From Big Medical Encyclopedia

HYMIKO-FARMATsEVTIChESKAYa PROMYShLENNOST (a synonym pharmaceutical industry) — the industry of the medical industry which is engaged in production of pharmaceuticals.

Emergence of the specialized industrial enterprises for production of pharmaceuticals belongs to the end of 19 century. Especially quickly these enterprises began to appear and develop at the beginning of 20 century in connection with development of methods of synthesis of chemical substances. Most intensively production of pharmaceuticals during this period was carried out in Germany, the USA, France, Great Britain and Switzerland.

Owing to the insufficient all-technological and industrial level, poor development of the domestic chemical industry production of pharmaceuticals was in pre-revolutionary Russia on rather low level. The need for synthetic pharmaceuticals was satisfied with hl. obr. due to import from abroad. On the eve of World War I import to Russia of pharmaceuticals made St. 50% of their general consumption, and import of synthetic medicines — 80%. Almost everything being available in pre-revolutionary Russia small semi-handicraft chemical - pharm. the enterprises belonged to foreign firms. They developed hl. obr. the ready (dosed) pharmaceuticals preferential from the imported medicinal substances.

In the first years of the Soviet power reconstruction existing chemical - pharm began. enterprises and expansion of the output of pharmaceuticals. In 1920 it was created Research chemical farkhmatsevtichesky by in-t (nowadays All-Union research chemical - pharm. in-t of S. Ordzhonikidze). On developments of it in-that in days of pre-war five-years periods the production of the major synthetic medicines was organized. Considerable work on equipment as the modern equipment existing and to creation of the new enterprises domestic by X was carried out to the same period. - t. item. In 1936 near Moscow it was constructed chemical - pharm. the Akrikhin plant for production of antimalarial drug of quinacrine (see) and other complex synthetic medicines (see). In days of pre-war five-years periods were put into operation chemical - pharm. the plants of M. V. Lomonosov in Kiev, «the Red Star» in Kharkiv, chemical - pharm. the plant in Khabarovsk, etc. Enterprises X. - t. items were constructed also in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia and other federal republics. The industrial release of a number of pharmaceuticals was organized (aspirin, analginum, Plasmocidum, novocaine, caffeine, streptocide, Sulfazolum, luminal, etc.).

In 1931 it was created All-Union the in-t of medicinal and aromatic plants (nowadays All-Union research in-t of medicinal plants), to-ry researches vegetable resources of the country (see. Medicinal plants), allocation and studying of natural physiologically active agents and creation on their basis of medicines.

In days of the Great Patriotic War after evacuation of the equipment of a number of the enterprises from the western districts of the country in the Urals and in Western Siberia were created and began to work successfully new chemical - pharm. plants (Novosibirsk, Kemerovo, Anzhero-Sudzhensk, Tyumen, Tomsk, Irbit, etc.). Considerably the production of the medicines necessary for the front and the population of the country increased (an Aether anaesthesicus, novocaine, streptocide, Sulfidinum, etc.).

Besides, in days of the Great Patriotic War production of the medicines which were earlier not produced in the USSR was organized (Phenaminum, a fenotiazin, Salsolinum, Salsoliinum, etc.), the range of sulfanamide drugs is significantly expanded (see), production of antibiotics (see) — penicillin, gramicidin, etc. is begun.

On the basis of special resolutions of Council of People's Commissars of the USSR of April 20 and on September 4, 1942 recovery of the enterprises X began. - t. the item in the European part of the USSR. By 1945 the output is X. - t. the item in the USSR reached pre-war level. In 1945 a share of products of the enterprises X. - t. p, east districts of the country reached 24,4% of the general production of drugs (in 1940 — 2,8%). By 1948 the pre-war level of the range of medicines, and by 1950 production of X was recovered. - t. the item increased almost in 2V3 of time in comparison with 1940.

The output is X. - t. the item in our country in 1965 exceeded the output of 1958 by 2,9 times. For the same period effective drugs for treatment of tuberculosis (streptomycin, Ftivazidum, etc.), synthetic hormonal drugs (Pregninum, sweep l testosterone, etc.), new antibiotics, hypnotic drugs and psychotropic drugs were mastered.

For years of the tenth five-years period (1976 — 1980) the volume of production is X. - t. the item increased by 57,6%, and production of the cultivated vegetable raw materials increased in Min-va state farms of the medical industry for 46%. In the tenth five-years period the production of semi-synthobiotics increased by 3,4 times, the spasmolytic pharmaceuticals and drugs used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases — by 1,9 times, drugs for treatment onkol. diseases — by 1,8 times, for treatment psikhonevrol. diseases — by 1,7 times. For years of the tenth five-years period the release apprx. 200 new pharmaceuticals is mastered.

The range of the medicines produced in 1980 made St. 2 thousand names and including more than 150 names of the drugs applied to treatment of cardiovascular diseases (cardiac glycosides, antiarrhytmic, hypotensive, vasodilating and other means). Production of finished pharmaceutical products increased in 1965 — 1980 almost by 2,7 times.

In the eleventh five-years period was planned to increase production of vitamin drugs by 40 — 41%, antibiotics, blood substitutes (see. Blood-substituting liquids) and organopreparat (see Organotherapy) for 45 — 46%, finished pharmaceutical products for 42 — 43%; the gain of production of injection solutions in ampoules had to make 1300 million pieces, other pharmaceuticals of 1600 — 1800 million packagings. All these plans are successfully implemented.

Sovr. domestic X. - t. the item has the developed scientific and practical base. It has the industry research in-ta working on creation of new highly effective pharmaceuticals and improvement of technology of the operating productions, the enterprises, production associations, design in-ta and special design bureaux.

Great value for development of X. - t. in the USSR and other socialist countries the work on scientific and technical and economic cooperation in research and specialization of production of pharmaceuticals which is carried out within SEV therefore production of pharmaceuticals sharply increased in Bulgaria, Hungary, GDR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, etc. has the item. Many pharmaceuticals from these countries are exported to the USSR.

In the capitalist countries production of pharmaceuticals is most developed in England, Italy, the USA, Finland, France, Germany, Switzerland, Japan, etc.

See also Health care, Meti and c insky n r ohm y shlen aches.

Bibliography: Natradze A. G. Sketch

of development of chemical pharmaceutical industry of the USSR, M., 1977; 60 years of the Soviet health care, glavn. edition B. V. Petrovsky, page 231, M., 1977.

A. G. Natradze.