gives the chance to characterize climatic conditions vseya natural zones of the globe and as each class of weather is defined by exact criteria, excludes subjective approach, doing comparable results of the analysis of various climatic conditions.
Classification defines value of each class of weather for a human body. So, e.g., solar frost-free weathers II and III classes with air temperature preferential not higher than 27 °, formed usually in a steady anti-cyclone when the correct daily course of the main meteorol takes place, elements, the human body is well adapted to Krom, win first place on klimatoterapevtichesky value (perhaps broad carrying out air and solar bathtubs, bathings). At this weather meteopatichesky reactions — the reactions arising at people with hypersensitivity to sharp, abnormal changes of weather in usual climate (meteorolability) are not noted. Cloudy (the VI class) and rainy (the VII class) weathers quite often are followed by jumps of the majority meteorol, elements. At the same time meteolabile people often have any meteopatichesky reactions — some become aggravated hron, diseases (see. Klimatopatologiya ).
Tables of structure of climate in various classes of weather of Fedorov — Chubukova, the containing data on the long-term mode of weather of every month of year for specific geographical point, are used at design of the cities and dwellings in various climatic zones, at the solution of questions a dignity. - hens. selection, at klimatofiziol. to assessment of different types of clothes and footwear and so forth. Influence of climate on an organism is the fullest reflect the methods which are modification of classification of types of climate in Fedorov's weathers — Chubukova in which not only average daily allowance meteorol, indicators, but also EET, the degree of closeness determined by an absolute humidity of air, degree of severity and humidity of weather of the cold period of year, etc. are considered. Schedules of structure of climate in various classes of weathers for different geographical zones are submitted on tsvetn. rice.
Further development of the ideas of the complex direction K. m in combination with methods of thermoclimatology are Yu. A works. Azhitsky (1963) who combined all weathers on Fedorov's classification — Chubukova in three groups on degree of usefulness for a human body, and V. I. Rusanov (1965) who allocated classes of weather of day on the basis of EET and REET. Certain researchers, developing the ideas of a complex method in To. m, consider weather of days differentially as weather of day and weather of night, and also include in a complex of weather of days of the characteristic of a radiation and light status, natural ionization of air. In the USSR also problems of the seasonal and territorial analysis of distribution of classes of weather, detection of patterns of dynamics of weather and its genesis in resorts (resort climatology) and in districts, perspective are also abroad developed for construction of institutions of rest and treatment.
Practical developments and methods K. m are used in various fields of the national economy and health care: for recreational assessment of climate (i.e. estimates of climate for the organization of rest; from armor. recreatio recovery, rest), estimates of climate for a climatotherapy and hardenings (see), estimates of conditions acclimatization (see), estimates of climate and weather for a medico-meteorol. forecasting. Recreational assessment of climate is based hl. obr. on definition of a possibility of stay in the open air healthy people depending on weather conditions, clarification of degree of usefulness of weather conditions for rest. In this direction a lot of work is carried out by E. M. Ilyicheva et al. (1971), N. A. Danilova (1977).
In the solution of questions of assessment of climate for carrying out a climatotherapy and a hardening the greatest value has use of parameters of integral assessment of influence meteorol. conditions on heatfeeling of the person. For assessment of the cold period of year the special indexes (considering temperature, air humidity and speed of wind defining character of clothes, operating time and walks in the open air), for warm — EET and REET on the basis of which are carried out dosing of klimatoterapevtichesky procedures are most widespread.
The special system of medico-climatic parameters which are accurately differentiated on extent of impact on a human body is developed for assessment of conditions of acclimatization of the person in various natural zones. According to this system assessment first of all the radiation mode of the territory (the degree of sunniness determined by number of hours of sunshine, security with ultra-violet radiation according to Belinsky) is characterized. As indirect indicator of intensity of circulating processes in the atmosphere serves degree of contrast variability of weather and jumps separate meteorol, elements. Also daily course and interdaily variability of the oxygen content in free air are considered. The probability of formation of stuffy weathers and degree of comfort of the summer period of year is defined.
From 60th 20 century in the USSR and abroad are developed by a number of authors methods of assessment of weather and climate for a medico-meteorol. forecasting that allows to carry out the differentiated prevention of meteopatichesky reactions (see. Klimatopatologiya ). In this regard the increasing value is gained a research of solar activity, a radio emission of the Sun, parameters of magnetic storms, etc., and also variations of the natural electromagnetic field.
Development of problems K. m in the Soviet Union are engaged research in-you balneology and physical therapy, research laboratories of balneology, a number of in-t of the Siberian department of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, meteorol, the commission Geographical about-va the USSR.
A course of lectures on To. the m is included into the program of training of graduate students and interns of research in-t of balneology and physical therapy, and also the Siberian department of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. Questions K. m and biometeorologies are covered in the «Questions of Balneology, Physical Therapy and Medical Physical Culture» magazine and in other medical and geographical editions. In some countries (GDR, the Party of Russian Taxpayers, Germany, Italy, etc.) there are institutes and the centers of a bioclimatology, the periodicals devoted to questions of biometeorology and a bioclimatology are issued. In France the service biometeoro works with l. researches, issuing the monthly «Bioklimat». In 1956 in Paris the organizational meeting International biometeorological and bioclimatic took place about-va. From now on the international congresses on biometeorologies on which questions K are considered will periodically be organized. m.
Bibliography: Assman D. Sensitivity of the person to weather, M., 1966; Baybakova E. M., Nevrayev G. A. and Chubukov L. A. Card of structures of climate of resorts and medical areas of the USSR, M., 1962; B at d y to about M. I. and C and - c of e of N to about G. V. Climatic factors heat of feeling of the person, Izv. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, it is gray. geogr., No. 3, page 3, 1960; In about e ft-to in A. I. Issledovaniye of climates for climatic treatment and hygiene, Zhurn. Russian islands of protection national zdravookhr., No. 4-5, page 231, 1898; M e z e the district and c to and y P. K Medical meteorology, Yalta, 1937; Technique of studying and scheme of the description of climate of resorts, sost, E. M. Baybakova, etc., M., 1964; H at-binsky S. M. Bioklimatologiya, M., 1965; T and sh to about in X. S. Klimatjt on a kurortita in Bjlgariya, Sofia, 1972. With
m also bibliogr, to St. Climate .
I. V. Butyeva, V. F. Ovcharov.