HLAMYDII (synonym: galproviya
of a bedsoniya, microorganisms of group a psittacosis — a lymphogranuloma — trachoma, miyagavanella, a hlamidozoa) — obligate parasitic bacteria with the characteristic development cycle in a cytoplasmatic vacuole of an euka-riotny host cell consisting in natural change of the vegetative reproduced noninfectious cells (reticular little bodies) and sporopodobny infectious cells (elementary little bodies) providing survival in the environment.
Chlamydias are allocated in an independent order of Chlamydiales, to-ry together with order of Rickettsia-les (see Rickettsiae) forms a class of obligate intracellular bacteria. In this only thing. Chlamy-diaceae containing 1 sort Chlamydia distinguish 2 look — S. of psittaci and S. of trachomatis. The page of psittaci combines causative agents of diseases of animals — an ornithosis (see), enzootic abortions, pneumonia, polyarthritises, a gastroenteritis, meningo-encephalitis, conjunctivitis, to-rye can be transferred to the person. The activators causing in the person trachoma (see), a paratrachoma belong to S.'s type of trachomatis (see Conjunctivitis, the table; Trachoma), a pakhovy lymphogranulomatosis (see the Lymphogranulomatosis pakhovy), urogenital clamidioses — an urethritis (see) and a cervicitis (see), peljvio-peritonitis (see), a perihepatitis (see), urigenous arthritises (see Reuters a disease), and also eye, respiratory and other infections at newborns and babies.
Chlamydias on chemical structure are similar to gram-negative bacteria.
The development cycle of chlamydias proceeds 40 — 72 hours (depending on a strain): elementary little bodies
get into cells by phagocytosis, in a phagocytal vacuole will be transformed to reticular little bodies, to-rye, breeding by binary division — a banner, form microcolony — the intra-cytoplasmic inclusion called by Halbershtedter's little body — Provacheka (see tsvetn. the tab. to St. Trachoma, t. 25, Art. 400, fig. 1). After several cycles of division (cellular cycles) reticular little bodies will be reorganized through intermediate forms into elementary little bodies of new generation, to-rye at a rupture of a wall of a vacuole and a plasmolemma of a host cell leave to the environment.
Chlamydias have the general rodospetsifichesky antigen (acid polysaccharide about a pier. it is powerful apprx. 106) and differ with the species-specific and type-specific antigens (see). At S. trachomatis determined 15 serotypes (serovars). Antigenic differences are observed at a number of strains of S. of psittaci allocated from mammals and birds. Elementary little bodies have the hemagglutinating and toxic activity. Chlamydias are sensitive to antibiotics of a broad spectrum of activity (tetracyclines), are transformed under the influence of penicillin to L-like forms (see L-forms of bacteria). The majority of strains of S. of trachomatis contrary to typical strains of S. of psittaci are sensitive to streptocides and form a glycogen in cytoplasmic inclusions. The widest tropism to various cells owners
S. representatives of psittaci have.
In a lab. conditions of a chlamydia cultivate in cultures of cells (mono-layer and suspension) and in the developing chicken embryos infected preferential in a vitellicle.
Methods of indication of chlamydias include identification morfol. structures and antigens of chlamydias by means of light, luminescent and electronic microscopes (see. Microscopic methods of a research, the Submicroscopy), directly in clinical materials, at diagnostic allocation in culture of cells or in chicken embryos and at biological tests (see the Bioassey) on mice and Guinea pigs. Drugs paint by Romanovsky's method — Gimza (see Romanovsky — Gimza a method) of Makkiavello (see Rickettsiae), Jiménez or investigate by means of an immunofluorescence (see) or an en-winters-immunological method (see).
Chlamydias have a wide range of owners. The main ecological niches in the nature are birds and mammals, including the person. Chlamydias occur at arthropods, morphologically similar microorganisms are described at fishes, mollusks and plants. Besides, a number of poorly studied rikketsiopo-dobny microorganisms from an order of Rickettsiales (Ehrlichia, Cowd-ria, Neorickettsia, Rickettsiella) is considered as candidates for inclusion in an order of Chlamydiales.
Bibliography: V. L. priests, etc.
Ultrastructure of the initial stages of interaction of galproviya (chlamydias) with the klet-which-owner, Zhurn. mikr., zpid. and immun., No. 8, page 28, 1980; Chlamydias
(galproviya) and clamidioses, under the editorship of. A. A. Shatkina, M., 1982; S with h and with
h-t e of J. a. Caldwell H. D. Chla-mydiae, Ann. Rev. Microbiol., v. 34, p. 285, 1980, bibliogr.; S with li a with h t e r J. Dawson C. R. Human chlamydial infections, Littleton, 1978; S t o r z J. Chlamydia and chlamydia-induced diseases, Springfield, 1971.
V. L. Popov, A. A. Shatkin.