From Big Medical Encyclopedia

The CHEMICAL WEAPON (CW) — weapons of mass destruction, action to-rogo is based on use of properties of nek-ry chemicals to cause disturbances of normal life activity of a human body or an animal with the subsequent lethal outcome or without it, and also to strike vegetation.

The basis of HO is made by toxic agents (see), and also herbicides (see) military, equipped in chemical ammunition.

HO gained value of a new type of weapon in the years of World War I. From 1914 for 1918 the being at war countries made apprx. 150 thousand tons of various OV, from to-rykh apprx. 125 thousand tons was spent. The greatest number of OV (apprx.

57,5 thousand m) was used by Germany. An effect of use of HO were considerable human losses: 1,3 million people were struck, from to-rykh apprx. 100 thousand died. From now on HO was included into an arsenal of means of war of armies of the capitalist states.

In the next years, despite the Geneva protocol of 1925 prohibiting use of HO, the most aggressive capitalist countries repeatedly it applied (e.g., fascist Italy widely used HO in war against Ethiopia in 1935 — 1936, militaristic Japan — in war against China during the period from 1937 to 1943).

Works on improvement of HO in fascist Germany were intensively continued. In 1936 the first OV of neuroparalytic action — herd was synthesized there (see. Neuroparalytic toxic agents), and then were received more toxic O B of this type — sarin (1938) and GD (1944). In 1943 the annual power of the chemical enterprises of Germany for production of various OV made apprx. 180 thousand tons, i.e. much more, than was spent by the being at war countries for all years of World War I.

Throughout almost all World War II the fascist clique threatened the peace possible use of HO. Outstanding victories of the Soviet Army during the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945, a high level of preparation for proti-vokhy. to protection forced Hitlerite command to refuse use of HO directly on fronts. However fascists widely applied O B in concentration camps, and also against the Soviet people in temporarily occupied territory. E.g., in 1942 fascist troops applied O B against the parts of the Soviet troops and civilians of Kerch which took refuge in Adzhimushkaysky stone quarries and continuing heroic fight against the opponent.

After World War II of HO it was applied by army of the USA during war of aggression in Indochina during 1961 — 1971.

In the oyenno-chemical potential

of the USA it began to be created in the years of World War I, and in the subsequent works on improvement of HO did not stop. The powerful jump in development of military chemical potential of the USA was made in 50 — the 60th are 20 century. In 1982 the USA, already possessing huge stocks of HO (apprx. 3 million units of various chemical ammunition), announced the program of chemical rearmament, according to a cut it was planned to replace outdated chemical ammunition so-called binary, it is essential to update and expand base of storage of HO and to bring total quantity of chemical ammunition to 5 million units. Binary chemical ammunition is equipped with two components, each of to-rykh separately is non-toxic or low-toxic chemical substance. During flight (delivery) of a shell (bomb) to the purpose mixing of components with education is provided during chemical reaction of OV. At improvement of HO and development of the doctrine on its use the USA actively uses scientific and technical opportunities of the allies on aggressive blocks. The accelerated rates conduct purposeful preparation of army of the USA for conducting chemical war. It is directly told about plans of military use of HO in reports of the Pentagon to the congress of the USA. Preparation for chemical war of troops of the countries of NATO extends. The European region is defined by the newest military doctrines of the USA as probable theater of use of HO.

At massive use of HO zones of chemical infection, the including districts (sites) of the area infected with a coarse aerosol or small drops of O B and herbicides, districts of distribution of O B from the infected sites and the place of stagnation of OV vapors are created. Depending on type of the applied OV and weather conditions danger of defeat of troops and the civilian population in zones of chemical infection remains in summertime from several hours to several days, in the winter (in the presence of snow cover) — up to several weeks. Borders of zones of chemical infection are defined by means of chemical investigation (see Indication of weapons of destruction).

Scales of effects of use of HO substantially depend on the level of antichemical and medical protection of the person (see Protection against means of war of defeat), and also protection of page - x. animals and plants. Will render the most harmful effects of HO on civilians, the habitat of people, fauna and flora and to a lesser extent on staff of the army and paramilitary forces having more high level of protection. The serious alarm is caused by use of OV and herbicides making harmful effects of the slowed-down character on the person and leading in some cases to defeat of the genetic device.

The Soviet Union consistently supports an exception of HO of arsenals of all states. The USSR in 1927 joined the Geneva protocol of 1925 prohibiting use in the war of suffocating, poisonous or other similar gases and bacterial. means, and in 1928 ratified it. The USA ratified the Geneva protocol only in 1975

the Soviet Union, faithful to the humane purposes of the Geneva protocol, never and anywhere used chemical weapon. Together with other socialist states it combats not only for prohibition of use of HO, but also for the termination of its development, production, and also for destruction of its stocks.

