From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CHIROPRACTIC (Greek cheir hand + praxis action; synonym: Manu

alny therapy, handling therapy, manual reflexotherapy) — a method of treatment of a number of diseases of a backbone by impact on his joints, and also on muscles of a back by means of certain manual techniques.

Separate methods of chiropractic are known since the time of Hippocrates. At the end of 19 century D. D. Palmer systematized and formulated original positions of chiropractic and opened the first school of hiropraktik, in to-ruyu accepted persons without medical education. For a long time chiropractic was not considered medical discipline in connection with a number of its vicious provisions. In particular, chiropractic proceeded from premises that a pathogenetic basis of many diseases of a backbone are disturbances of its musculoskeletal device (see the Backbone). The vast majority of hiropraktik had no medical preparation, and methods of chiropractic were transferred usually by one person to another as craft.

From 50th 20 century there was a recent trend of chiropractic considering modern scientific concepts; it was widely adopted in a number of the countries, in particular in the USA, Canada, Austria, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary, Romania, France, England.

The mechanism of action of methods of chiropractic is studied insufficiently. Presumably it is based on the mechanical and reflex influences causing, in particular, change of excitability of the neurons of a spinal cord reducing a hyper tone of juxtaspinal muscles that creates analgesic effect. In the shown cases methods of chiropractic make the noticeable positive impact which is (generally anesthetizing), however they should be considered only as means of symptomatic, but not pathogenetic treatment.

The main diagnostic reception of modern chiropractic — a palpation, with the help a cut define a zone of restriction of mobility of a backbone. Increase in its mobility and analgesic effect are reached as by the direct pressure upon a backbone and adjacent muscles, and by means of violent movements of a certain character, at to-rykh a trunk and an extremity of the patient carry out a role of levers. Modern chiropractic includes two main receptions: mobilization of the blocked joint of a backbone and actually to lay down. manipulation.

Indications for modern chiropractic — generally various dystrophic diseases of a backbone which are followed by a pain syndrome, damages of intervertebral disks and also a number of diseases and patol. conditions of neurogenic character (neuralgia, paresthesia, etc.). Contraindications — inflammatory and destructive damages of a backbone (a tubercular spondylitis, osteomyelitis, etc.)? tumors, acute injuries of vertebras, etc. At the correct use of methods of chiropractic of complications it is not observed. At unqualified, their use or use in not shown cases injuries of a backbone, progressing of basic process are possible.

In a number of the countries chiropractic is taught on a medical f-takh, and also on special courses where accept the persons having the diploma of the doctor. In the USSR the first courses on manual therapy are organized at the CCP of doctors. In the nek-ry countries along with manual therapy specialists continue to practice chiropractic, not having medical educations that substantially discredits the concept «chiropractic».

Bibliography: In about u r d i 1 1 about n J.

F. Spi nal manipulation, L. — N. Y., 1982; With y-r i a x J. H. Cervical spondylosis, N. Y., 1971; Maitland G. D. Vertebral manipulation, L., J977.

E. R. Mathis, P. 3. Gumerov.