CHICKEN (Papuan kuru to shiver, shiver) — the disease affecting the central nervous system, which is characterized by the progressing cerebellar ataxy, a tremor, an adynamia, coming to an end letalno during 1 year. For the first time To. it was described in 1957 by Gaydushek and Zigas (D. Page of Gajdusek, V. Zigas). It is the first slow viral infection of the person which became known. Spread of a disease is geographically limited to the hilly terrain of New Guinea where lives apprx. 35 000 people of local population.
Except for babies, people of all age are surprised, but among adults women, than men get sick more often (in a proportion 3:1). In the first years of observations not less than 200 people annually got sick (and died), then incidence decreased by more than 3 times, but nevertheless is registered to 60 cases a year. Decrease in incidence is connected with disclosure of the mechanism of transmission of infection which is connected with a ritual ceremony of a cannibalism. As a sign of mourning to the dead open a skull, take a brain, crush and put in bamboo cylinders. In the course of this ceremony there is a mass contamination (pollution) of mucous membranes and skin injuries of a brain by fabric, edges as showed the latest researches, remains infectious even at cultivation in 10 million times. Additional infection comes from eating of not neutralized visceral bodies. Since women are engaged in a funeral ceremony preferential, they also get sick more often than men. Children and teenagers who are also exposed to infection take active part in a ceremony.
Gaydushek's researches with sotr. created a basis for studying of other slow viral infections of the person, in particular Kreyttsfeld's diseases — Jacoba (see. Slow viral infections ).
Accepted in a lab. to practice terms of overseeing by experimental animals were insufficient. Only when they were prolonged up to 2 years, it was succeeded to obtain the first evidence of the virus nature of a disease. In 1965, in 1,5 years of an incubation, at a chimpanzee, the Crimea the filtered suspension of tissue of brain of the dead was intratserebralno entered, the clinical picture typical for developed To. person. At monkeys of other types the incubation was even more long (St. 2 years), at monkeys Rhesus factors (Masasa mulatta) up to 8,5 years. The main researches are conducted on a chimpanzee. Their incubation interval varies from 14 to 39 months and in the course of serial passages is reduced to 10 — 12 months.
Duration of a disease at experimental To. from 1 to 9 month. Monkeys manage to be infected by introduction inf. material not only in a brain, but also intravenously, in an abdominal cavity, intramusculary, subcutaneously. Out of an organism of monkeys the virus manages to be kept in culture of fabric of fragments of a brain of a chimpanzee.
Infectivity of a virus remains after impact of ionizing radiation and during the lyophilizing. The virus keeps heating to t in brain fabric ° 85 ° within 30 min., and also processing by proteases, nucleases, formalin.
On autopsy extensive defeats of c are found. the N of page who are characterized by diffusion proliferation and a hypertrophy of astrocytes, a degeneration of neurons it is preferential in a cerebellum. In a striate body find typical intraplazmatichesky vacuoles in big neurons. Attempts to find antibodies at experimental To., at patients or after artificial immunization of animals were ineffectual therefore it is impossible to judge antigenic properties of a virus. Also interferon is not revealed.
An incubation interval of a disease long, quite often it lasts many years.
Distinguish three stages of a disease. First stage: shaky gait, muscular weakness, a scanning speech, disturbance of convergence of eyeglobes, the alternating tremor of extremities, hypersensitivity by cold.
Second stage: strengthening of muscular weakness and a tremor, sometimes muscle tension of extremities or choreoid hyperkinesias, spasms, the depression which at a part of patients is replaced by euphoria. Without assistance patients cannot move.
The third stage — terminal, the least long, proceeds hard, the ataxy and a tremor, Extrapyramidal and bulbar syndromes amplify.
The disease proceeds on average from 3 to 9 months, more than 1 year are more rare and always has a lethal outcome. Treatment is not developed.
Bibliography Timakov V. D. and Zuev V. A. Slow infections, page 161, M., 1977, bibliogr.; Gajdusek D. Page and. And 1 r e of s M. P. Recent data on the properties of the virus of kuru and transmissible virus dementias, Papua N. Guinea med. J., v. 18, p. 207, 1975; G a j d u-s e k D. Page of a. G i b b s of Page J. Transmission of kuru from man to rhesus monkey (Makaka mulatta) 8 and one-half years after inoculation, Nature (Lond.), v. 240, p. 351, 1972; Gajdusek D. C. a. ZigasV. Degenerative disease of the central nervous system in New Guinea, New Engl. J. Med., v. 257, p. 974, 1957.
V. D. Solovyov.