CHEMICAL FIBERS, occupational health. Century x. — artificial and the synfils applied to production of fabrics and other materials.
Artificial V. x. develop from natural high-molecular compounds (wood, cotton cellulose, etc.); carry viscose rayons to them (from viscoses), acetate (from cellulose acetate) and cuprammonium (from cuprammonium solutions of cellulose). These fibers, and also fibers make group of cellulose fibers of cotton. Synthetic V. x. receive by means of synthesis of polymers from products of oil refining, coal and natural gas. Lavsan, Nitron, etc. concern to them capron, anid.
Variety of properties B. x. causes wide use them in medicine, various industries and the equipment as a tire cord, filter fabrics for aggressive fluids, ropes, a bristle, fishing nets, etc., and also for production of fabrics, jersey, carpets, fur fabric.
To technological processes of manufacture of V. x. processes of synthesis, formation and processes on finishing and textile processing of fiber belong.
Productions of synthesis (in the industry of synfils) or dissolution of polymers (in the industry of synthetic fibers) are carried out in chemical workshops. The main production stages of this process — dissolution or fusion of raw materials, filtering of solutions, and in production of synfils, besides, actually synthesis of polymers.
Productions of formation of fiber in spinning rooms include melting or dissolution of polymer, filtering, formation of thread. The method of melt spinning is used for receiving synfils (capron, an anid, lavsan, polypropylene, polyethylene), and from solution — for receiving artificial (viscose, acetate, triatsetatny, cuprammonium) and synfils (the polyhair dryer, Nitron, vinol, chlorine).
Productions on finishing and textile processing of fiber are applied in tortional, rewinding, bobinazhny and shtapelny workshops.
In V.'s production x. workers can be affected by a difficult complex of chemical substances, various for each type and a class of fiber, and on certain sites and an adverse microclimate. A source of allocation in air of toxic products in chemical workshops are filters, thinnesses of communications, and also the site of casting of polymer in productions of synfils. In spinning rooms during the formation of fiber from fusion the main source of receipt of products of thermodestruction of polymer in air are the melted bunches of threads of polymer going out of the spinning apparatus. The heat carrier (dinit) circulating in a loop system can also come to air through thinnesses of communications.
During the performance of separate manufacturing operations and at repair of the equipment pollution of skin of hands polymer and products of its destruction is possible.
A source in air of toxic products in molding shops from solutions of polymers are open surfaces of settling baths and svezhesformovanny fiber, cameras of thermofixing, filter presses, especially during the change filtrpoloten, sites of an extract and heat treatment, drying chambers, units on an extract of fiber.
Service of filter presses and spinning bathtubs is followed by a number of manual operations (replacement filtrpoloten, elimination of breaks, removal of subspendthrifts of fiber) when skin of the worker very much becomes soiled solvent or other substances, to-rye can come to an organism through the unimpaired skin.
The main vrednost in production of synthetic fibers are the products which are allocated in air used for chemical processing and dissolution of cellulose and also by-products. So, in production of viscose rayon on the site of processing of alkali cellulose carbon sulfur (xanthogenation) — the emitted carbon sulfur (maximum allowable concentration — 10 mg/m 3 ); on sites of formation and finishing — carbon sulfur, hydrogen sulfide (maximum allowable concentration — 10 mg/m 3 ) and an aerosol a chamois to - you (maximum allowable concentration — 1,0 mg/m 3 ); in production of acetate cellulose fiber — vapors of acetone (maximum allowable concentration — 200 mg/m 3 ) and high temperature; in production of triatsetatny fiber — methylene chloride; in production of cuprammonium fiber — ammonia. These toxicants can cause at non-compliance with safety regulationss the phenomena of the general intoxication, irritation of visible mucous membranes and a conjunctiva, to affect skin of hands.
