From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CINEMATOGRAPHY IN MEDICINE (grech, kinema, kinematos the movement + grapho to write, represent) — a method of scientific research and documentation. Also the dignity is used for training. educations. After the invention of cinema (1895) there was an interest in shootings of movements of the person and animals for the purpose of registration and the analysis of their locomotory functions. Since the microphoto found application in biology and medicine already from sulfurs. 19 century, a chance which connection of a movie camera with a microscope gave were quickly estimated.

In Russia at the beginning of 20 century one of the first medico-biol. movies the movie «The World in a Drop of Water and a Drop of Blood» which had great success was shown. For doctors viewings of foreign movies «Amputation of a Leg», «Removal of a Kidney», etc. were organized. In 1911 there were first Russian short films of medical subject («Eye», «Blood circulation»), and in 1912 — 1913 movies of the big social importance («Alcoholism and its effects», «Tuberculosis and measures of fight against it»). In 1912

V. N. Lebedev, the pioneer of domestic microcinematography, created the scientific movie «Infusorians». After Great October socialist revolution along with the general development of domestic cinematography its use in medicine extends. I. P. Pavlov in 1926 together with V. A. Pudovkin create the movie «Behaviour of the Person (Mechanics of a Brain)». From many works performed by V. N. Lebedev the movie «Culture of Fabric» (1939) is interesting, in Krom processes of phagocytosis were shown. B. I. Lavrentyev directed works on studying of nervous tissue which were carried out by means of microcinematography in All-Union in-those experimental medicine. Materials of a research formed the basis of the scientific movie «Microscopy of Living Nervous Tissue» (1939). Under the leadership of M. I. Gramenitsky movies «Microscopy of Heart of Hematocryal», «Macro — and Microscopy of Heart Hematothermal» (1939) in which action of some pharmakol was shown were created. funds for heart.

To further development To. in m organizational actions promoted. In the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences in 1945 the department of scientific and experimental medical cinematography was organized, and in 1949 — 1950 film laboratories in a number of medical in-comrades were organized.

The cinema allows to study processes and the phenomena as they occur actually, i.e. in dynamics of development, repeatedly to reproduce them for the detailed analysis, to compare the processes removed at different times and in different places is long to store materials of filming.

Requests of researchers caused development of the special equipment and techniques, thanking the Crimea became possible to accelerate slow processes or to slow down bystry that allows to study the studied phenomena more deeply. Tseytraferny, or slowed down, filming is applied during the studying of slowly proceeding processes which are not perceived visually such as reproduction of bacteria, cell division, growth of plants, etc. At this technique instead of the normal speed of shooting in 24 shots shooting of each shot takes place in 1 sec. through in advance calculated time slices — seconds, minutes, and if necessary and hours. During the viewing of a film with a normal speed time «is condensed» also the process continuing, e.g., several days looked through on the screen in several minutes.

Under the leadership of the academician V. D. Timakov in Ying-those epidemiology and microbiology of N. F. Gamale and department of scientific and experimental medical cinematography of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences tseytraferny microcinematography in phase contrast was applied to studying of morphology of L-forms of bacteria.

Slow motion, or accelerated, high-speed, filming is applied during the studying of the fast-proceeding processes, napr, to the analysis of reduction of muscle fiber, studying of features of a blood-groove in arteries, the nature of formation of a wound at damage by various shells, etc. At this technique the speed of shooting can reach hundreds, thousands and millions of pictures in 1 sec. At demonstration of a film with a normal speed time «extends» and process becomes to available observation and the analysis.

Microcinematography (see) — one of the main methods of use of cinema in scientific research. Shooting with a movie camera is made through optics of a microscope. An opportunity to study the phenomena of a microcosm in their natural dynamics drew great attention of researchers to a microfilming and provided its bystry development.

X-ray cinematography (see) — a method of a research and diagnosis by means of filming on the basis of a combination of a movie camera to a X-ray apparatus.

Kinoendoskopiya (see) — a method of a research of shank bores of an organism by means of filming on the basis of a combination of a movie camera to various endoscopes (the bronchoscope, the gastroscope, laparoskop, etc.).

