CLEMENCE'S TUBERCULINE TEST (Pirquet Clemens Peter Johann, 1874 — 1929) — the Austrian pediatrician and the immunologist.
In 1900 ended medical f-t Vienna un-that, in the same place worked in children's clinic (1902 — 1908); directed department of pediatrics in Baltimore (USA); since 1910 professor and the department chair of pediatrics in Breslavle, then the head of the Vienna children's clinic (1911 — 1929).
K. A tuberculine test the textbook on dietology published the St. 100 works devoted to questions of pediatrics, an allergy, dietology including 4 monographs, the guide to tuberculosis at children. He is one of founders of practical allergology. Studying a serum disease and reaction of an organism to smallpox vaccination together with B. Shik, found emergence of qualitatively changed sensitivity at repeated introduction of a vaccine or anti-toxic serum; this phenomenon was called by it «allergy». Having assumed that at tuberculosis there is a similar pattern, opened specific diagnostic skin tuberkulinovy test which bears his name (see in 1907. Tuberculinodiagnosis ). The substances causing change of sensitivity of an organism To. Called a tuberculine test allergens. For designation of a condition of nonsensitivity of an organism to tuberculine offered the term «anergy». K. A tuberculine test was a supporter of the preventive direction in fight against tuberculosis at children, attached importance to timely treatment of its initial forms, holding fortifying actions (in particular, to a balanced diet), developed a power supply system of sick children, offered the anthropometrical index called afterwards by his name.
K. A tuberculine test was the president Austrian about-va health care.
Works: Die Serumkrankheit, Lpz. — Wien,
1905 (sovm, with Schick B.); Allergie, Miinch. med. Wschr., S. 1457, 1906; Der diagnosti-sche Wert der kutanen Tuberkulinreaktion bei der Tuberkulose des Kindesalters auf Grundvon 100 Sektionen, Wien.klin. Wschr., S. 1123, 1907; Klinische Studien iiber Yak-zination und Yakzinale Allergie, Lpz., 1907; Lehrbuch der Yolksernahrung, Wien — B., 1920 (sovm, with Meyerhofer E.); Handbuch der Kindertuberkulose, Bd. 1 — 2, Lpz., 1930 (sovm, with Engel S.).
Bibliography: Ado A. D. General allergology, page 8, M., 1978; Pokhitonovam. P. Clemens Pirke and value of its works for development of the doctrine about children's tuberculosis, Probl, a tube., No. 5, page 85, 1964; M and at e r h about f e r E. tiber die biologische Wertigkeit der Pirquet’schen Forschung, Wien. med. Wschr., S. 2597, 2728, 1924.
Yu. L. Guly.