In production of synfils workers can be affected by initial, intermediate, collateral and end products of production, products of thermal degradation and heat carriers in combination with high temperature of air, generally during the loading of devices, cleaning of filters and devices, casting of pitch and during repair of the equipment. In production of kapron fiber harmful effects are made a caprolactam (maximum allowable concentration — 10 mg/m 3 ), couples of dinil (maximum allowable concentration — 10 mg/m 3 ). A caprolactam — colourless crystals, alcohol-soluble, benzene, ether and other organic solvents; tpl 68 — 70 °, t ° kip 262,5 °. Long impact of a caprolactam on an organism causes a headache, fatigue, irritability. At women disturbance of menstrual function, a complication of pregnancy and childbirth is observed. In production of anidny fiber harmful substances are hexamethylenediamine (maximum allowable concentration — 1,0 mg/m 3 ), dinit also high temperature; in production of lavsan — dimethyl ether terephthalic to - you (maximum allowable concentration - 0,1 mg/m 3 ), ethylene glycol, methyl alcohol (maximum allowable concentration — 5,0 mg/m 3 ) and pairs of the heat carrier (dinil). On the site of casting of pitch partial destruction of polymer with allocation terephthalic to - you and its dimethyl ether, aldehydes is possible; in production of Nitron in the salt way — influence on working steams of acrylonitrile (maximum allowable concentration — 0,5 mg/m 3 ), methyl ether acrylic to - you (maximum allowable concentration — 20,0 mg/m 3 ), hydrogen fluoride (maximum allowable concentration — 0,5 mg/m 3 ) and aerosol of sodium thiocyanate; in production of Nitron in the dimethylformamide way — vapors of dimethyl formamide (maximum allowable concentration — 10,0 mg/m 3 ) also poliakrilnitrit.
Working conditions in textile workshops of productions of V. x. are defined by a type of the released marketable products — silks, a cord, shtapelya, textured fiber. Workers of these workshops are affected by noise, the range to-rogo includes all acoustical frequencys with dominance of sound energy in the field of high frequencies, especially in production of textured fibers that can be the cause of occupational diseases of workers.
Work in textile workshops is followed by tension of sight and continuous movement of the cars working along the front that during change makes considerable distances (see. Textile industry). Hot drawing of V. x. is followed by allocation of a zamaslivatel in air of workshops during the passing of fiber through thermoelements or heat chambers of cars. These couples can be the cause of bronchitis, rhinitises, pharyngitises at working. Pollution of skin a zamaslivatel like Nevvol or B V can lead to development of the prof. of dermatitis.
The main directions of recreational actions in V.'s industry x. are: 1. Sealing of the equipment and providing a continuity of technological process (devices of continuous polymerization, continuous spinning units instead of devices of periodic action, filters of the return cleaning, mechanization of loading of solid monomers, an effective demonomerization of spinning solutions), noise reduction. 2. Replacement of toxic products (heat carrier of a dinil) non-toxic or less toxic and less flying heat carrier; use as solvents of low-toxics; use low-toxic and few flying zamaslivatel, napr, a zamaslivatel of type Tepr instead of Nevvol and BV. 3. Rational architectural registration of the building for removal of a heat gain and gases. The waterproofing of floors shall be provided in molding shops from solution. In textile workshops of the car of hot drawing of silk, a cord, textured fibers it is necessary to place in the isolated rooms. 4. Rational system of localization, catching and removal of toxic emissions at the place of their allocation: an approximate local suction on the site of casting of fusion of polymer, the equipment of the spinning apparatus of melt spinning by local suctions, and the spinning apparatus of solution spinning — the shelter with dual-mode ventilation, the organization of local suctions from shelters of cars of hot drawing of silk, a cord, shtapelya. 5. Use of individual protection equipment: overalls, protective gloves, oversleeves, aprons (see. Clothes protective ), protective ointments and pastes (see. Pastes protective ), antidust respirators of the Petal ShB-1 type, PRB-5, F-45 (see. Respirators ), the filtering gas masks, gas masks of brand A, B and M, at very high concentration of harmful substances (during accident elimination) — hose gas masks (see) or the oxygen isolating apparatuses, 6. Obligatory implementation of orders of m 3 The USSR «About carrying out preliminary at revenues to work and periodic medical examinations of workers».
Bibliography: Martynova A. P. Occupational health in production of synfils, in book: Gigabyte. work in chemical prom-st, under the editorship of 3. A. Volkova, etc., page 240, M., 1967; The Guide to occupational health, under the editorship of F. G. Krotkov, t. 3, page 438, M., ^1961.
A. P. Martynova.