CHLORELLA (Chlorella) — a generic name of the one-celled cabbage-weeds relating to an order of Chlorococcales, Volvocophy-seaye's class, department of Chlorophyta.
In total more than 10 types of chlorellas are known, many from to-rykh are widespread in all latitude of the globe. The chlorella is a typical planktont of surface waters of ponds, swamps, streams and other fresh reservoirs; sea forms live in waters of a littoral zone near mouths of the rivers (see Plankton). Under natural conditions chlorellas do not form colonies.
The shape of a body usually spherical, is more rare ellipsoidal, with a smooth cover; diameter does not exceed 18 microns. In a cell there is one kernel to dia. 0,3 — 0,5 microns. Chlorellas division breed. A life cycle lasts about days, but the most active forms are capable to share each several hours, and for days the stem cell can give up to 64 daughter cells.
The chlorella has high fodder and nutrition value. It contains a large amount of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and mineral salts; besides, in 100 g of dry mass of a chlorella contains apprx. 50 mg of carotene, to 220 mg of ascorbic and 22 mg nicotinic to - you,
1 mg of vitamin of Vkh, 3,5 mg of hepatoflavin, 2.3 mg of rat anti-acrodynia factor, 0,002 mg
of B12 vitamin, and also tocopherol,
sincaline, etc. All irreplaceable amino acids are a part of proteins.
From the chlorellas cultivated in special installations prepare suspensions and pastes, to-rye apply as a valuable forage and biostimulators in livestock production, poultry farming, fish breeding, beekeeping and silkworm breeding, and in the nek-ry countries and in the food industry. So, in Japan the dry chlorella is used for preparation of milk drink. It is added also to bread, confectionery and ice cream for enrichment by their nutrients. However it is shown that reception with food apprx. 100 g of a dried chlorella a day exerts adverse impact on a human body (disturbance of activity of digestive, urinary systems, etc.). Large-scale experiments on mass cultivation of a chlorella in drain waters are made. It is used as an autotrophic link in artificial land, space and submersibles with the closed ecosystems (see Life support, Bioastronautics).
See also Seaweed.
Bibliography: Andreyeva V. M.
Sort Chlorella, JI., 1975; Goryunova S. V., Gerasimenko JI. M and Pushe-v and M. A. Rol of nukleotidpeptid in cellular division of seaweed, M., 1980;
Muzafarov A. M. and Tauba-e in T. T. Hlorell, Tashkent, 1974; N of a s e E. Recent progress in the physiology of Chlorella, in book: Advanc. phycol. in Japan, ed. by J. Tokida a. H. Shchgoee, p. 170, Jena, 1975; To e r f i n W. Kessler E. Physiological and biochemical contributions to the taxonomy of the genus Chlorella, Arch. Microbiol., v. 116, p. 97, 1978. K. S. Burdin.