The great value for medicine and biology has use of cinematography for documentation of scientific experiments. I. P. Pavlov one of the first highly appreciated possibilities of cinema and applied filming to documentation of experiments on studying of century of N of and to the analysis of behavior of experimental animals — dogs and subhuman primates. H. N. Burdenko directed release of the first color film about operation of an oncotomy. Under the leadership of P. K. Anokhin it was conducted kinonablyudeniyo behind development of accrete twins for a number of years.

Film documentation is widely applied in surgery. Complication of operations, especially in the field of cardiovascular surgery, demanded improvement of the equipment and a technique of filming. Filming in the operating room is conducted by easy, small-size movie cameras, with bystrozamenyaemymy cartridges and using lenses with variable focal length (zoom lenses). For illumination of a surgery field on a movie camera install small lighting fixtures with iodine-quartz lamps. Filming is applied systematically to documentation of operations. Among the movies created under the leadership of B. V. Petrovsky «Renal transplantation», «New methods of treatment of atherosclerosis of an aorta and artery», «Aortocoronary shunting at atherosclerosis», etc. are especially interesting. A number of scientific documentaries — «Artificial circulation of a brain and heart at endocardiac operations», «Cybernetics in diagnosis», etc. — is created under the leadership of A. A. Vishnevsky. Filming to documentation of works is applied A. D. Ado, by H. N. Blochin, M. V. Volkov, M. M. Krasnov, M. I. Kuzin, Savelyev, E. I. Chazov, A. M. Chernukh and many others.

Also use of filming for the purpose of studying of functional changes of an organism during the training of athletes is of great importance. The analysis of film documents helps to choose the most optimum, the mode of a training of the athlete providing high sports results. Department of scientific and experimental medical cinematography of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, film laboratory of the 1st and 2nd MMI, the 1st Leningrad medical in-that, Army medical college and other medical in-t of the country on the basis of film documentation is let out by movies for the scientific and educational purposes.

Movies are a valuable auxiliary method of training in medical educational institutions. They represent a training material visually, in natural dynamics, irrespective of time and the scene of action. Use of special types of filming allows to reproduce the processes and the phenomena hidden for an eye in the movie. Use of animation promotes visualization of a training material.

The subject of educational movies is determined by the central methodical offices by the higher and secondary medical education of M3 of the USSR; they also order these movies to film studios. The fund of educational movies is various, e.g. «Operational surgery with topographical anatomy» (1968), «Children's infectious diseases» (1972), «Conduction paths back and brain» (1973), «Principles of medicinal therapy of parkinsonism», «Ways and technology of amputation of extremities», «Hygienic rationing of allergens and carcinogens» (1977) and many other. Fill up fund of educational movies of cinema of laboratory of some medical in-comrades.

The value of scientific movies for teaching medical disciplines is defined by the fact that new, original works of the leading scientists are presented to them; archive film documents allow to show to students a rare wedge, cases, to acquaint them with classical works.

Preparation of movies for a dignity. educations the in-t of sanitary education of M3 of the USSR, the Union of societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, and on separate subjects of the republican house (federal republics) of sanitary education is engaged Central. Subject dignity. - a gleam. movies it is very various — prevention of traumatism, protection of motherhood and an infancy, harm of smoking and alcoholism, harm of self-treatment, prevention of infections, environmental control and other questions a dignity. cultures which promotion among a general population has relevance. Fund dignity. - the gleam, movies contains apprx. 700 names and constantly is replenished. These short films are in system of film distribution and are shown to the population at movie theaters before the main program, accompany lectures of doctors in clubs, Palaces of culture and Houses of sanitary education (see).

Research both documentaries and other film documents of medical subject have inherent value for history of medicine and health care. They allow to keep an image of outstanding scientists-physicians and methods of their work, give the chance to documentary recreate ways of development of the separate directions in medicine.

A large number of film documents on medical subject is collected in the State storage film, photo and phonodocuments, in the Museum of history of medicine of Stradynya in Riga (see. Museum of history of medicine ) and Department of scientific and experimental medical cinematography of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences.

Bibliography: 3ilberberg L. Ya. Cinema and medicine, L., 1972, bibliogr.; A. D eagles. Cinema in pedagogical process and scientific work medical - schools, M., 1966, bibliogr.; Rabkin And. X. and Ermakov N. P. Electron-optical strengthening, X-ray television, X-ray cinematography, M., 1969, bibliogr; Sukharebsky L. M. and 3lotnikov L. A. Cinema for the aid to sanitary education, M., 1968.

S. T. Komm.