In 1972 the USSR and the brotherly socialist countries introduced the draft convention providing full prohibition of all fighting chemical agents to Committee on disarmament of the UN. From 1976 to 1980 between the Soviet Union and the USA bilateral negotiations on prohibition of HO were conducted, to-rye were interrupted because of the American side. In 1982 the USSR submitted for consideration of the second special session of the United Nations General Assembly on disarmament «Original positions of the convention on prohibition of development, production and accumulation of stocks of HO and about its destruction», to-rye, according to the international public, are a real basis for development of the convention on comprehensive prohibition of HO.

Ecological effects of use of chemical weapon will arise at massive use of modern types of OV and herbicides. The sizes and weight of ecological effects are unpredictable. They are caused by jumps of conditions of a biocenosis as a result of the striking impact of HO on fauna and flora not only directly in a zone of chemical infection, but also is far outside the last as stable chemical compounds or products of their disintegration are washed away from the soil by water and are carried by water flows on long distances.

However such effects already clearly were shown as a result of large-scale use of HO by army of the USA during the war in Indochina in 1961 — 1971 where various toxics and compoundings were used. It agrees to the data which were repeatedly published in the foreign and Soviet press Americans for these years spent more than 100 thousand m HO therefore they received defeat apprx. 2 million people and 44% of rainforests and 43% of acreage were destroyed or strongly damaged only in the Southern Vietnam (see the Socialist Republic of Vietnam).

The question of ecological effects of use of modern means of mass defeat, including and chemical weapon, was repeatedly discussed on the international symposiums and conferences by the prominent scientists representing the socialist, developing and advanced capitalist states of Europe, America, Asia and Africa. According to opinion of specialists the main mechanisms of destruction of ecological system * developed in this region, chemical weapon are: 1) toxic impact on representatives of an animal (various OV) and the vegetable (herbicides) world, a cut can cause their death at the time of defeat or the heavy disturbances of functions of an organism (vegetable - a cycle) leading to any diseases and the subsequent death;

2) genetic (e.g., teratogenic) the influence breaking process of normal reproduction of this type of representatives of fauna and flora, leading to its gradual more or less bystry degeneration (degradation). Specific example of such genetic effects of use of HO is the expressed teratogenic action of highly toxic and very steady chemical compound of the dioxine in the environment which is a part of the herbicide «eydzhent Orange» (orange substance) which is most widely applied in the Southern Vietnam is distinct (apprx. 57 thousand tons). Not only residents of Vietnam, but also amer suffered from his action. the soldiers who had with it contact.

Destruction of ecological system can happen by immediate effect of the striking factors of HO on its certain (specific) parts or indirectly when are destroyed those components of ecological system (degrade), to-rye provide development and life activity of other its components, napr, their food. Destruction of a vegetable cover herbicides involves soil erosion, decrease in it organic matters and nitrogen, reduces its permeability. Decomposition products of herbicides, a long time the keeping properties, change mikrobiol. structure of the soil; it

, in turn, breaks in it processes of decomposition and metabolism therefore fertility of the soil sharply decreases. Disappearance of a vegetable cover in extensive territories can lead to serious climate changes:

to sharper temperature variations between seasons, daytime and night time temperature, to strengthening of evaporation of moisture from the bared earth. The logical end of such total destructions of ecological system will be transformation of fertile lands into the lifeless desert.

Bibliography: Adzhimushkaysky tragedy,

Voyen. - an ist. zhurn., No. 7, page 72, 1962;

Alexandrov. Lessons of the past are allowed to forget to nobody! Mezhdunar. life, No. 2, page 110, 1969; Vavilov A. M. Ecological effects of a race of arms, page 48, etc., M., 1984; Vietnam, chemical war, Hanoi, 1972; D e - Lazzari A. N. Chemical weapon on fronts of world war of 1914 — 1918, the Short historical sketch, M., 1935;

Maier Baud G. Herbicides and their remains, the lane with it., M., 1972; Medical and sanitary aspects of use of chemical and bacteriological (biological) weapon, the lane with English, M., 1972, bibliogr.; Underground garrison, Voyen. - an ist. zhurn., No. 8, page 76, 1962;

Roth Schild D. N. Weapon of tomorrow, the lane with English, M., 1966; At Tan, Chemical and bacteriological (biological) weapon and effects of its possible use, the Report at the XXIV session of the United Nations General Assembly, M.,

1970, bibliogr.; X e r sh S. M. A chemical and biological weapons, the lane with English, M., 1970; Robinson J. River of The effect of weapons on ecosystems, Oxford an about 1979.

V. K. Pikalov; A.S. Georgiyevsky (ecological effects of use of chemical weapon).