CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS — the chemical compounds having high reactivity. Almost all X. at. are toxic. Many of them possess narcotic action, affect a liver, kidneys, a cardiac muscle, hemadens, irritate skin; nek-ry can cause allergic dermatitis, eczema, to exert adverse impact on generative function. Emit chlorderivative hydrocarbons of a fatty series, cycloparaffins and cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons, chlorderivatives coal
water childbirth of an aromatic series and chlorderivatives of multinuclear hydrocarbons.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons of a fatty series, cycloparaffins and cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons. Apply as solvents (see) rubber, oils, fats, wax, paraffin, cellulose ethers, use at extraction of fats and alkaloids, degreasing of details, as coolants, insecticides, etc. These are mostly colorless liquids, low solubility in water and well alcohol-soluble and ether. At contact with a free flame and heated surfaces form phosgene (see. Suffocating toxic agents).
At acute and chronic influence disorders of function of a liver, kidneys, heart and other bodies in the form of fatty and proteinaceous dystrophy are observed (see Dystrophy of cells and fabrics) that causes high danger of these connections. Derivatives of ethylene (vinyl chloride, 1,2 dichloroethylenes, trichloroethylene) do not cause fatty dystrophy of internals, but cause peculiar and permanent defeats of a nervous system (paralysis of a trifacial, damage of an optic nerve, disturbance of taste and sense of smell) that connect as with effect of drugs, and their metabolites, in particular trikhlor-ethanol and trichloroacetic to - you (see Trichloroethylene, Polyvinylchloride).
Methyl chloride has the expressed influence on a nervous system. In the course of its biotransformation in an organism highly toxic metabolites — formaldehyde are formed, ant to - that and methanol, to-ry renders the action in the beginning exciting, and then paralyzing on cells of a brain. In hard cases the coma can develop and come death. At hron. poisoning with a typical symptom drowsiness is. From the organochlorine solvents applied in the industry the least toxic is methylene chloride. Its harmful action is shown only at use of the technical product containing impurity of a dichloroethane (see), perchloromethane (see) and other poisonous chlorinated hydrocarbons.
X. at. this group irritate skin, a mucous membrane of eyes and upper respiratory tracts. Chloroprene along with the expressed irritant action causes a hair loss, defeat of c. the N of page, especially vegetative department, endocrine system, exerts adverse impact on generative function.
Chlorderivative hydrocarbons of an aromatic series. Benzene chloride, phenyl dichloride, phenyl trichloride, benzyl chloride, phenyl chloroform, phenyl chloroform are most widely used. Represent liquids with high temperature of boiling or solid matters with specific weight more unit, are water-insoluble, rather easily alcohol-soluble, ether, possess an intensive specific smell. Are applied as solvents, serve as initial products for various connections, are used in production of coal dyes, fragrant substances, artificial dubitel, plastic, pharmaceuticals, for pest control of page - x. plants. These connections also possess narcotic action, like benzene strike the hemopoietic system, parenchymatous bodies, render weak irritant action. Acute poisonings meet seldom; the wedge, a picture of acute poisoning reminds acute intoxication benzene (see). At the persons contacting to chlorderivatives of an aromatic series persistent headaches, dizziness, conjunctivitis, nasal bleedings, bleeding of gums, decrease in hemoglobin and erythrocytes, thrombocytopenia can be noted. During the work with hexachlorobenzene and phenyl chloroform workers can have professional dermatitis.
Chlorderivatives of multinuclear hydrocarbons. Apply chlorinated diphenyls, halowaxes, chlordan, heptachlor, dil-Drin (see Desinfectants., Insecticides). These are solid matters or liquids with high temperature of boiling, almost water-insoluble, well soluble in acetone, gasoline, ether. These substances cause hron. poisoning.
Chlorinated diphenyls, naftalina easily get through skin, cause photodermatites and defeats of the follicular device, a porphyria, activation a microsome of l-nykh enzymes and dystrophy of a liver (see Hepatoses). Chlordan, heptachlor, aldrin, dildrin influence functions of a nervous system. The wedge, a picture of poisoning is characterized by a lack of coordination of movements and mentalities. Depression, spasms of epileptiform character, in some cases — emotional instability, aggression, irritability is noted, etc. Nek-ry chlorderivatives of multinuclear hydrocarbons (DDT, aldrin, dildrin) exert impact on generative function.
After the postponed poisonings with all types of X. at. functional frustration of c are possible. N of page, a polyneuritis (see), toxic encephalopathy (see Poisonings), disturbance of the mental sphere, cirrhosis (see), diseases of kidneys (see Kidneys), bronchitis (see), intolerance of alcohol.
LIME CHLORIDE 13
At unsharply expressed poisonings arising for the first time the corresponding treatment and temporary transfer for other work out of contact with X is necessary. at. At sensitization to X. at., emergence of permanent disturbances or progressing of a disease discharge working from contact with substance and rational employment is recommended.
First aid and treatment. At acute poisoning of X. at. hold the following general events. The victim needs to be brought from the contaminated atmosphere, to exempt from the constraining clothes, to provide rest and heat, to give strong tea or coffee; to alternate inhalations of oxygen to inhalation of Carbogenum. For the purpose of reduction of intoxication, and also prevention of a renal and liver failure appoint plentiful administration of liquid — intravenously kapelno to 2 l in days of 5 — 10% solution of glucose with ascorbic to - that (500 mg), isotonic solution of sodium of chloride, insulin of 5 — 10 PIECES subcutaneously. Streptocides, adrenaline, chlorine-containing hypnotic drugs, alcohol intake and fats are contraindicated; the products rich with complete protein, lipotropic connections, calcium are recommended. At chronic poisonings — a symptomatic treatment; vitamin therapy, especially redoxons, B1 is shown? B6, B12, B15. The special medical events held at poisoning with these or those representatives of H.U. — see independent articles, e.g. Dichloroethane, Santobane, Pesticides, etc.
Preventive actions are directed to replacement of X. at. less toxic and non-toxic substances. Work with X. at. it has to be mechanized and automated, be carried out in the closed equipment providing a continuity of technological process and excluding contact working with them. The operations which are carried out manually should be carried out in the places equipped with the effective local exhaust ventilation (see). Are important use of overalls (see Clothes special), means of protection of a respiratory organs — gas masks (see), respirators (see), use of protective ointments (see Pastes protective), and also observance of safety regulationss (see) and industrial hygiene (see. Production sanitation), the preliminary and periodic medical examinations working (see. Medical examination), treatment-and-prophylactic food (see Food treatment-and-prophylactic).
Use of chlorinated hydrocarbons in disinfection. Chlorinated hydrocarbons possess a wide range of insecticidal, acaricidal and fungicidal effect (see Acaricides, Insecticides, Fungicides). Their distinctiveness is resistance to influence of such factors as temperature, insolation, humidity, they collect in the soil, products of plant and animal origin, in a human body and animals. In this regard use of separate chlorinated hydrocarbons for processing of food and fodder crops, and also for processing of the milk and lethal cattle is forbidden. Use of chlorinated hydrocarbons in medical disinsection is limited. On epidemiol. indications are allowed to use DDT (see Santobane) and GHTsG (see Hexachlorocyclohexane) for extermination of ticks, fleas, malarial mosquitoes, louses.
See also Pesticides, organochlorine pesticides and the table. Bibliography: Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev and E. N. Levina, t. 1, page 9, L., 1976; The Reference book on professional pathology, under the editorship of L. N. Gratsianskaya and V. E. Kovshilo, L.,
1981. I. P. Ulanova, V. P. Dremov.