CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, occupational health. X. the item — the industry of the national economy making various types of chemical products for all industries and agriculture. It makes products of the main chemistry — ammonia, inorganic to - you, alkalis, mineral fertilizers, soda, chlorine and chloroproducts, liquefied gases; products of organic synthesis — acids, alcohols, ethers, hetero-organic compounds, hydrocarbons, organic semi-products, dyes; synthetics — pitches, plastic, chemical and synfils, chemical reactants, goods of household chemicals, etc.
Gigabyte. working conditions at the chemical enterprises depend on the applied raw materials, technologies, the used equipment and the equipment, the device of the territory, planning solutions in buildings. The major adverse production factors in X. items are gases, vapors and dust of chemical compounds (see Poisons industrial). Unfavorable weather conditions, production noise have smaller value (see).
Air of a working zone becomes soiled in most cases several chemical substances, the main part to-rykh has toxic properties. Conditionally they can be divided on: the substances applied in technological process and keeping the chemical properties at allocation in air; products of side reactions or impurity; transmutation products with modification of the main properties; the substances representing mixes of homogenous matters (e.g., solvents).
The increased release of harmful substances in air of a working zone takes place during the use of high temperatures, termookislptelny reactions (pyrolysis), straining actions, transportation and casing of loose materials, cleaning of the equipment of the remains, etc. Use of such structurally not perfect equipment as crushers, mills, disintegrators, screws, elevators for transportation of loose materials is followed by considerable dust formation.
As a result of use of high temperatures, insufficient heat insulation of communications and the equipment on nek-ry sites unfavorable weather conditions can be created (see. Hot workshops). Sources of noise are pumps, compressors, mixers and other production equipment; intensity of noise of news agency a number of sites can exceed I go on 5 — 15 dB.
Unfavorable conditions of work in X. items can serve as the reason of professional poisonings (see), diseases of upper respiratory tracts, a nervous system, digestive tract, cardiovascular system, a hearing disorder, damage of skin, allergic frustration; at women disturbances of menstrual function, a complication of pregnancy and childbirth are possible.
Gigabyte. requirements to technological process depend on degree of danger and toxicity of the chemical substances applied as raw materials, and also which are formed in the course of synthesis (intermediate and end products of production).
In X. items are widely used continuous technological processes, high pressure, the accelerated reactions using various catalysts, etc. Continuous technological process has a number of advantages including hygienic, before periodic process. Use of the tight equipment, mechanization of loading and unloading of devices, use of distance
steering by processes led to reduction of number of manual operations, improved working conditions in many workplaces due to restriction of intake of chemical substances in air of production rooms. However periodic schemes in technological processes nevertheless are used in low-tonnage productions; they are inevitably connected with big contact working with chemical substances, to-rye contaminate air of a working zone and get on skin. At the same time the most intensive release of chemical substances happens during the loading of raw materials, an overload of semi-products, unloading of finished goods, at selection of technological tests, etc.
At approval of projects of construction of the enterprises X. item bodies dignity. supervision special attention shall be paid at choice of well aired platform, establishment of the necessary sanitary protection zone (see), a wind rose (see), and also on clarification of compatibility of the productions included in a complex of plant, enterprise or the industrial hub. Negative influence of one production on another shall be excluded.
For the purpose of improvement of quality of air of a working zone the carrying out of the equipment on the open areas practices more and more widely. However the specified measure can be allowed with a number of restrictions. E.g., in sowing. districts on the open areas it is not necessary to place the equipment demanding constant service. Air from factory platforms comes to production buildings («filtering», forced ventilation), and therefore concentration of harmful substances in it shall make no more than 30% of maximum allowable concentration of chemical substances for air of a working zone.
The rational internal design of buildings has big a gigabyte. value, especially by production of the highly toxic and dangerous connections possessing a big volatility (gases and vapors). The toxicity and danger of the applied and synthesizable chemical substances are higher, the big isolation is required for separate technological operations and the whole productions. So, in productions of such high toxic substances as tetraethyllead (see), the ethyl fluid, rtutnoorganichesky (see Mercury), nek-ry fluorine organic compounds (see), all processing equipment is placed in production cabins, and management is taken out by it in corridors or on operating consoles; besides, for bigger reliability of isolation ventilation provides continuous movement of air from uncontaminated rooms in production cabins. In production of substances of average toxicity and danger it is reasonable to plan the certain rooms connected by the general corridor for a number of technological processes. The same design is recommended for pilot productions and laboratory rooms. Also multi-storey buildings without continuous interfloor overlappings are most adverse concerning a possibility of air pollution of the building of stage type. In these rooms it is recommended to place productions of the substances having small toxicity.
Except technological measures, to-rye are the main in providing a pure air on production, rational ventilation has essential value (see). At the enterprises X. the item is widely applied the local exhaust ventilation from sources of and z about p and r about p y by l e educations (shelters in the form of cases, iolu-cases, umbrellas), aspiration of harmful gases directly from the equipment by creation in it of depression, and also all-exchange ventilation. Regulation of inflow and an extract provides an overflowing of air from placements with smaller vrednost to rooms with big vrednost. Recirculation of air is admissible only in exceptional cases, at the content in air of production rooms of low-toxics. The place of a fence of an induced air requires special attention a dignity. bodies; it shall be in the purest zone taking into account harmful emissions from the exhaust ventilation and possible unorganized technological emissions. Technological emissions are subject to neutralization and cleaning. Wasteless productions are most perfect in a gigabyte. the relation since practically do not pollute the environment.
Many chemical substances have ability to be occluded well on the surface of solid matters — dust, construction materials, fabrics of clothes, etc. Processes of sorption (see), and then a desorption are promoted by temperature and mobility of air, character of sorbing agent, its porosity, etc. Processes of a desorption can increase impurity of air such chemical substances as mercury, fluorine, chlorine, aniline, etc. Pylegazovy mixes (e.g., in production by a chamois to - you) strengthen action on an organism of toxic components. Building constructions apply not occluding materials to reduction of processes of sorption of toxics, napr, a covering of walls perkhlorvinilovy paints, a glazed tile, etc. Systematic control of the air environment, including with use of gas analyzers of continuous control and automatic signaling devices is important.
Use of individual protection equipment — gas masks (see), respirators (see), protective clothes and footwear is obligatory (see Clothes special, Footwear). During the work with the substances getting through integuments control of pollution of skin and clothes is necessary. Overalls shall be cleared of toxics easily; at the enterprises there have to be laundries equipped with devices for decontamination of overalls. An integral part of the chemical enterprises are shower, sanitary inspection rooms (see). Detergents and protective pastes (see Pastes protective) shall possess selective effect on specific chemical substances.
Working at the enterprises X. and. depending on harm a number of privileges is provided (earlier retirement, the shortened working hours, additional issue, to lay down. - the prof. food etc.). In a number of chemical productions work of women and teenagers is prohibited.
The persons having contact with chemical substances pass preliminary (at revenues to work) and periodic medical examinations (see. Medical examination).
Bibliograktualny theoretical problems of private occupational health, under the editorship of
A. A. Kasparov, page 23, M., 1978; Occupational health in chemical industry, under the editorship of 3. A. Volkova, etc., M., 1967; R at with-with to and x V. A. and To and sh t and N about in and I. M. Hygienic justification of rational gaps between buildings of mercury and neighboring workshops, the Gigabyte. work, No. 7, page 14, 1982. E. N. Marchenko, E. G. Dymov.