HLORAMYN (Chloraminum) — a chemical desinfectant. Treats the organic compounds having the general chemical formula of RS02NH2 (R is the radical), in to-rykh one or both hydrogen atoms which are at nitrogen are replaced with chlorine; in the first case chloroamines, in the second — dichloramines turn out. As a desinfectant in medical practice use the chloroamine B representing sodium salt of amidochloride of benzene sulphonic acid (C6H5S02NClNa. ZN20), and also HB chloroamine — parabenzene chloride sulfoamidochloride of sodium (ClC6H4S02NClNa). The last differs from chloroamine B in presence of chlorine at a parapolosheniya to sulfonate group. Chloroamine B contains 25 — 29% of active chlorine and no more than 20% of moisture, HB chloroamine — 27% of active chlorine.
Chloroamine — white fine-crystalline powder (sometimes a yellowish shade) with a slight smell of chlorine, is dissolved in 10 h water, in 25 h alcohol, in glycerin and other solvents. At dissolution in water it is hydrolyzed with education hypochloric to - you. Chloroamine is resistant at storage, loss of active chlorine does not exceed 0,1 — 0,3% a year; its solutions can use within 15 days after preparation. Possesses bactericidal, virulitsidny, fungicidal, and in big concentration and sporo-tsidny action. For strengthening of action add activators to solution of chloroamine — ammonia in the relation to chlorine 1:8 or ammonium salts (chlorite or - ammonium sulfate) — 0,5:1 or 1:1. Solution of chloroamine disinfect linen, ware, a phlegm, products of medical appointment, objects of patient care, skin of hands during the carrying out current, final and preventive dezin
fictions (see). Depending on the processed object and degree of its impurity, stability of a contagium solutions of chloroamine apply in 0,2 — 3% concentration to disinfecting at intestinal and droplet infections of a bacterial etiology, flu and acute respiratory diseases; in 1 — 3% concentration — at a viral hepatitis, enteroviral infections; in 5% of concentration — at dermatomycoses (a microsporia, a trichophytosis, a favus), tuberculosis. The activated solutions of chloroamine apply in 0,5 — 1% concentration at a viral hepatitis, enteroviral infections, dermatomycoses; in 0,5 — 2,5% concentration at tuberculosis; in 0,5 — 4% concentration at a malignant anthrax.
The chlorine which is emitted from chloroamine (see) can irritate respiratory organs, eyes, skin that is followed by emergence of cold, dacryagogue, gripes in eyes, a headache, an itch, etc. At emergence of these symptoms it is necessary
to pour Uda the patient from the room, in Krom occurred poisoning, eyes and skin to wash out water or solution of sodium thiosulphate. In detail first aid at poisoning with chlorine and treatment — see Chlorine.
During the work with chloroamine, especially with its activated solutions, a respiratory organs needs to be protected a respirator (see Respirators); work should be performed in a dressing gown, rubber gloves and an apron. It is possible to enter the room processed by chloroamine in 30 — 40 min. after processing and airing.
Bibliography: Vashkov V. I. Dezin
fiction, disinsection and deratization, page 58, M., 1956; it, Antimicrobic cure and methods of disinfection for infectious diseases, page 13, M., 1977;
V. E Right. The first pre-medical aid at poisonings with disinfection, disinsection, deratization drugs and measures of prevention, page 12, M., 1964; Fuhrman A. A. The chlorine-containing oxidizing bleaching and disinfecting substances, page 7, M., 1976.
N. F. Sokolova.