From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CHLOROFORM (Chloroformium) — means for an inhalation anesthesia. Trichloromethane; CHC13.

Colorless transparent heavy mobile volatile liquid with a characteristic smell and sweet burning taste. It is slightly soluble in water (1:200), mixes up in all ratios with anhydrous alcohol, ether, many essential and fatty oils; pier. weight (weight) 119,38; density 1,474 — 1,483; t°Kmi 59,5 — 62 °. Vapors of chloroform do not explode and do not ignite. Under the influence of light and air are formed of it galogensoderzhashchy to - you and phosgene. Existence to - t in chloroform determine by reddening of a litmus paper.

For the general anesthesia apply specially purified chloroform to an anesthesia (Chloroformium pro narcosi; synonym of Chloroformium anaesthe-sicum; GFH, joint venture. B), to-ry preserve addition 0,6 — 1% of p-pa of anhydrous alcohol.

Is active means for an inhalation anesthesia (see). Causes an anesthesia in 5 — 7 min. after the beginning of inhalation without the expressed excitement. Against the background of the anesthesia caused by chloroform, relaxation of skeletal muscles is more expressed, than during the use of other means for an inhalation anesthesia. Escaping of an anesthesia happens within 7 — 15 min. after interruption in supply of drug.

In a modern anesteziol. to practice chloroform is almost not applied to an anesthesia in connection with the small narcotic width and danger of development of heavy complications from heart, a liver and kidneys. At emergency chloroform can be used for an introduction anesthesia and as the narcotic substance strengthening effect of nitrous oxide (see) in a flow with oxygen (1:1). At the same time it is necessary to use the evaporator which is precisely dosing chloroform located out of a circulating system of gas-narcotic mix (see. Inhalation anesthesia). For an introduction anesthesia chloroform is used in concentration from 2 to 3,5 about. %, for maintenance of an anesthesia — in concentration from 0,5 to 1,5 about. %. Chloroform has analgetic activity in subnarkotiche-sky concentration in this connection in nek-ry cases it can be used for elimination of pain without switching off of consciousness. The hl is allocated. obr. (to 95%) through lungs in not changed look, to 5% of the administered drug is exposed to metabolic turning into body tissues (preferential in a liver). Metabolites of chloroform among which there is a phosgene have hepatotoxic properties.

Disturbances of a cordial rhythm up to fibrillation of ventricles and a cardiac standstill belong to the main complications arising at a chloroformic anesthesia and after it, reduction of sokratitelny ability of a myocardium, fatty dystrophy and cirrhosis, and also fatty dystrophy of kidneys. There are data that these complications arise during the use of chloroform in combination with oxygen, reduction of its concentration at the combined anesthesia with muscular relaxants and in the conditions of hyperbaric oxygenation less often.

The chloroformic anesthesia is contraindicated at diseases of cardiovascular system and parenchymatous bodies.

In modern medical practice chloroform is used generally for external use as a part of the ointments and linimentums having the irritating properties. For this purpose such dosage forms apply at miozita (see) and neuralgia (see) as revulsives. Sometimes chloroform is appointed inside on 3 — 5 drops to reception with water at nausea, vomiting and a hiccups.

The highest doses for adults inside: one-time 0,5 ml, daily

1 ml.

Form of release: in large bottles of different capacity and bottles of orange glass on 50 ml.

Use of chloroform in the histologic equipment. In mix with absolute alcohol and paraffin chloroform use for dehydration of cuts (see Holts ER and a method of coloring) or pieces of fabric during the filling of the last in paraffin or photoxylin-paraffin. At the same time chloroform is previously purified of impurity of water and alcohol by its keeping over the granulated calcium chloride, crystal carbolic to - that or the calcinated copper vitriol. For paraffin embedding dehydrated in alcohols of the ascending fortress (to 96 — 100%) pieces of fabric immerse in mix 96 — 100 ° about alcohol with chloroform (1:1) until they are not clarified and will not fall by a bottom of a vessel. Then pieces of fabric transfer to pure chloroform, keep at t ° 35 — 40 ° in the thermostat in mix of chloroform with paraffin (1:1) and transfer to the pure melted paraffin at t ° 54 — 56 °.

For filling in tselloidpn-paraffin subject to similar processing the pieces of fabric dehydrated and impregnated with 1 — 2% solution of photoxylin in mix of 100% of alcohol with anhydrous ether (1:1) or in methyl benzoate. During the filling of material in pure photoxylin often make consolidation of photoxylin in vapors of chloroform. Besides, chloroform is a part of the fixing mix Carnoy (see Karnts liquid), is applied to degreasing (see), and in a histochemistry — to fixing of frozen sections (see. Histologic methods of a research).

Bibliography: Lloyd 3., about with with r and at River and Sh and l e r T. Gistokhimiya of enzymes, Laboratory methods, the lane with English, page 44, M., 1982; M and sh to about in with to and y M. D. Pharmaceuticals, p.1, page 14, M., 1984; Me r to at l about in G. A. Kurs of the pato-logogistologichesky equipment, page 53, L., 1969; The Reference book on anesthesiology and resuscitation, under the editorship of A. A. Bunyatyan, page 5, M. 1982; Chloroform, ed.

by R. M of Waters, Wisconsin, 1951; Pay-n e J. P. Chloroform in clinical anesthesia, Brit. J. Anaesth., v. 53, suppl. 1, p. IIS, 1981; The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, ed. by L. S. Goodman a. A. Gilman, N. Y., 1971.

P. II. Alyautdin; A. 3. Manevich (anest.), I. E. Hesin (gist.).