CLAUDE Albert (Claude Albert, sort. in 1900) — the Belgian cytologist, professor (1949), the Nobel Prize laureate (1974).
Ended Liege un-t (Belgium) and since 1929 worked in Rock Feller in-those in New York (USA). Since 1949 works in Free un-those Brussels, Ying t of Jules Borde heads and is professional. Catholic un-that in Luvena (Belgium).
Since 1940 A. Claude, having improved a method of differential centrifuging, conducts studying of structure and chemical structure of a cell. It the first divided homogenate of a liver on nuclear, large and small - granular fractions also were applied by a method of a submicroscopy to their studying (1943); showed that the krupnogranulyarny fraction contains in the basic of a mitochondrion and activity of respiratory enzymes which are capable to release from substrates potential chemical energy (1946) is connected with it. The Melkogranulyarny fraction consists of fragments and grains up to 150 nanometers in size («microsome»), represents mix of phospholipids and nucleoproteids, concentrates up to 60% of all RNA and provides a basophilia of cytoplasm of a cell (1945 — 1946). These works served as the beginning of a recent trend of researches — cytology of enzymes and formed the basis sovr, ideas of mitochondrions, ribosomes and a cytoplasmic reticulum. For works on studying structural and funkts, the organization of a cell A. Claude was conferred the Nobel Prize.
Works: The distribution of cytochrome oxidase and succinooxidase in the cytoplasm of mammalian liver cell, J. biol. Chem., v.165, p. 615, 1 946; Fractionation of mammalian liver cells by differential centrifugation, J. exp. Med., v. 84, p. 51, 61, 1946: Cell morphology and the organization of enzymatic systems in cytoplasm, Proc. roy. Soc. In, v. 142, p. 177, 1954.
Bibliography: Piterman M. Physical and chemical properties of ribosomes, the lane with English, page 11, 14, M., 1967; Polikar A. Elements of physiology of a cell, the lane with fr., with 11, 145, L., 1976; Cytology of enzymes, the lane with English, under the editorship of A. A. Pokrovsky, page 11, M., 1971.
V. I. Nozdrin.