CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS (hi-m [I) + prevention) — use of chemotherapeutic means for influence on the causative agents of infectious (invasive) diseases which got into a human body for: a) suppression of a course of a disease; b) preventions of generalization of infectious process; c) the terminations and decrease in intensity of allocation of the activator to the environment. By the principle chemoprophylaxis is an etiotropic method of prevention of infections and is important in fight against such inf. diseases, as plague, malaria, meningococcal infection, etc.
Chemoprophylaxis can be personal (individual), i.e. directed to protection of individuals, or public (epidekhmio-logical), i.e. directed to the prevention of distribution infections among the population. The choice of this or that method of chemoprophylaxis is defined proceeding from a specific epidemiol. situations. Personal chemoprophylaxis of malaria is performed concerning the persons arriving to districts, endemic on malaria, and prevention of plague — concerning the persons adjoining to patients with plague, their things or with corpses of the people who died from plague and animals. At epidemics of a meningococcal infection personal chemoprophylaxis is usually used concerning the persons which had contact with the patient in the closed collectives. Personal chemoprophylaxis can be used also for the prevention of aggravations inf. diseases, napr, aggravations of tubercular process during puberty, after the postponed flu etc. for what the TB patient in a stage of remission appoint antituberculous remedies
(see). Personal chemoprophylaxis is important also for the prevention of development of septic infections in patients with the nek-ry serious illness which is followed by sharp oppression of protective forces of an organism, napr at an agranulocytosis, a radial illness, etc.
Personal chemoprophylaxis, except the direct appointment, promotes improvement of an epidemic situation, i.e. public chemoprophylaxis serves the same purposes, as. However at nek-ry infections the epidemic situation is most adequately influenced by public chemoprophylaxis. In modern conditions resort to public chemoprophylaxis, e.g., at malaria, a Gambian form of a tsetse-fly disease (see), hl. obr. in districts, endemic on these diseases.
If necessary chemoprophylaxis can be carried out in parallel with a seroimmunity and vaccinal prevention (see Vaccination, Immunization, the Seroimmunity). However it shall not be carried out along with vaccinal prevention by live vaccines since the last are sensitive to action of chemotherapeutic means.
In each case the choice of methods and means of chemoprophylaxis is defined individually with an epidemic situation, an etiology of a disease, action spectrums of drugs and other factors. Bibliography: Burgasov P. N. Hall
ra El-Tor, M., 1976; K. M. Mullet and E. S. Malyariya's Slider, M., 1983; N and in and sh and S. M. and Fomin I. P N. Rational antibioticotherapia, M., 1982; The Management on a zoonosis, under the editorship of V. of II. Pokrovsky, L., 1983; Infektologie, hrsg. Item W. Ocklitz u. and., V., 1978, Bibliogr.
V. I. Pokrovsky, V. K. Muratov.