From Big Medical Encyclopedia


the acute infectious disease from group of tropical mosquito fevers caused by the arbovirus of group A of the same name; it is characterized by severe pains in joints, two-wave fever and to poppy-lopapuleznoy the rash developing on the second wave — see. Tropical mosquito viral fevers. ChYLI, the Republic of the H silt and — the state in the southwest of South America. The area of 756,9 thousand (including a number of islands in the Pacific Ocean). Population of 11,8 million people


(1983). The capital — Santiago (3,2 million people, 1982). Ofits. language — Spanish.

After the coup on September 11, 1973 held by the reactionary soldiery supported by imperialistic circles of the USA, all power in the country is concentrated in hands of fascist junta. Since July, 1976 in the country works as advisory body so-called. Osudarstvenny council.

H — rather developed country of Latin America. With coming to power of a military .khunta the management of economy passed to the large capital. The primary branch of economy — the mining industry, 70% of its products goes for export. Chile — the large producer of copper, saltpeter, iodine, iron ore. Primary branches of manufacturing industry: textile, shoe, wine-making. The main pages - x. cultures: wheat, corn, barley, potatoes, sugar beet, haricot, citrus. Own pages - x. the country lacks products: a part of products of Ch. imports from other countries.

During rule of junta there was an essential reduction of the population living in rural areas. Unemployment grows in the country. level a cut in 1982 made more than 25% of able-bodied population. Constantly living conditions of the people worsen, budgetary appropriations are reduced by social needs. Only a half of teenagers at the age of 15 — 19 years attend high school or professional schools. About one million Chileans were forced to leave limits of the Homeland after the revolution of 1973.

The main population — Chileans (95% — by origin preferential Spanish-Indian metises), apprx. 5% — Indians.

The political and economic situation in the country exerted negative impact on indicators of birth rate and a natural increase of the population. In 1980 birth rate made 23,9 for 1000 zhit. (earlier for more than 30 years this indicator remained at the level of 36,0 —

38,0 for 1000 zhit.). Indicators of child mortality are high, made edges in 1980 — 1985 40,0 on 1000 live-born; an indicator of the general mortality — 6,1 for 1000 us.; an indicator of a natural increase of the population — 15,5. In structure of the population of 31,8% children up to 15 years make, 5,6% — persons at the age of 65 years and are more senior (1983).

In 1980 diseases of cardiovascular system (26,6%), accidents, poisonings and violent death (16,7%), malignant new growths (15,3%) were the main reasons for death. Cardiovascular diseases mortality in 1980 made 176,8, from accidents, poisonings, nasiliya and injuries — 111,8, from malignant new growths — 102,0 on 100 000 us.

As a result of the program of immunization which is carried out in the country a certain decline in mortality from diphtheria, whooping cough, poliomyelitis and measles is observed though incidence of measles remains high (6750 cases in 1983). Serious problem is incidence of a typhoid and a paratyphoid-mi — in 1980 10 872 cases were registered. An echinococcosis is widespread in the country — 624 cases of diseases of the person are registered. Increase in number of the registered cases of venereal diseases (syphilis and gonorrhea) is noted a nek-swarm.

In 1980 in Ch. there were 300 BCs on 37 971 hospital beds. B-tsy National health service, controlled by Min-vom of health care, provide an ambulatory care through polyclinic departments. Most BC of other part of public sector and private sector also provide service of ambulatories. In the country 277 out-patient clinics functioned, the most part to-rykh was in the areas located near the large cities, however many of them render medical aid and to country people.

In rural areas 1080 first-aid posts staffed by nurses, midwifes or the prepared support personnel functioned. These first-aid posts are organized on a regional basis, i.e. they are a part of national system medical - a dignity. the help, are subordinated to the nearest hospital and are periodically visited by doctors.

The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of Ch. not always corresponds to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).

High-quality drinking water in the country provided 98,4% of city dwellers and 30,2% — rural. The considerable problem is made by removal of solid garbage in the large cities. In the capital of Santiago a serious problem is also impurity of free air suspended particles and carbon monoxide gas, contents to-rykh exceeds the most admissible concentration accepted as the international standards.

As of December, 1977 in the country there were 6516 doctors, 4300 dentists, 2350 druggists, 3200 nurses (from them 2337 people worked in National health service). Training of doctors is carried out by 9 medical schools; there are 3 dental surgery schools, 14 schools on training of nurses. Bibliography: Big Soviet encyclopedia, 3rd prod., t. 29, page 193; The Sixth review of a condition of health care in the world of 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 191, Geneva, 1981; World health statistics annual 1984, Geneva, 1984. M of H. Savelyev.