CHIZHYOVSKY Alexander Leonidovich (1897 — 1964) is the Soviet biophysicist, the founder of heliobiology and an aeroionifikation (the theory of artificial aero ionization).
Ended Moscow archaeological in-t (1917) and Moscow commercial in-t (1918). Studied on физико-математическом^ 915 — 1919) and medical (1919 — 1922) f-takh Moscow un-that. In 1917 — 1927 the course of physical methods of archeology taught in Moscow un-those and Moscow archaeological in-those. At the same time in-that was a consultant Biofizicheskogo (1922 — 1924) and the senior research associate of laboratory of a zoopsychology the People's commissar millet of RSFSR (1925 — 1931!. In 1931 organized and headed the Central research laboratory of ionization. From 1937 to 1942 directed laboratory of Management of construction of the Palace of Councils at SNK USSR. In
1942 — 1957 worked in medical institutions of Chelyabinsk and Karaganda. In 1958 — 1962 managed laboratory of an ae-roionifikation at the State Planning Committee of the USSR.
A. JI. Chizhevsky is the author of many scientific works, including several monographs devoted to questions of impact of aeroions on live organisms, and also heliobiology. Studying of effect of unipolar aeroions on an organism was begun with it in 1919 there was an established fact opposite fiziol. effects of aeroions of various polarity: stimulating and medical — negatively charged aeroions, oppressing — positively charged. It applied in an experiment negative aeroions to treatment of nek-ry diseases of the person and put forward the project of an aeroionifikation of manned rooms for cleaning them from dust and microorganisms. Great importance of works of A. JI. Chizhevsky on an aeroionifikation it was noted by the resolution SNK USSR (1931). Its researches of influence of space factors on processes in the biosphere and justification of situation
0 dependences between cycles of activity of the Sun and many phenomena in wildlife laid the foundation of domestic bioastronautics. Most in details it investigated communication between solar activity and distribution inf. diseases, displays of psychological diseases and mortality of the population, hl. obr. from acute cardiovascular diseases. In 1935 he found communication of developing of a metachromasia (see) bacteria with increase in solar activity (so-called effect of Chizhevsky — Velkhovera) that allowed to predict, on his representations, solar indignations. A. JT. Chizhevsky described property of erythrocytes to create certain textural features in the form of systems (see Chizhevsky a phenomenon).
A. JI. Chizhevsky was an honourable doctor of a number of foreign high fur boots, the honorary president of the International congress on biological physics and bioastronautics (1939).
Works: Physical factors of historical process, Kaluga, 1924; Epidemic accidents and periodic activity of the Sun, M., 1930; Problems of an ionifika-tion, t. 1, Voronezh, 1933 (bus of a number of hl. and edition); Structural analysis of moving blood, M., 1959; Aeroionifikation in the national economy, M., 1960; In beat Sun, M., 1969 (sovm. from Shishina Yu. G.); Terrestrial echo of solar storms, M.,
1973, 1 976; Electric and magnetic properties of erythrocytes, Kiev, 1973; All life, M., 1974; Biophysical mechanisms of an erythrocyte dimentation test, Novosibirsk, 1980.
Bibliography: Golovanov JI. V.
Alexander Leonidovich Chizhevsky is the pioneer of space natural sciences, in book: From history medical, under the editorship of K. G. Vasilyev, t. 7, page 287, Riga, 1967; The Sun, electricity, life, under the editorship of L. V. Golovanov, etc., M, 1969 „V. N. Yagodinsky.